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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (Jan.-June 1888)"

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TWENTY-PAGE EZDITIOIXr. 


Vol, XXXV.-No. 1. 


SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 7, 1888. 





50K. — 
:f oar- 

osting 
Urge 



Shire HorS6B. Tney are worthy the care:'-', attenti 
breeders of heavy horses for practical 

Importers 'and breeders of Shires may well They are commanding high prices in 
feel encouraged at the outlook for these noble ern cities and in the lumber regions. 

horses. They have grown gradually in public 

favor in the United States for 14 years, and Ixcrea-: t Bi.rCLFHr&E ofC 

rapidly during the past five; they have gone M. Pasteur anticipates that bitulpti' 
ahead with a rush the last two yeare, carrying bon will become the meet efrcacio 
everything by storm, having won first prize at antiseptics, as it is also the c'r.eapes 
every prominent show throughout the West but a fraction of a penny per pound 
where they have come in competition with quantity. It is also the 
other draft breeds. known, and for this purpose may perhaps be 

At the Chicago Fat-Stock and Horse Show useful to preserve woodwork in tropical sour- 
tbey have won first for 
three years in succession. 
For two years it was won 
by Geo. E. Brown k Co.'s 
Holland-Major (3135), and 
was open, to the world for 
draft horses of any breed. 

The reason why the Shire 
impresses every practical 
horseman favorably at a 
glance, and bears a critical 
examination, is because ot 
his nicely balanced propor- 
tions, together with nis 
wonderful bone and mus- 
cular development. There 
is no surplus or useless 
weight about him — every 
part being available and 
every part in proper pro- 
portions. We refer our 
readers to the picture 
of the imported Shire stal- 
lion Scampaton Tom, which 
appears in this issue. He 
is a grandson of old Hon- 
est Tom 1111, one of the 
most noted Shires and 
greatest prize-winner in 
England. 

How many times we see 
heavy horses whose weight 
is a positive disadvantage 
to them, for the reason 
that their bone is too light 
and muscle and sinew de- 
ficient. Some that appear 

to have strong legs will not bear close in- tries. Some idea of the use it is already pnt 
spection, for the bone is found to be round and to may be gathered from the fact that over 
covered with meat instead of being backed by S. 000,000 pounds cf the substance are used ax- 
sinew. This fault is rarely found in the Shires; nually to check the ravages of phylloxera, 
their legs are not only large, but the bone is Carbon bisulphide, as first produced, is about 
flat and flinty in quality and the sinew well de- as foul-smelling a compound as it is possible to 
fined and not hidden by fat or flesh. find; but it is capable of purification till all 

- A well-bred Shite has a clean, bony bead; offensive odor is removed and it is sutSciently 
prominent, bright eyes; neck well set on pure in smell almost to mix with a perfume, 
massive Bhoulders, and carried high, rising grace- 



A Great Ca.ua! in Asia, 



oy ::' tie .-.op nrot-r§ • 
and Syria, has been disco 
by the Presses Academy g 
»ti^i or. the fuo-.e-:t : 
toe oaris of the o.s:ui=: 
omt by 31. Eude is rta; 
great route of com— en 
for* the f:uuior.g oe-- 
diverted it cm Sssex, ere 
Suez canal. Tni* new 




ENGLISH SHIRE STALLION SCAMP3TON TOIZ — IjI?OP.TZD 3T 



fully from hi* withers; the body is deep; ribs, 
well sprung; loin, strong; quarters, long and 
carried well oat to the tail and not drooping; 
thighs, heavy and extending well down to the 
hock, a point where many other* are deficient. 
They vary in weight from 1600 to 2000 pound*; 
the larger ones measure 11 to 12 inches below 
the knee and 14 inches below the hock; and 
their feet are exceptionally good. English 
breeders are compelled to be particular on this 



The Mi&age of Socvd. — M. Fizeau, of the 
French Academy of Sciences, calls attention to 
a curious acoustic phenomenon, which is some- 
times observed at sea, and to which, from its 
analogy to the well known phenomena of light, 
he terms the " mirage of sound.'' Under the 
iLflaence of strata of air of various tempera- 
ture*, he fiods that the sound waves may be 
deflected upward to a very marked extent. He 
considers this phenomenon responsible for the 



forth as a parallel way to that 
p:c;e:t contemplates, in fait 
double aim, viz., a canal of in 
gation — and by w:i:: rr.eaui i 
fertility will be restored to th 
plan is to create a river from 
Persian Gulf, by making the I 
the Mediterranean by Alepp 
from Beles, in deepening the i 
to Felonojah, near ancient Ba! 
from the Euphrates totheTig 
Saklavrah ; and lastly, in de*: 
from Bagdad to Komab, Baa 
the Gulf. Sues a canal wool 
iug and coming voyage to Bon 
acd, notwithstanding the vast 
the engineering dirx caltiea a: 
extraordinary, except the slot 



%-i toe 
.1 with a 



ny six days ; 
if the work, 
t considered 
ik« of Abcc- 



numerous recent collisions between shins pro- 
last point, for a poor foot could not stand the . , . ... , , ... 

r ,* , . . vided with powerful fos-eienals. 

stone roads of the country nor the granite pave- 



3 aid and Kerbeleh, which, however, would not 
resist modern appliances. 



ments of the city. Mrs. Watso.v, who some time ago 

No other horse has the hardy constitution or Ushed a home for girls in Los Angeles, has at 

natural energy of the Shire, and it is these length succeeded in her later prrj set of starting 

qualities that are bringing him to the fiont. a similar home for boys in that city. 



Ax iron pier is to be built at San Pedro, just 
beyond Dead man's island, to be a double-decker 
and to extaad far enough into the water to 
allow the largest steamers to discharge pa s ses - 1 
gers and freight upon it. 



State, and oor ~ i-oa- masters can sit cn their 
fences and count the cars of Australian wool 
which will keep np the wool traffic of the over- 
land lines. 

This will not be a gocd state of things. It is 
true teat we have other source! cf wealth and 
are progreising rapidly in develipirg them, 
but we are not rich enough, nor shall we ever 
be rich enougr. t: dispense wit- toe ; :ea 
tread of the sheep. Oar prosperity calls for the 
utilization of all resources, au i toe -.::*.;£« of 
the sheep upon oar mountain-sides should 
always irf.rd liveli'n oi to thousands of 
wet-x-Jo people. 



f ACIFI6 f^URAb f RESS. 



[Jan. 7, 1888 



QoRRESPOJMDENCE. 



Correspondents are alone responsible for their opinions. 

Green Valley, Sonoma County. 

Editors Press: — This is the time of the year 
when we usually read in the papers that the 
early rains have spoiled the dry feed, and as the 
young grass is not yet grown enough, cattle are 
suffering, and consequently farmers are com- 
plaining, but this year it is all different for a 
change. 

We did not have rain to hurt dry feed till 
after Thanksgiving; even now in sheltered 
places there are good sound grapes hanging on 
the vines, and when the rain did come it was 
accompanied by mild, growing weather, so that 
the hills are already showing the effect in the 
fresh green color, and even Green valley greets 
us with a greener grin; but the farmer is again 
reported as complaining; this time they say 
that during all this glorious weather, stock ate 
up all the dry feed and now there is no feed of 
any kind, dry, spoiled or unspoikd, or green 
feed either. 

Improved Farminn Methods 
Each year add some farmers to the list of those 
who realize that a few animals well kept are 
more profitable than a large herd of poor, 
starving brutes. That we have an unrivaled 
climate for raising domestic animals is true 
enough, but when they have eaten everything 
green and dry within reach, it is time to concede 
that they cannot live on climate only, but need 
some of the productions of our soil and climate 
combined. It is not so many years ago that 
the pastures of some of our Bheep-raisers would 
contain almost as many dead lambs and sheep 
as living ones, and that owners of six or seven 
cows bought milk from neighbors who only 
kept one or two. It may be that the improve- 
ment in that line is due more to financial than 
humanitarian causes, but the effect is the same. 

General farming is also done in a much more 
systematic way than formerly. It was a com- 
mon practice to sow the same fields every year 
successively to grain and afterward to wonder 
why the grain should contain so much more 
mustard and radish than it did in former years, 
and why hay should be so much of the sheep- 
sorrel variety. But the fruit tree and the 
grapevine are crowding hay, corn and potatoes 
so much that we have to get even by raising 
more to the acre. 

Orchard Notes, 

It is easy to see what is a farmer's favorite 
piece of land. In former years what manure 
our farmers did not put on their vegetable plot 
would go to the hayfield, but lately the peach 
trees receive the friendly doBe. Something 
curious about this is that without almost a 
single exception the manure is piled three or 
four inches high right around the trunks of the 
tree, and no one seems to bear in mind that a 
good healthy tree should have its fibrous roots 
scattered all through the ground between the 
rows and surely not at the stump. 

Nurserymen expect a large demand for peach 
trees this year, and have prepared to meer it by 
fixing the price of trees at 25 cents. Different 
persons here complain that they had engaged 
olive trees at a certain price during the summer, 
but have been notified that trees could not be 
delivered. The nurseries are out of that kind 
of trees, not because they did not raise them, 
but that kind of trees are now transferred to a 
higher priced department, where we will be 
pleased to receive orders from our many friends 
and former patrons, who will find all our trees 
free from insect pests and true to name. 

Pruning has begun in earnest and will be our 
principal occupation for some time. Moat of 
the grain is sown and up. There has been just 
about enough rain for plowing, and not so much 
as to make the ground too wet. 

Weather Prophecies. 

The oldest inhabitants are again predicting 
all kinds of winter. A sportsman once told me 
that he had noticed rabbits, or rather hares, 
would be very fat before a heavy winter, and 
without a sign of fat in case of a mild winter. 

It was a few.days before Thanksgiving; there 
had been a light rain which cleared the air of 
smoke, and nature looked so fresh, the sun 
shone out so bright, and the air felt so balmy, 
that I concluded to give myself a holiday to see 
how my neighbors were getting along, and took 
my gun to be prepared for the festive jack, 
whom I wanted to dissect, so as to know what 
sort of winter was in store for us. 

Notes of a Ramble. 

Green valley is divided from the Santa Rota 
plains by a strip of rolling land or very low hills, 
of which every foot is cultivable. 

Beginning at Sebastopol, a place of 400 or 500 
inhabitants, this strip of land iB almost level 
with the lowland of (ireen valley and the Santa 
Rosa plains, but rises almost imperceptibly to- 
ward the north. At the edge of town, so 
close that some of the houses built on it consti- 
tute part of S°bastopol, is the tract of land 
known as the Hunter place. Fifteen years ago 
this place of several hundred acres was offered 
for sale at $5 an acre; it was covered with fir 
and manzinita, and now what a change ! As 
I strolled along through young orchards and 
Tineyards, I noticed the improvement in the 
modern way of building the houses found on 
every 20 or 30 or 40-acre place. Why is it that 
people never found out before that by building 



a house three or four feet above the ground, 
and putting in one or two bay-windows, the 
same material will make a cottage that looks 
twice as neat as the old-Btyle house? 

As I walked along I saw places enough 
where the rabbit had tasted from the growing 
plants and the appleB under the trees; but 
when you have a gun yon never see any game. 

After leaving the Hunter tract, we, that is, 
my gun, my dog and I, found the places a 
repetition of the former ones, though not quite 
so far advanced, little orchards and vineyards, 
intermingled with patches of brush and fields, 
just cleared, with the wood piled up ready to 
be hauled off. 

Respect for the Picturesque. 

A new settler's aim is always to clear a 
piece of land, and he generally begins near his 
dwelling and fences each piece as it is cleared, 
making his place a labyrinth of fences and 
gates and without a single shade tree. But 
most of our new comers are people from towns, 
whose object is to have a nice home, and as I 
passed along I did not find it hard to see the 
difference. They build their house on the 
prettiest spot they can find; if the land is not 
all cleared they keep a grove of natural trees 
and shrubs, to hide the barn and outhouses, 
and surround their dwelling with fruit and 
ornamental trees and vines, with a driveway to 
the front door and no more fences than possible. 
A place like this, without a solitary pig or cow 
or chicken in sight, may be lonesome, but 
it is surely pretty. When I had passed 
thrcugh three or four miles of these little 



home, and I got there tired, hungry and dis- 
gusted. 

The rabbit was the fattest I have ever killed, 
and the winter so far has been so mild that 
any one but a Calif ornian would be glad to 
have it for a spring. A Granger. 

Oreen Valley, Sonoma Co., Cat. 



PE^ORTICULTUr^E. 



The Apricot. 

[An essay by Dr Edwin Kimball of Hay wards, 
read at the Santa Rosa Fruit-Growers' Convention 
and furnished for publication in the Pacific Rural 

Pkess.] 

It was a happy thought of the old mytholo- 
gist in giving a distinct personality to 
all things. There was a real life in all; the ma- 
terial as well as the invisible became living 
spiritual personalities. The sea spoke of peace, 
joy, remorse and eternity. The rolling thun- 
der was the voice of the mountain and the 
lightning was the flash of Jove's resplendent 
armor and bis invincible power. The wind spoke 
with a hundred tongues. Each leaflet of the 
forest, each blade of grass, murmured the song 
of hope, love and exaltation. Nature far and 
wide, above and below, was a revelation. And 
so to the devoted orchardist, as he walks alone 
and in silence among}his trees, come the quiet 
whisperings of their wants, their hopes and 
fruition. They trust him like children. His 
will is their law, for he is their creator. So in 



the dignity of a living, breathing personality 
that may live after us and bestow its blessings 
in annual gifts upon our children. 

Among all our fruit trees, the apricot is one 
of the most beautiful. Away back in the dim- 
ness of years, it was first known in Western 



Asia, the cradle of the human race. It has 
survived the rise and fall of dynasties and all 
the mutations of empires and kingdom'. The 
Assyrian, the Babylonian, the Persian, have in 
turn planted the imperial tree, rejoiced in its 
fruitfulness and bestowed its delicious con- 
serves and delicate wines in offering* and obla- 
tions on the altarB of their divinities. It still 
abides in its old home and may be found in all 
the orient. The traveler may now sit under its 
broad-spreading branches from the Euphrates 
to the Mediterranean, and from the Black sea 
to the Persian gulf. It has followed the march 
of man and civilization west through Southern 
Europe and Northern Africa to the pillars of 
Hercules. It has crossed the sea, traversed a 
continent, and found at last in our generous 
soil and genial climate the land of promise and 
hope. 

There is no exhibit that demonstrates more 
thoroughly the richness and glory of our fruit 
wealth than a well-kept apricot orchard. The 
fruit is beautiful and luscious; the tree is grand 
and imposing; its branches reach out in their 
strength and greet the strongest breeze with 
joy and delight. The almond is only in ad- 
vance in its bursting blobsoms in the spring- 
time, but soon is overshadowed by the richer, 
warmer beauty of its expanding petals and 
golden crown. Its first leaves tell us of its 
Eastern home, tender, delicate and* variegated | Golden apricots 



as the song of the Persian poets. They broaden 
out in richest green, luxuriant and triumphant 
in orchard beauty. The orange is solemn, rich, 
magnificent; it is for all the year and lives a 
century. But the apr'cot comes like a sur- 



farms I came upon a young vineyard of about j thinking of a fruit tree we may elevate it to 
a hundred acres in one piece and surrounded 
on four sides by brush. This is to be the future 
home of a San Francisco furniture manu 
facturer. A little further on I saw about a 
mile ahead on the highest place in sight what 
looked like a one-story Chinese pagoda, and 
thither I went through a piece of forest, a 
good sized orchard, a vineyard, a stubble field, 
another orchard, another vineyard, then some 
brush land, and there I was. The pagoda 
contained a 25,000-gallon water tank and was to 
be filled from a well nine feet in diameter 
which was just in course of construction. The 
property belonged to Mr. Tucker. Last year 
Mr. Tucker bought 40 acres of brush land and 
cleared and planted it all to vines before 
spring. This year Mr. Tucker bought again 
40 acres which will also be planted without 
delay. Mr. T. told me it was his intention to 
purchase more land until he had as grand a 
home as any man in the county. We climbed 
the stairway which leads to the top of the 
building, and a beautiful view we had within a 
distance of a mile and seeming all below us. 
Mr. Tucker pointed out the 100-acre vineyard 
of W. Hill, the Petaluma banker, the 100-acre 
farm of Mr. Frye, four 50-acre vineyards be- 
longing to Messrs. Cnnpius, Clarck, Ceasary 
and Surryhne, and nearly a dozen smaller ones, 
among which was Mr. Tucker's. In a few 
vears this will be the center of a solid block of 
3000 or 4000 acres of grapevines. 

Just as I wsb preparing to take some notes of 
the surrounding landscape the gong told us 
that dinner was ready, and as I was only clothed 
with a pair of overalls and a cotton shirt, I 
thankfully declined an invitation to dine, and 
pursued my way toward the Hill vineyard, 
which was in sight. 

A Fine Outlook. 

Without knowing that the ground was con- 
stantly rising and busy to make up with second 
crop grapeB what I had lost by going without a 
dinner, I suddenly became aware that the tank 
which I thought the highest point in the neigh- 
borhood was quite below me, and far beyond to 
the south over the top of that tank I saw the 
gum tree covered hills of the Petalnma sheep 
ranges and beyond them Mt. Tamalpais and the 
hills skirting San Francisco and San Pablo bay. 
Toward the east came first the central valley of 
Sonoma county, about eight miles wide, with 
Santa Rosa in the distance, guarded by Taylor 
mountain, a spur of the Mayaema mountains. 
There was Bennett peak holding guard over 
Bennett valley, and Hood's mountain of the 
Guilocos valley. 

A little more to the north was Fulton and St. 
Helena mountain in the distance and the hills 
toward Cloverdale. On the west the redwood- 
covered hills, the freshest, pleasantest looking 
border of them all, and right before me was 

Green Valley. 
There's not another valley in all Sonoma county 
half as pretty, nor as fit for a country home. 
And as I saw the houses and orchards and vine- 
yards all around where five or six years ago was 
only brush and timber, I sat me down there on 
the ground among the vines, in the middle of 
November, coatless in the sunshine, chuck full 
of grapes and admiration for the country 
around me, and wondered how any one who had 
the money to pay his fare could want to live in 
any other land. 

How to Hit a Jacfcrabbit. 

Suddenly there was a yelp — my dog bad 
started a jack. 1 jumped up, saw where the 
jack was going, marked the place where he 
would next jump, sent a load of shot there, and 
the jack jumped into it and died. This is 
quite easy. I can send the load of shot every 
time the gun goes off, and the jack jumps into 
it at least nine times out of a hundred for me. 

But whether it was the sight of blood or 
what, I do not know, but nature had lost its 
charm for me, and I dragged myself and that 
jackrabbit along the seven miles of road toward 



inland empire of the San Joaquin, along 
the foothills of the Sierras to the Shasta 
mountains; through the broad, rich valley of 
the Sacramento, in all the valleys around the 
Bay of San Francisco, in all the sheltered nooks 
of the Coast Range down to San Luis Obispo, 
where it reaches down almost to the ocean shore 
and continues to the Mexican Hoe. Here is a 
wide scope of country where its cultivation is 
possible. But its luccess is certain and its cul- 
tivation the most profitable where it breathes 
the salt air of our magnificent bay and looks out 
from the tranquil shores of the Pacific. 

The Asiatic coast of the Black and Mediter- 
ranean seas has been noted in all time for this 
beautiful fruit. Greece, Italy, Southern France, 
Spain and Portugal now cultivate the apricot, 
and with them we must oontend for the posses- 
sion of the world's market. We may safely 
claim the whole North American continent as 
our exclusive heritage for marketing this fruit. 
Our superior product and importduties preclude 
the possibility oflany interference with this great 
empire and its teeming millions. 

Varieties. 

The varieties of this fruit are marked and 
distinct. The Moorpark is doubtless the largest 
and finest flavored of all apricots, but there 
are many places where its fruit is uncertain, 
and when it does produce it ripens unevenly. 
It is the tenderest tree of the whole apricot 
family. If the months of January and Febru- 
ary are too warm its buds swell too rapidly, 
and a cold rain or Jower temperature will chill 
the sap and arrest the future development of 
the blossom buds. I have seen this phenomenon 
in three consecntive seasons. 

The Blenheim or Shipley, generally sold by 
nurserymen, has also its disadvantages; while 
its quality is good, it ripens too swiftly, and in 
large orchards of this variety there is almost 
a certainty of great waste in picking, shipping 
and properly manipulating the crop. 

The Royal all in all is unmistakably the 
apricot for the best results. Always productive 
by judicious pruning and thinning, it is almost 
as sure as the seasons. And when properly 
grown it is of good size, excellent quality, 
ripens gradually, hangs long on the tree, is ea- 
gerly sought by the canning fraternity and 
makes a splendid dried fruit. 

The PlantlDK and Cultivation 
Of the apricot embraces a broad and fertile 
field of investigation and experience. It has 
been tried on all varieties of stocks and under 
all imaginable conditions of soil and temper- 
ature. Some orchard ists have endeavored to 
compel the tree to grow and produce under the 
most formidable conditions. If the soil is 
heavy adobe or a light loam over an impen- 
etrable clay subsoil, then grafted or budded on 
the Myrobolan plum stock, it can be made to 
grow and produce some fruit, but the success 
of the experiment will be as problematical as 
the conversion of the Mongolian to modern 
ideas or the Christian faith. The peach stock 
is widely used and with generally good results, 
for it grows well wherever the apricot can be 
profitably raised. But in deep dry loams there 
is no stock that will make such magnificent 
trees or produce such perfect fruit as on stocks 
grown from pits of the Royal, Blenheim or Early 



The cultivation of this naturally thrifty tree 
is simple and well understood. The winter 
months are the bost time to plant; broad, deep 
holes and thoroughly pulverized soil should be 
the sure foundation for the future f ree. They 



prise. It runs riot with joy and promise and should never be planted less than 25 feet apart, 



culminates like a golden dream of riches 

The apricot is at present the tree of hope for 
many parts of California. It belongs to us 
alone, for no other State of this broad land can 
raise the apricot with success and profit. No 
fruit tree is more vigorous in its growth, more 
rapid in its development, and swifter in repay- 
ing a hundred-fold the generous care bestowed 
by the intelligent orchardist. The way is clear 
for the future of a great industry, and the 
question arises, where in this great State, of 
almost boundless extent and possibilities, the 
apricot should be planted to attain the most 
productive results. It can be grown on all our 
hills and in all our valleys, for it is tenacious 
of life under the most adverse conditions; but 
it is in deep, rich, alluvial soils, thoroughly 
drained, where the temperature is even, and 
where the atmosphere is softened by the breath 
of the sea, that it attains its greatest size, its 
most beautiful coloring, and its most exquisite 
flavor. It is in bloom -earlier in the bay and 
Southern coast counties than in the interior 
valleys; but the intense, dry heat of the inte 
rior brings the apricot to maturity a month 
earlier than in the more temperate region of 
the bay and coast. Thus it will be perceived 
that the intelligent orchardist will select a suit- 
able location if he desires in this branch of or- 
chard industry sure and substantial resul s. 
Many extensive apricot orchards have been 
planted in this State that have been positive 
failures, and many that produced indifferent 
and uncertain crops of fruit. 

The apricot will grow almost anywhere in 
California. Down on the banks of the Colorado 
river, stimulated by the intense heat anil abun- 
dant irrigation, its growth is rapid, and in fruit- 
ing it is precocious. Even under the burning 
sun and desiccating atmosphere of the Colorado 
desert it triumphs and yields its tribute of the 
earliest fruit in the State to the salamander 
like cultivator. It flourishes in the many oases 
that the hands of rliligei ce and labor have devel 
oped in many of the southern portions of the 
State. From the Tehaohipi through the great 



for it is a tree for a generation of men. When 
planted the ground should be kept thoroughly 
cultivated. It is possible and even better with 
ordinary winter rains and deep, generous soils 
to produce the most perfect fruit without irri- 
gation, even in our hottest, driest central val- 
leys, while in our more favorable locations of 
the bay counties irrigation would ruin the qual- 
ity of the fruit. 

The pruning of the apricot is the rock on 
which many young and inexperienced fruit- 
growers in their anxiety for immediate results 
run and are wrecked. It is a tree that, like 
our youth, needs early and effectual discipline 
until its habits are formed and it enters apon 
its golden age of maturity and productiveness. 
The most prolific of all our fruit trees, its very 
abundance is a source of embarrassment. The 
trusting fruit-grower looks with delight upon 
his acres of thrifty trees bending under their 
weight of green fruit and anticipates the golden 
harvest, forgetting that nature is always pro- 
lific and provides seourely for a never failing 
posterity. The law governing the profita- 
ble growth of all our fruits, ignores nature's 
great motive of reproduction, and by judicious 
pruning of the tree and thinning of its fruit 
preserves for a generation the vitality that 
would otherwise be wasted in a decade of years. 
No tree demonstrates this more thoroughly 
than the apricot. A tree will cease to be 
profitable when its vigor is gone and its vitality 
destroyed by overbearing of inferior crops of 
almost worthless fruit. The fruit pulp pro- 
tects only the precious pit or seed and nature is 
indifferent to its desirability for the taste or 
nourishment of man. And here is where the 
skill and experience of man for centuries has 
evolved through endless experiment and selec- 
tion all our richest and choicest fruit. 

Our illustrious progenitors in the primeval 
Garden of Eden fresh from the Great Master's 
hand possibly may have reveled in the most de- 
licious and nectar-like frnits, but the presump- 
tion is strong that their pristine simplicity and 
trust in the wiles of the tempter was paralleled 



Jan. 7, 1888] 



f ACIFIO I^URAb p>RESS. 



3 



also by severe poverty in their primitive pomo- 
logical wealth. The prudent, careful orchard- 
ist must use the knife unsparingly for the first 
four years, unmindful of fruit, and the tree will 
grow in strength, symmetry and beauty. Every 
branch will have its allotted place, and[the sun- 
shine will look in on all the limbs and twigs 
and give color and sweetness to the ripening 
fruit. No general rule may be given for the 
pruning of the apricot, only that its growth be 
directed, its exuberance restrained and its an- 
nual growth kept, if possible, in equilibrium. 

The apricot kept always in vigorous growth, 
and fruit well thinned, will yield almost sure 
annual return. With a full setting of fruit, 
three-quarters at least should be removed, and 
then there will be twice the amount of avail- 
able fruit pulp at the time of harvest. The ap- 
ricot tree is subject to but few diseases. 
Nature has endowed it with such wonderful 
recuperative power that, although riven and 
broken by the tempest to apparent destruction, 
it sends forth new branches and is soon stronger 
than ever. Trees of 20 years' growth may be 
cut back in the winter months to half a dozen 
forks with sloping cuts well covered with a so- 
lution of shellac and linseed oil, and they will 
be renewed in productiveness, quality of fruit 
and apparent longevity. 

Occasionally a tree perishes in May with 
the blight. From full vigor of leaf and grow- 
ing fruit it withers in a day. There is seem- 
ingly no known remedy for this acute disease 
that some seasons affects other varieties of 
trees. 

The shot-hole fungus has often trenched on 
the profits of apricot orchards in some parts of 
the State. This pest illustrates the necessity 
of vigilant action in blotting out this tres- 
passer on the most beautiful of fruits. It ap- 
pears in the incipient stage immediately on the 
setting of the fruit and the expanding of the 
leaf, with rough, wart-like specks and patches 
on the skin, destroying its beauty and serious 
ly impairing its flavor and rendering it unfit 
for canning or the market. When the fungus 
affects the leaf it destroys its substance, and 
the leaves have the appearance of having been 
riddled with shot. Air-slaked lime thoroughly 
and plentifully sprinkled over the tree imme- 
diately after the setting of the fruit and burst- 
ing of the leaf has proved an effectual remedy. 
The Apricot in Commerce. 

The present large and increasing acreage in 
apricots is unprecedented in the history of its 
cultivation. Millions of people in the United 
States are totally ignorant of its great value as 
an attractive, wholesome, commercial product. 
As a table-fruit, when well-grown and thor- 
oughly ripe, it rivals all other. When proper- 
ly canned, it is the most delicious of all Cali- 
fornia fruits, and when properly dried it has 
only to become known, and it will be the favor- 
ite dried fruit of the world. 

The time has now come that only the best 
and most desirable varieties should be grown. 
Extra care should be taken in pruning, thin- 
ning and cultivation, so that only the best, 
largest and most attractive fruit should be pro- 
duced. The canners and shippers will soon ac- 
cept no other, and the thousands of busy hands 
now needed will soon have to be increased ten- 
fold, and no time should be wasted on small, 
inferior and imperfect fruit, that destroys the 
reputation and ohecks the domestic and foreign 
demand. The prospective annual increase of 
thousands of tons demands the most careful 
preparation and organization to successfully 
handle the vast amount. It should be arranged 
with the care and precision of a military cam- 
paign. Canners must double their forces, and 
those that ship should have large numbers of 
boxes in reserve. 

Drying Apricots. 

The time is at hand that the grower must de- 
pend on drying as the only method of disposing 
of the vast surplus. Evaporating or machine- 
drying for this large amount is an imposs ; bility. 
Every grower should provide the means to dry 
his entire product, regardless of canners or the 
market. It will sustain the price and enable 
him to act independently of the canners and 
the vicissitudes of the daily market. All pos- 
sible arrangements should be made for the 
needed labor. Schools should be vacated in the 
drying season, and the rising generation have a 
practical lesson in industry and economy. 
Trays and all necessary conveniences should be 
prepared weeks in advance. Sun-drying must 
be the main dependence. It is cheap and ef- 
fective. To make a perfect dried fruit it must 
be thoroughly ripe and the product will never 
be a disappointment. The market demands an 
attractive, even product in dried fruit. To ac- 
complish this, the fruit, immediately after cut- 
ting and placing on the trays, should be sub- 
jected to sulphur vapor for 20 minutes m a 
close cabinet or box, with slides prepared for 
the purpose, or placed on low trucks and rolled 
on tramways into small, close, suitable rooms, 
prepared for fumigating the fruit. It will then 
rival the most carefully evaporated product. 
Sulphuric acid, if existing at all, will be found 
only in infinitesimal quantities. The sanitary 
question is one for the chemist and public to 
settle; but the generation that wears tight 
shoes, stays, eats arsenic and is saturated with 
nicotine and tobacco juice, with the necessary 
adjuncts of drugged liquors, beer and wine, will 
hardly call in question the premature and 
moderate use of brimstone. 

Upon the proper management of the 
dried fruit business depends the pros- 
perity of the orchards of this great State. 
All of our fruit interests are to-day in 



the ascendant. Orchards and vineyards will 
soon cover the land. The olive and almond will 
soon displace the chaparral on a thousand hills 
and embellish them with homes of plenty and 
peace. Surely this highest of all husbandry 
should elevate and ennoble the race. The world 
of fruits, like the world of men, rises on every 
swelling tide of cultivation, material prosperity 
and peace, and ebbs away in their decline and 
poverty almost to the verge of extinction. The 
JEgean shore saw the birth, culmination, and 
death of a race favored of the gods in form, 
strength, grace, inventive genius, and mental 
power. The artist's brush !ost its skill, the 
sculptor's hand its power, to make the spotless 
marble radiant with life, beauty, and strength. 
The flowing numbers of her poets and the melody 
of her minstrels faded away like a dream. 
The inspiration of matchless oratory was a thing 
of the past. And with crumbling temples and 
desolate shrines, art, knowledge and law passed 
away. The decline and destruction of a great 
people means not only moral, mental and ma- 
terial desolation, but the fading away of nature's 
richest ornamentation — the flowers and fruits 
that have adorned, refined, and made glad the 
race. Every great advance in the world is pre- 
ceded by some wonderful evolution in nature's 
great laboratory of plant life. Thus, from the 
springing blade and bursting ear ushering in the 
harvest-time, the unfolding blossom full of hope 
and promise, comes all that is good, elevating, 
and progressive among mankind; and in the 
labor and experiences of man in the garden, the 
field, and among the trees, we may learn the 
story of his religion, his civilization and all his 
life. 



]I[HE jEflELD. 



How to Destroy Rabbits. 

The Parisian journal, Le Tempi, published 
the following letter addressed to it by M. Pas- 
teur, in which the illustrious savant indicates a 
method for destroying rabbits. We are in- 
debted for a copy to M. Ch. Joly of Paris, of 
which the following translation has been made 
for the columns of the Rural: 

Paris, 27 November. 

Your journal announced a few days since 
that the Government of New South Wales was, 
in a manner, powerless, in struggling against a 
plague of a peculiar kind — the abundant mul- 
tiplication of rabbits, and that it offered a 
prize of 625,000 francs for the discovery of a 
process that would exterminate them. Some 
considerable portions of New Zealand, not less 
ravaged than Australia, are abandoned by the 
farmers, who have given up the breeding of 
sheep on account of the impossibility of feeding 
them. Every winter they kill the rabbits by 
millions without the slaughter appearing to 
diminish the number. Will you permit me to 
convey to those distant countries, through the 
medium of the Temps, certain ideas the appli- 
cation of which, perhaps, might be found suc- 
cessful. 

Mineral Substances 
And notably some phosphureted combina- 
tions have been employed up to the present 
time for the destruction of the evil. In selecting 
such means have they not taken a wrong 
course ? To destroy creatures which propagate 
themselves according to the laws of a progres- 
sion of life so appalling, of what consequence 
are such mineral poisons ? Those kill upon the 
spot in which they may be deposited, but in 
truth, in order to reach living beings, is not 
necessary rather, if I dare say so, a poison like 
them endowed with life, and like them having 
power to multiply themselves with surprising 
fecundity ? I wish, then, that they would en- 
deavor to carry death into the burrows of New 
South Wales and of New Zealand by trying to 
communicate to the rabbits a disease having 
power to become epidemic. There exists one 

Known as Cholera des Poules 
(Chicken cholera), which has been made the 
subject of studies closely attended to in my 
laboratory. This disease is equally adapted to 
the rabbits. Now among the experiments 
which I have instituted this is found: I brought 
together in a limited space a certain number of 
chickens, and gave them food tainted by mi- 
crobe, which is the cause of chicken cholera, and 
they soon died. The poultry-yards are sometimes 
ravaged by veritable epidemics of this disease, 
of which the propagation is due without any 
doubt to the dejections of the first diseased 
chickens, which taint the soil and the food. I 
imagine that the same thing would occur to 
the rabbits, and that, returning to their bur- 
rows to die, they would communicate the dis- 
ease to others who could propagate it in like 
manner. But how arrange in order that the 
first rabbits may take into their bodies the dis- 
ease destroyer ? 

Nothing is Easier. 
Around a burrow I would place a detachable 
barrier, surrounding a certain space, in which the 
rabbits would come to seek their food. From ex- 
periments, we have learned that it is easy to 
cultivate in a state of perfect purity, and upon 
a scale as great as may be desired, the microbe 
of chicken cholera in the bouillons (broth) of 
any kind of meat. With these liquids, full of 
microbes, the food of the rabbits should be 
sprinkled, and very soon they would go to die 
here and there, and spread the disease every- 
where. I add, that the parasite of the disease 
of which I spuak is inoffensive to animals of 



the farm, except, of course, to chickens, but 
these need not live in the open country. I 
doubt not that there may be in the infested 
countries some persons quite ready to apply 
the means that I propose, means very simple, 
and which, at all events, is worth the trouble 
of trying. 

Please accept, Monsieur le Directeur, the as- 
surance of my most distinguished considera- 
tion. Pasteur. 



Clans Spreckels on Beet Sugar. 

Claus Spreckels, organizer of the Western 
Beet Sugar Company, has prepared the follow- 
ing for the information of those interested in 
the beet-sugar enterprise: 

My belief is, that the cultivation of sugar 
beets will soon be one of the largest agricult- 
ural pursuits, not only in California, but in all 
the Western States and Territories, both soil 
and climate being more favorable to the pur- 
pose than even in Germany. The failure in the 
past to manufacture sugar from beets, on a pay- 
ing basis, has been mainly due to the absence 
of the best available machinery. The beets 
that were grown have been suitable for the 
purpose, but the machinery has been deficient. 
This, however, will be obviated in the future, 
as I have secured the right for the whole of the 
United States of all the latest mechanical ap- 
pliances and manufacturing methods that are 
now in use in Germany, which is the largest 
and most successful beet sugar-producing coun- 
try in the world. 

The soil best adapted for growing sugar beets 
is a rich, sandy loam. Beets must not be 
grown successively in the same soil, and they 
must never be manured. Land that has pro- 
duced a crop of beets should be planted in grain 
the next year, then manured and planted again 
in grain, and in the third year it may be re- 
planted with beets, but it must not be manured 
that year. Thus, a farm of 150 acres would 
enable a farmer to grow 50 acres of sugar beets 
in each year, and I think I may safely say that 
the 50 acres planted in beets will prove more 
profitable each year than the whole of the other 
100 acres that are producing grain at present 
prices. The price of beets will be determined 
by the percentage of saccharine matter that 
they contain, a few beets being taken from each 
load, as delivered at the factory, for analysis, 
the result of that analysis forming the basis 
upon which each load shall be paid for. By 
this means the best beets will obtain the best 
price, and the farmer will be encouraged to 
careful cultivation. 

I propose to erect one factory at Watsonville 
at a cost of about $400,000, which will be in 
full operation by September 1, 1888. This fac- 
tory will consume 350 tons of beets in every 
24 hours, but the consumption will be doubled 
by the following year. At present it will re- 
quire 100 cords of wood and seven tons of lime 
daily during the four or five months that it is 
in operation. This will show the necessity of 
having good supplies of wood and lime close to 
the factory, which should also be near to aline 
of railroad or to suitable water facilities for ship- 
ment of raw sugar to San Francisco. The lime 
is a good fertilizer, and can be returned to the 
soil again. The pulp from the beets can be fed 
to cattle, and will keep them in fine condition. 

Before erecting a factory anywhere I must be 
guaranteed that at least 2500 acres will be 
planted in beets every year for a definite num- 
ber of years. I must also be assured of suffi 
cient supplies of wood, water and lime in the 
neighborhood and good transportation facilities. 
It requires from 15 to 20 pounds of beet seed 
to plant an acre of ground. The seed costs 10 
cents per pound in Germany, and would proba- 
bly cost 12 cents per pound here. 1 am im- 
porting 25 tons which are now on the way, and 
some of this will be distributed gratuitously, 
in small packages, to those who desire to ex- 
periment on their farms. But I shall expect in 
return that those who do make such experi- 
ments from seed that I give them, will send 
me samples of the beets that they grow and the 
soil in which they are grown, for the purpose 
of analysis. It must be remembered that the 
large beets are not the best for making sugar. 
If the soil be very rich the beets should not be 
planted more than four inches apart in the 
rows. If the soil be of good quality the beets 
should be six inches apart in the rows, and 
eight inches apart if the soil be not so good. 
The rows should always be 14 inches apart 
from one another. 

A factory will cost about $325,000, but, for 
the first one, some of the machinery must be im- 
ported from Germany. Subsequently I antici- 
pate no trouble in its being manufactured in 
this country. A Bite of from 30 to 40 acres is 
necessary wherever each factory is erected, so 
as to give ample room for the large quantity of 
machinery and buildings; also for the prompt 
handling of the great number of wagons that 
w ill be delivering beets at the same time so that 
the wagons may not be delayed and the work 
of the farmers impeded. 

It is impossible yet to determine where facto- 
ries should be located. I have received invita- 
tions from all sections of California, Oregon and 
Washington Territory to visit different locali- 
ties, and I will endeavor to do so as quickly as 
possible. From the foregoing remarks, how- 
ever, you will be able to form an idea of what 
is essential to the erection of a factory. Such 
information as I have indicated, if forwarded to 
me in conjunction with samples of soils and 
he' ts, will materially assist me in locating the 
sites for future factories. 



JIJhE jStOCK *Y*ARD. 



Spaying in Arizona. 

For the first time in the history of stock 
raising in Arizona, says Hoof and Horn, the 
spaying of cows has been resorted to. The 
parties to first call the knife to their assistance 
in this direction is the Erie Cattle Company of 
Cochise county, one of the largest stock-grow- 
ing concerns in the Territory, and one which, 
until a very short time ago, was credited with 
possessing all the range facilities it might want 
for its stock for years to come. The announce- 
ment, therefore, that it has let a contract for 
the spaying of 1000 cows, marks the entrance 
of a new feature into the economy of beef-pro- 
ducing in the Territory. It means in effect 
that over-stocking has ceased to be a mere sub- 
ject for discussion, and has instead become a 
tangible and well-defined evil that must be met 
and overcome, even to the extent of limiting 
the productive capacity of the stock, a class 
which until recently were valued more highly 
on account of this very power of reproduction 
that is now sought to destroy. While the 
operation of spaying is almost unknown in 
Arizona, but a very faint conception of the 
vast number of animals that have been subjected 
to it is entertained by even the best-informed 
of stockmen. An eminent authority in recent- 
ly speaking on this subject made the statement 
that not less than 50,000 heifers were spayed 
so far during the present year, a number 
which seems incredibly large when it ia re- 
membered that spaying as applied to range cat- 
tle has hardly a record beyond 1885, although 
in European countries, and France especially, 
it has been practiced extensively for years, be- 
ing used on all cows to prepare them for the 
butcher, and on dairy cattle which thereafter 
milk well for a few years and then become 
very fat and make beef of excellent quality. 
The popularity which spaying is destined to 
achieve will be great. Through it the strain 
on ranges can be reduced to a minimum, while 
the production of beef can be raised to the high- 
est possible point. The risk attending it is 
almost nominal. Sparks & Tinnin, the cattle 
kings of Idaho and Nevada, report having 
spayed 4000 heifers during the last summer, 
and claim to have lost out of that number but 
two or three animals, a percentage of loss 
almost as small as that attending the universal 
custom of branding. 



H[HE "V^EYAf^D. 



Grape Pruning. 

Editors Press: — I see in your iesue of Nov. 
12, 1887, " Vine-Grower's " request for infor- 
mation on pruning. I have not written a book, 
but I can give the information he needs. 

Early fall pruning is equivalent to root prun- 
ing and will not be followed by bleeding, but 
will stimulate new growths the next season 
with a heavy set of fruit buds. Late spring 
pruning after the leaves are well expanded will 
not be followed by bleeding, but will stimulate 
the growth of fruit buds for the next year. 

Bud pruning is in order at any time after the 
fruit buds have so far advanced as to show 
where and how many clusters are to grow from 
a bud. Some vines bear close pruning, leaving 
a cluster to terminate the branch without 
leaves. The internode between two clusters so 
treated will make no wood and but little 
growth. 

Other vines require a few leaves beyond the 
fruit to keep them alive. If properly bud- 
pruned during the growing season, you have 
in the fall only to strip off the branches made — 
"little foxes" where they are not wanted. 
When your cane has reached a desirable 
length, bud-prune the end and all branches 
that are not desired, for canes should not be al- 
lowed to grow beyond three leaves or inter- 
nodes, except when the strength of the vine is 
found to force the next season's fruit bud into 
premature action. Varieties differ in this tend- 
ency, and it can only be determined by exper- 
iment just how close to prune. The Clinton 
here bears the closest pruning. But in prun- 
ing, us in everything else, experience teaches. 
No varnish or paint is needed on the cut sur- 
faces, and the cut is best made at a joint, as 
you thus avoid the dead, unsightly internode 
stubs. Geo. F. Waters. 

8 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 

[This is written from an Eastern point of 
view and deals with a different system of prun- 
ing and different grape varieties than those we 
grow, but it has points of interest which may 
be suggestive to our growers. — Eos. Press ] 

Utah's Cattle. — The time for owning large 
herds of cattle to roam at will in rapidly wan- 
ing, says the Silt Lake Enterprise. The en- 
croachment of the locator of valley-land has 
changed the winter feeding ground to such an 
extent that the question of getting the herds 
through the winter, even in the southern por- 
tion of the Territory, is a serious one. Many, 
seeing the certain outcome, began last year to 
sow alfalfa, which, as a winter feed, has no su- 
perior, and also gives the cattle-owner fat cattle 
for the early spring market instead of a herd of 
moving skeletons. Fifty acres of alfalfa will 
return at least 200 tons of winter feed, which 
| will keep in good condition 300 cattle. 



fACIFie f^URAL> PRESS, 



[Jan 7, ]888 



J^ATF^ONS OF JfcUSB/tNBRY. 

Correspondence on Grange principles and work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Grantees are respect- 
fully solicited for this department. 

San Jose Grange Discussions. 

The Grange at San Jose has been discussing 
very practical questions of late. At the meet- 
ing of Dec. 24th, the subject of planting trees 
in orchards was taken up. The Mercury says 
that the only question on which the opinion of 
the members divided was in the preparation of 
theholes for the reception of the trees. 

Hiram Pomeroy, in opening, advocated the 
Eubsoil plowing of the land before the trees 
were put out. He did not believe in merely 
digging a hole in the ground, no nutter how 
big, but termed such excavations mere " pot- 
holes," which confined the roots to that portion 
which had been spaded up. When the tender 
rootlets reached the outer wall they would 
naturally turn in, and the final result would 
be a matted growth that would defeat the real 
object of the root growth, which is to extract 
as much nourishment from the ground as pos- 
sible, the greater the surface the better. 

G. W. Tarleton agreed with Mr. Pomeroy, 
believing it better to plow the whole ground. 
This would have the nature of converting the 
entire field into a receptacle for the tree. His 
method was to use a subsoil plow, which 
would result in turning or breaking up only the 
under soil. He did not think it was a good 
idea to turn the surface soil under, as a waste 
of moisture and fertility would occur. Men- 
tion was made of tall trees which had been set 
out in ground only a small portion of which had 
been broken up, the roots of which became so 
entangled and matted that insufficient support 
was given to the trees and they would topple 
over very easily. 

The discussion was quite prolonged, several 
others taking part. 

At last Siturday's open meeting insect pests 
were considered, and Messrs. Block, Britton 
and Wilcox urged vigorous war measures 
against the fluted scale. 

Grange Elections. 

Florin, — Jobn Reese. M.; Wm. Johnston. O.; 
Effie Dresser, L.; Minnie Smith, S.; Frank Rob- 
inson, A. S.; Sister J. H. Casey, C: D. H. Buell, 
T.; L. H. Fassett. Sec; M. A. Casey. G. K.; 
Carrie Ne. hie, P.; Lily Casey, F.; Mamie Brown, 
Ceres; Nettie Jackson, L. A. S.; Ella Dresser, Org. 

Sebastopol. — Martin Litchfield, M.; Alex. 
Ragle, O.; Mrs. L. O. Coon. L ; James Sinclair, 
S.; Stephen Morse, A. S.; Mrs. Geo. Harris, C; 
Geo. Harris, Sec; D. Litchfield. T.; Elias Shaw, 
G. K.; Miss Sophia Litchfield, P.; Miss Anna 
Dows. V.; Miss Laura Litchfield, Ceres; Miss 
Vina Litchfield, L. A. 8. 

South Sutter.— Roger Mahone, Sr., M.; W. 
W. Monroe, O.; A. L. Chandler, L.; Roger 
Mahone, Jr., S.; Ann M. Roberts, A. S.; John 
M. Jones, C; Alex. Donaldson, T.; Parthena 
Hall, Sec; Win. E. Roberts, G. K.; Annie 
Chandler, Ceres; Lucy Purinton, 1'.; Ella Hall, 
F.; Almeda Mouroe, L. A. S.; R. 8. Algeo, 
Trustee. 

Temescal. — Saturday, Dec. 17. [Corrected 
list.] S. Goodenough, M ; W. Renwick, O ; 
Mrs. S. H. D;wey, L.; N. Sewall, 8.; A. T. 
Dewey, A. S.; Mrs. E. Kelsey, C; L. Frink, 
T.; Mrs. N. G. Bibcock, Sec; John Paine, G 
K.; Mrs. Wbiddon, P.; Mrs. John Paine, F; 
Mrs. Eliza Brooks, Ceres; Mrs. Jones, L. A. S. ; 
Miss Anita M. Dewey, Organist; Mrs. W. Rjn- 
wick, Trustee. 

WooDBRinoE.— Victor Jahant, M.j J. Thomp- 
son. O.: E. J. Mcintosh. L.; E. G. Williams. S.; 
N. B. White, A. S.; E. Fiske, C; G. H. Ashlev, 
T.; R. G. Williams, Sec; R. J. Parsons, G. K.; 
Mrs. E. J. Thompson, P.; Mrs. Lizzie Boice, F.; 
Mrs. Mary Williams, Ceres; Mrs. W. B. White, 
L. A. S. 

Note.— The Secretaries of Granges are re.|uea l e \ to for 
ward reports of all election aud other matters of interest 
relating to their Grange and the Order. 



Grange Installations. 

Alhambra — January 7. 
Danville — January 7. 
Grass Valley — January 7. 
Sebastopol — January 7. 
Yuba City — January 7. 
Eden — January 14. 
Florin — January 14. 
North Butte— January 14. 
Santa Rosa — January 14. 
South Slitter— January 28. 
Valley — January 28. 



A Representative Granger. 

Hon. A. L. Chandler, of Sutter county, 
whose "counterfeit presentment" accom- 
panies this sketch, was born in Vermont, 
July 26, 1831. He received his education 
in the public schools of his native State, 
and lived there until 1852, when he started 
for California by way of the Isthmus of 
Panama. 

Landing in San Francisco May 22, 1852, he 
went immediately to Nicolaus, Sutter 
county, where he has since resided. He 
teamed and taught alternately until 1855, 
when he began to till the place which is 
now his home, and has since followed fann- 
ing and stock-raising, although engaged to 
some extent in teaming, and interested for 
several years in lumber and milling enter- 
prises in Santa Cruz county. 

Since the organization of the Farmers' 
Co-operative Union of Sutter County in 
18/3, he has been a Director in that body. 
He was a charter member of Yuba City 



The American Citizen well says: We believe 
that in America there should be no nation but 
Americans. The Irishman who thinks more of 
Ireland than of America, the Englishman who 

remains a subject of the <.• the German 

who loves " Das Yaterland " more than this, 
the Italian who sighs for sunny Italy, are not 
Americans; and instead of being of any benefit 
to our country, are a direct and permanent 
injury. 

Joint Installation at Haywards. — 
Brothers Flint, Coulter, and other leading and 
gifted Patrons have been invited to participate 
in the exercises at Haywards on the 14th inst., 
wh9n Elen and Temescal Granges are to hold 
their joint installations. Any members of the 
Order who can be present will be welcomed 
and a pleasant time is confidently looked for. 



successful co-operation at that early day has 
been worth millions to other farmers since. 

As a legislator, he has from the first 
steadily grown in influence. His reputa- 
tion as an unswerving, incorruptible Senator 
has its weight, in a quiet, silent way, far 
greater than he is ever likely to receive 
credit for. His is a growing influence on 
the right side of general legislation for the 
public welfare. It is by the increase of such 
responsible, candid and reliable members, 
of all parties, that we may look for greater 
economy in the administration of govern- 
ment and for the improvement of our laws. 

Bro. Chandler was elected a member of 
the Executive Committee of the State 
Grange to fill the vacancy caused by the 
resignation of Bro. Daniel Flint, soon after 
the latter's election as State Lecturer at San 
Jose. He was unanimously re elected at 
Marysville in 1886. He has shown an 
ability and fealty in the work of the 
Order of which any Patron may well feel 
proud. 

A Fine Sense of Honor. — As a friendly 
token of the high appreciation in which the 




Bank of California for the election of directors 
tor the ensuing year, will take place at the 
office of the bank, San Francisco, on Tuesday, 
Jan. 10, 1888, at 1 o'clock p. m. 




Grange, but withdrew to join South Sutter 
Grange and helped to build the Grangers' 
Hall at Pleasant Grove. 

lie is a Republican, having been identi- 
fied with the party for 30 years. In 1873 
he was chosen to represent Sutter county in 
the Assembly; was re-elected in 1879, and i 
again in 1880. He has served as an As- ' 
semblyman in three regular sessions, and ! 
one called session during Gov. Perkins' ad- 
ministration. In 1882, he was elected 
Senator from Yuba and Sutter counties; was 
re-elected in 1884, and again in 1886 for the 
term of four years. He has served as 
Senator in three regular sessions, and two 
extra sessions called by GoveruorStoneman, 
making nine sessions' service in the Legis- 
lature; but he has never been an office- 
seeker nor courted a nomination. 

Senator Chandler was married in 1S60 to 
Caroline J. Noyes of Vermont, by whom he 
has six children living, five daughters and 
one son. 

Bro. Chandler was one of the foremost 
men in the early farmers' movement, at the 
time of the organization of farmers' clubs in 
Sutter and other counties, and finally of the 
State Farmers' Union, which were really 
forerunners of the Grange in this State. 

Bro. Chandler and his associates were 
the first farmers, so far as we remember, 
who co-operated in buying grain sacks in 
large quantities and to great advantage in 
this Slate. The example of their solid and 



members of Temescal Grange hold Bro. Coul- 
ter, and of their hearty enjoyment of the ad- 
dress with which he favored them on the anni- 
versary of the Order's birth, that Grange — as 
we mentioned two weeks since — voted a small 
sum toward defraying the expenses of his trip. 
But Bro. Coulter, while much gratified by this 
expression of kind feeling and esteem, writes: 
" We had contemplated visiting your Grange 
on that occasion, before the receipt of your in- 
vitation, and would have been there without it. 
I incurred no expense by reason of the action of 
your Grange, and do not feel that I ought to be 
a burden on its treasury. If I had left my 
business, and gone to serve you at your bidding, 
it would be otherwise." The delicacy and no- 
bleness of such a spirit are above praise. May 
it spread and prevail among the young men and 
women of our commonwealth ! 

Bro. Flint aud wife have extended their 
trip southward to San Diego and National City. 
At the latter place they were delightfully en- 
tertained by Warren and Flora Kimball. His 
letter in this week's Patron is full of admira- 
tion of the climate, the enterprise of the people 
and the improvements going forward. 

Bro. T. T. Hooper, W. M. of Montezuma 
Grange, writes from Manchester, Mass.. that 
he had just been down in the State of Maine, 
where he found the Order flourishing, and had 
fine times visiting the State, Pomona and Sub- 
ordinate Granges. 

ANNUAL Meetino. — The regular annual 
meeting of the stockholders of the Grangers' 



Worthy Master Overhiser went to Spring- 
field, Mass., aud attended the State Grange. 
He and Sister Overhiser expicted to start 
Irom the East on the 4th, hoping to visit Sister 
Jeanne C. Cirr at Pasadena, and perhaps to 
meet Bro. and Sister Flint on their way home- 
ward. 

Merced Granoe will tloct officers on the 
10th inst., having been prevented by stormy 
weather fiom getting a quorum together on the 
28th ult. 



State Horticultural Society. 

The regular December meeting was held on 
the 28th at the rooms of the State Board of 
Horticulture, 220 Sutter street. Senator Buck 
occupied the chair until the arrival of the presi- 
dent, Prof. Hilgard. 

I, A. Wilcox spoke at length on the coming 
sessions of the American Horticultural Society, 
to be held at San Jose and Riverside, and 
closed by stating that he was authorized by the 
joint committee of citizens of San Jose to ex- 
tend an invitation to the State Society to assist 
in welcoming Eastern horticulturists upon their 
arrival. 

Prof. Husmann read a letter from Parker Earl, 
president of the American Horticultural Soci- 
ety, under date of December 10th, stating: 

"Our railroad complications are now settled. 
The society starts from St. Louis January 11th, 
going by El Paso and Los Angeles, and will 
hold its first meeting at San Jose, January 24th 
to 26th, and its second at Riverside, on Febru- 
ary 7 th to !)th. I hope that this will harmonize 
all interests, and will secure two great meet- 
ings in every sense of the word. Now you peo- 
ple of the North must take hold earnestly to 
make both meetings a success." 

The letter concluded by requesting Professor 
Husmann to prepare a paper on " The Outlook 
for American Grape Culture." 

Mr. Block moved the acceptance of the invi- 
tation from the San Jose committee and urged 
upon the society the necessity and importance 
of making a grand display of the horticultural 
productions of the S'.ate at the coming meetings. 
Mr. Block's motion was carried. 

Prof. Husmann remarked that there will be 
present at San Jose and Riverside from 400 to 
1000 of the prominent fruit growers of the 
country. This will be the best opportunity 
ever offered to advertise California, for this 
Urge number of representative men will scatter 
abroad the impressions they receive by their 
visit. 

On motion of Dr. Kimball of Haywards it 
was resolved to appoint the president and sec- 
retary as a committee to issue a circular urging 
all members to attend the San Jose and River- 
side meetings and to do all in their power to 
make the displays complete and representative. 

Upon motion the State Board of Horticulture 
was invited to co-operate in aecuting this 
result. 

The following telegram was received from 
San Jose during the course of the meeting, and 
was read and the invitation accepted : 

E. J. Wickson, Secretary State Horticult- 
ural Society : The Program Committee, by request 
of General Committee, exiend to your society a cor- 
dial invitation to join with us and participue in ihe 
reception of the American Horticultural Society, 
Jan. 24, 1888. 

Dr. W. S. Thorne, Chairman. 
Seedling Fruits, Etc 
Secretary Wickson continued the reading of 
notes on various new varieties of fruits, the 
paper having been begun at the preceding meet- 
ing. 

Mr. H. L. Mosher exhibited branches of the 
strawberry tree (arbutus unedo) in fruit from Ins 
ranch near San Jose. 

Mr. Allegretti showed pears of different kinds 
kept by his process, the -fruit being firm and in 
good condition. Sime had been in store 2A 
months and then taken out and left three weeks. 
They had ripened up well, while those just from 
the storage remained in the state in which they 
were put in. 

The Tariff. 

Dr. Elwin Kimball addressed the society on 
the subject of the taiiff. He said: "I think 
it would be appropriate for this meeting to take 
some action in respect to the action of the pres- 
ent Cmgress and the recommendations of the 
President in regard to a lower tariff on fruit. 
This society is directly interested in any action 
Cjngress may take in this matter, and it affects 
the pocket of every fruit-grower, not only in 
this State but throughout the country, and we 
should make an earnest protest. There are 
numbers of men throughout this State who have 
spent years in developing their orchards, and 
now, just as the fruit is almost ready to be 
placed upon the market, all our hard work, all 
the toil of years, is to be destroyed by Congress 
at one blow. Before he went to Washington, 
Senator Hearst promised to do what this socie- 
ty would aBk him to do, and now I propose that 
we communicate with him. The question is 
one of vital importance to us. It is one which 
far exceeds all others in the matter of impor- 
tance. Our very existence depends upon the 
action that Congress takes in this matter, and 
we must act to protect ourselves. I move, 
therefore, Mr. President, that a committee of 



Jan. 7. 1888.1 



fACIFie F^URAb PRESS. 



5 



three be appointed to draft resolutions to be 
forwarded to the Legislature and to our repre- 
sentatives and senators in Congress urging upon 
them the necessity of protesting and acting 
against a reduction of the tariff on fruit." 

Several others favored the motion and it was 
carried without opposition. On motion of Mr. 
Block, Dr. Kimball, President Hilgard and 
Secretary Wickson were appointed to draft and 
forward a memorial expressing the wishes of 
the society, and to report the same at the meet- 
ing in San Jose in January. 

The annual report of the treasurer was read, 
and showed that during the year $364 had been 
received, and that there was a balance on hand 
of $154.46. The report was referred to the 
Board of Directors for audit. 

It was decided to postpone the question of 
shipping fruit until the February meeting. 

The society then ad journed to meet in San 
Jose during the American Horticultural Society 
meeting which will begin January 24th. 



jg^lCULTUF^AL J^OTES. 



CALIFORNIA. 
Butte. 

Profitable Crops — Gridley Herald : The 
one-acre orchard owned by Morgan Bros, 
yielded over $150 worth of almonds this season. 
It is situated within the town limits and has 
received no attention, aside from plowing every 
spring, for several years past Henry Rob- 
bins realized $325 profit from 20 acres of cas- 
tor beans between June 1st and Nov. 1st. The 

land is now sown in grain for next season 

From 20 acres of river-bottom land on A. W. 
Campbell's ranch, four miles southeast of town, 
Chinamen have made a comfortable liviDg, pa'd 
big rent and laid by $1800 since Jan. 1, 1887, 
raising fruit. Three acres of blackberries alone 

netted them $700 clear of all expense A 

company of Chinamen have about 240 acres 
rented on the Morrison ranch, three miles from 
town. They pay $1500 per annum, raise veg- 
etables principally, and cleared $2800 this 
year. 

Contra Coata. 
Raisins. — Martinez Oazette, Dec. 24: Wher- 
ever raisin-drying has been attempted in this 
county the result of the effort has left no room 
to doubt that this branch of the business could 
be profitably pursued, in some portions of the 
county at least. On the east side Mr, Plumley 
and others have demonstrated that a strictly 
first-class article can be produced. There is 
no difficulty in growing the grapes to perfection 
almost anywhere, but near the bay the damp- 
ness of the air is unfavorable to strh-drying. 
In G -een Valley, however, Mr. B. W. Stone 
has shown that raisin-making can be made as 
successful and profitable as any reasonable 
person could desire. The samples left at the 
Oazette office on Monday, to which we invite 
the attention of those interested in knowing 
what can be done in this line, are as perfectly 
cured, as finely flavored, and as handsome in 
appearance, as any in the market. Of these 
raisins, raised and dried at his ranch, Mr. 
Stone has already sold for cash at the rate of 
$125 per acre profit over the expense of cultiva- 
tion. He has still enough left to pay all his 
expenses besides, has had all the grapes he 
wanted for family use, has made 20 gallons of 
grape syrup, and grown Egyptian corn enough 
between the rows of vines to pay for cultiva- 
tion of the whole tract. Of course, in achiev- 
ing this result, Mr. Stone has not spared his 
labor in cultivation, but what he has done 
others can do. 

Fresno. 

Return from 20 Acres. — Fresno Republi- 
can: B-;low we present the results obtained 
from a 20 acre farm in the Nevada Colony, about 
five miles from this city, during the present 
year. We give this statement not because the 
showing is an extraordinary one, for it is hardly 
up to the average, but because Mr H. A. 
Wemple, the owner, kept a record of his prod- 
ucts and what they sold for. No account is 
taken of what was used by the family. The 
actual net sales of produce from the 20 acres 
were as follows: 



Strawberries $ 74 4° 

Blackberries 25 00 

Apples 209 00 

Pears 57 35 

Peaches 268 40 

Raisins 665 25 

Watermelons 8 S 5° 

Hogs 72 00 

Eggs 103 00 

Pumpkins 60 00 

Sweet potatoes 26 00 

Chickens 40 00 

Figs 8 00 



Total $i>693 80 



No account is given of the value of forage 
grown for cows or horses, nor of the family gar- 
den, and when it is taken into consideration 
that the yield per acre throughout the entire 
county was short of average crops this year, it 
must be admitted that the above showing is 
below what may reasonably be expected from 
an average 20-acre colony farm in Fresno 
county, one season with another. 

Humboldt. 

The Butter Output. — Eureka Standard, 
Dec. 22: During the present year the 16 dai- 
ries on the Russ estate turned out 197,340 
pounds, or nearly 100 tons of butter. There 
are many productive dairies scattered through 
Eel River valley, between Center ville and the 



mouth of the Van Dusen river, and along the 
last-named stream. There are many on Eel 
River island, prominent among which is the 
Riverside, owned by A. Putnam of Ferndale. 
A large quantity of butter is made in the Ar- 
eata and Mad river sections, and along the 
coast as far as Redwood creek. Mattole valley 
is also prominent in the butter-making industry. 
The butter yield of Humboldt county during 
the year cannot fall far short of 200 tons. 

From the Sheep Ranges. — What little in- 
formation has been received from the ranges on 
which sheep are quartered during the winter is 
very gratifying. As was the case last year, the 
coming of winter found the flocks in good 
flesh and strength, and well prepared to enter 
upon the inclement season. Thus far there 
have been no severe storms and no cold weather 
worthy of mention. Even with a good coating 
of snow on the ground, sheep which are in fair 
condition will manage to subsist and thrive, 
particularly on ranges which are partially cov- 
ered with brush, and where good browsing is 
afforded. There is hope for a favorable out- 
come of the winter so far as the sheep ranges 
are concerned. 

Inyo. 

Agricultural Directors. — Independent, 
Dec. 31: Gov. Waterman has made the follow- 
ing appointments of directors for Agricultural 
District No. 18: W. S. Enos to succeed him- 
self, term expired; James C. Crocker to succeed 
T. J. Goodale, term expired. At the organiza- 
tion of the Board last spring Mr. Goodale was 
one of two who by lot were chosen to serve for 
the first Bhort term of one year. The year 
ended December 1st and Mr. Goodale refused 
to serve again. He made a zealous and capable 
director. The new appointments are for the 
full term of four years. 

A Mule's Endurance. — Not long since Pat 
Downs brought his pack-train down from Ma- 
zourka canyon. Darkness set in while the 
train was yet in the mountains, and it was not 
until the valley was reached that one of the 
mules was missed. It was expected the animal 
would follow the train, but he failed to appear 
and was supposed to have been taken sick and 
died from thirst and starvation. Thirteen days 
afterward Mr. Downs was again passing over 
the road and saw where the animal had fallen. 
The beast was encumbered with an aparejo, 
and, having fallen on his back, was unable to 
get up. The aparejo was loosened, the mule 
was helped upon his feet and was able to get 
down to the valley. He is getting along all 
right and begins to laugh he haw, he haw, at 
his long fast. 

Kern. 

Artesian Wells. — Visalia Delta, Dec. 29 : 
The following list of artesian wells in Kern 
county, with the depth, daily flow of water and 
name of owner of each, has been prepared very 
carefully and is furnished by Mr. Geo. A. Ray- 
mond. These statistics are interesting and val- 
uable and show what may be accomplished in 
the way of irrigation from artesian wells in this 



valley : 

Owner. Sec. Tp. R. Depth. Gallons. 

Spring 28 25 23 355 2,000,000 

Raymond 33 " " 340 1,5c 0,000 

Smith 12 " " 585 3,000,000 

Robinson 24 " 600 2,500,000 

Brusie 3 " " 480 2,000,000 

Haley...; 1 " " 640 2,000,000 

Columbia Col.. 5 " 22 607 < 600,000 

Hooker' 2 " 24 636 300.000 

Little 20 " " 330 350,000 

Chauvin 24 " " 704 220.000 

Mays 30 " " 425 1,600,000 

Robinson 32 " " 452 1,500,000 

Moore 4 26 23 360 2,200,000 

Mcebus 6 " " 402 750,000- 

Miramonte Col. 7 " 538 1,600,000 

Miraraonte Col. 17 " " 568 2,700,000 

Sewall 28 " " 3ro 250,000 

Hutchins 32 " " 512 2 200,000 

Hogan 34 " " 369 2,200,000 

Henry 34 " 22 320 1,000,000 

Morgan 34 " 457 i.too.ooo 

Watrous 2 27 " 440 700,000 

Phillips 12 " " 420 500,000 

Arnold 2 " 23 358 1,600,000 

Davis 4 " " 234 600,000 

Martin 8 " " 525 801,000 

Blaisdell 10 " " 253 50(1,000 

Easton 12 " " 600 500,000 

Easton 14 " " 550 700,000 

Loutitt 18 " " 443 500,000 

Holden 22 " " 625 250,000 

Hoskins 24 " " 374 500,000 

Haggin 33 " " 470 1,400,000 

Fanning 34 " " 420 1,500,000 

Gilmer 3 26 24 304 1,500,000 

Cox & Clark... 9 " " 604 900,000 

Gilogly 10 " " 666 200,000 

Haggin 17 " " 512 1,400,000 

Haggin 19 " " 480 1,500,000 

Haggin 3 27 " 703 200,000 

Haggin 6 " '* 400 900,000 



This makes a total of 41 wells, with a daily 
flow of 48,020,000 gallons, within a tract of 
country 18 miles by 14. 

Place*. 

Veteran Orange and Fig Trees. — Auburn 
Republican, Dec. 28: Last week Captain Moger 
measured the famous big fig tree on the Rice 
place at Newcastle, and found that it measures 
one foot from the ground, eight feet four inches 
in circumference. It has three branches which 
measure at five feet from the ground — one 47 
inches, one 41 inches and the other 34 inches in 
circumference. Its branches cover about 2500 
feet of surface. .. .The two large orange trees 
on the same place are 28 years old and measure 
at one foot from the ground 38 inches in cir- 
cumference. Each orange tree is from 25 to 28 
feet high and well loaded with oranges. 



A Famous Foothill Vineyard.— The vine- 
yard of J. B. Whitcomb, near Colfax, has pro- 
duced single bunches of Chasselas grapes weigh- 
ing five pounds, and it has single vines which 
have yielded from 60 to 70 pounds of fruit each. 
The vineyard contains over 20 varieties, and it 
has carried off the first premiums for the quality 
of its fruit for several years. This year the 
crop was light, but Mr. Whitcomb reports that 
from 12 acres bis receipts were $1765; expenses, 
$265; net profi 1 , $1500. An acre of land that 
will return $125 a year is valuable property. 

Nevada, 

Oranges for Los Angeles. — Nevada City 
Herald, Dec. 17: Several boxes of oranges, 
olivei and Japanese persimmons raised in this 
county were shipped from this city to-day by 
the Land Association, to be placed on exhibi- 
tion in Los Angeles. The oranges were from 
the orchards of John Kuhlman at French Cor- 
ral and Messrs. Cole and Cooley of Bridgeport, 
in the lower part of the county. Among the 
collection were several fine clusters of large, 
healthy-looking oranges — indisputable proofs 
that certain parts of Nevada county are well 
adapted to the production of citrus fruits. 

San Bernardino. 

Beeves from Arizona. — San Bernardino In- 
dex, Dec. 31: Mr. John Burcham has recently 
arrived from Williams, Arizona, bringing with 
him 1000 head of magnificent cattle for this 
market. We saw some of the dressed meat at 
the Mojave Stock Ranch market on D street 
yesterday, and we believe it to be the finest 
ever brought to this market. The cattle are all 
fat, of an extra-large size, and the meat very 
firm and fine looking. One thousand head of 
cattle may seem like a great number, but the 
gentleman informs us that, with his extensive 
business, they will be disposed of in a short 
time. 

San Diego. 

Cotton. — San Diego Union, Dec. 22: Five 
thousand pounds of cotton for shipment to S. 
F. was received at Stewart's warehouse yester- 
day. This was grown by John W. Moore, on 
Anderson's ranch in Bear valley, and a number 
of experts who have examined samples pro- 
nounce it to be of exceedingly fine texture. The 
present crop is an experiment, and has been so 
satisfactory that a considerable area will prob- 
ably be planted to the staple next season. 

San Joaquin. 

Editors Press: — North winds have so far 
counteracted the benefit of our early rains, and 
vegetation is very backward, showing only a 
tint cf green here and there; but the copious 
rains of the last 24 hours will doubtless cheer 
every heart. At present writing there is good 
prospect for more. — Mrs. J. M. K., Tracy, 
Dec. 29th. 

Big Sale of Nursery Stock. — Independent, 
Dec. 31 : Yesterday E. D. Middlekauff of Mid- 
dlekauf & Co.'s nursery, sold to W. M. Will- 
iams of Fresno 20,000 peach and apricot trees, 
25 pomegranates, 3000 orange trees and 10,000 
Muscat grapevines, all to be delivered within 
10 days. 

San Mateo. 

The Flax Experiment — Redwood City 
Times and Oazette: The flax factory of Wm. 
Hatfield has closed for the winter. Other im- 
provements we understand are necessary which 
could not be completed in time last year. Some 
of the flax was thrashed and the straw manu- 
factured into tow. Difficulty was had last 7ear 
in getting farmers to engage in flax-raising, and 
owing to foulness of soil in many places the flax 
was too weedy to be used for the purpose that 
Mr. Hatfield intended it. Flax grown on the 
mountains is superior to any grown in the valley. 
Mr. Hatfield has been offered inducements to go 
into a southern county, but we hope the offer 
will not be entertained. 

San Luis Obispo. 
Big Vegetables. — Nipomo News: Our real 
estate agents are on the alert. W. H. Strow- 
bridge has been scouring the country the past 
week, hunting up specimens of the products of 
our wonderful Nipomo valley. From Mr. 
Miles, who lives about three miles from town, 
he obtained a silver-leaf onion that weighed 44 
pounds and measured 25 inches in circumfer- 
ence; another onion, common variety, that 
weighed 5£ pounds; a sack of potatoes, none of 
which weighed less than 2£ pounds. From a 
neighbor of Mr. Miles, he secured five sacks, 
none of the spuds contained therein weighing 
less than two pounds. These were of the Peer- 
less variety. He also found some mangel 
wurtzel beets, the largest of which weighed 82 
pounds; two others weighed 75 pounds apiece. 
A friend of Mr. Strowbridge will exhibit a por- 
tion of these vegetables at the coming New Or- 
leans Exposition. 

Yolo. 

Huge Hog. — Yolo Mail, Dec. 31: Proba- 
bly the largest "porker " that has ever graced 
a meat-market was placed on exhibition at the 
Mossmayer city market yesterday morning. 
It was raised on the Kinchloe ranch near 
Woodland and weighs 1020 pounds, dressed. A 
large crowd of curious and amazed spectators 
were present during the removal of the huge 
swine from the meat-cart into the market. 

Fine Horses. — Wm. Hays of Madison ship- 
ped to FreBno Tuesday to Messrs. Stranbe, 
Butler iV Co., a span of matched geldings, blood 
bays three and four years old, standing about 
16 hands high and weighing about 1100 pounds 
each. The price paid was $600. Mr. J. J. 
Stevens also shipped to the same firm a fine bay 



gelding, for which he received $300. A 
sired by Mr. Hays' stallion Duplicate. 
Yuba. 

Pork and Lard.— Marysville Appeal, Dec, 
23: The packing and lard-preparing establish- 
ment of P. C. Slattery is now operating to its 
fullest capacity. Fifteen men, with all the 
modern machinery, are engaged in handling 
about 40 hogs per day. The season will not 
close until next March, and by that time they 
expect to slaughter 4000 hogs, make 8000 hams 
of an average weight of 15 pounds, and cut 32,- 
000 pieces of bacon and smoke them — the aver- 
age weight of each to be six pound*. From that 
number of hogs 9000 pails and cans of lard are 
expected. 

Citrus Samples Sent Southward.— Speci- 
mens of fruit from orange and lemon trees in 
and around Marysville were yesterday shipped 
to Los Angeles, in care of J. J. Morrison, who 
has charge of the Placer county exhibit. The 
call for the fruit was made by the Placer county 
people, not to show a great quantity, but to dem- 
onstrate the great scope of country over which 
oranges and lemons are grown in Northern 
California, and also their superior quality. In 
the 500 pounds of citrus fruit forwarded from 
this city last night to Los Angeles were some 
specially selected oranges and lemons whose 
superior merits will undoubtedly attract atten- 
tion. But two clusters of fruit were sent. One 
was a cluster of lemons, six in number, from a 
tree in W. G. Murphy's yard. Not one of these 
lemons measured less than 12 inches in its great- 
est circumference. They were entirely free 
from scale, and the skins were perfectly clear. 
The other cluster was of oranges, taken from 
one of the magnificent trees in J. B. McDonald's 
yard. The fruit in this compact bunch of 12 
was ripe, well colored, and as free from the pes- 
tiferous scale as any oranges ever grown. 

NEVADA. 

Northeastern Ranges.— Elko Cor. Reno 
Oazette, Dec. 27: Stock of all kinds look ex- 
ceedingly well and in some instances better 
than a year ago. Quite a number of our stock- 
men have commenced to feed the late-weaned 
calves and the old and feeble cows. Sparks & 
Tinnin, Hardesty and many other heavy hold- 
ers feed but very little, for the reason that it 
would be almost impossible to gather and cure 
sufficient hay for such immense bands as these 
gentlemen control. Another reason is, that 
they have splendid winter quarters. The same 
is also true of Byrne & Bro., on the Bruneau, 
in Southern Idaho; also Hill, Horn & Fisher, 
who occupy what is known as the Big Field. 
. . . .Messrs. Bradley and Russell of Elko have 
the major portion of their large band upon the 
upper tributaries of Snake river, in Idaho. 
This locality furnishes an abundance of water 
and grass, and is a splendid summer range, and 
lower down upon the same stream a good win- 
ter range is also found. These gentlemen have 
suffered but little loss on account of hard 
weather or short grass. Jeff Bradley and H. 
Mason are the owners of nearly all of the avail- 
able land for hay and pasture purposes on Mary 
river, a large portion of which is under a four- 
wire fence. They have cut and stacked a 
greater quantity of hay than any other firm in 
the county, and will feed during the coming 
winter the late and small calves with a few 
other head of cattle that seem to need some as- 
sistance to tide them over the present winter. 
The day is not far distant when cattlemen will 
have to feed and confine their stock upon their 
own ranges, and no one in this locality has 
foreseen this event sooner than Messrs. Bradley 
and Mason. 

OREGON. 

Carrier Pigeons. — Oregonian, Dec. 30 : 
Mr. J. F. McMunn of Shedd, Linn county, has 
for some time been training carrier pigeons, 
with good success, on the O. & C. railroad 
trains. Last week one of his birds, " Cham- 
pion," flew from Gervais to Shedd, a distance 
of 55 miles, in 57 minutes, and the same bird 
has flown home from Salem, a distance of 
39 miles, in 35 minutes. " Volunteer," a 
young bird, flew from Eugene to Shedd, 
32 miles, in 35 minutes. In two weeks more 
he will have one liberated at Portland, as it has 
already been liberated within 25 miles of this 
city, and the next stage will bring it here. Mr. 
McMunn's birds are of the best strains obtain- 
able in New York, Cincinnati and San Fran- 
cisco. 

Apples to California. — H. E. Battin, the 
well-known fruit-dealer, left Friday for Med- 
ford to look after the shipment of four carloads 
of apples overland to S. P., the first railroad 
shipment of fruit into the Golden State. Mr. 
Battin has bought a large share of the surplus 
apples of Southern Oregon, and much of the 
stock which was intended for the Montana and 
Dakota market will go southward during the 
next month. 

A Wyandotte Pullet belonging to J. G. 
Warner was seven months and five days old 
Deo. 18th. She had laid at that time 26 eggs. 
Mr. Warner is anxious to know if this record 
can be beaten. The mother of this pullet is 
valued by her owner, Mr. Hawkins of Lan- 
caster, Mass., at $150. 



San Diego's assessed valuation increased 
during the past year from $4.582 000 to $11,- 
000,000, and 2000 substantial buildings were 
erected. 



6 



fACIFie RURAL* p>RESS 




Why? 

The sky so dull and drear, 

So steadily fell the rain, 
It seemed as though the sunlight clear 

Would never come again. 

Drenched and somber and sad 

Was hill and vale and tree — 
No sound of a bird-note glad, 

No cheerful thing to see. 

And darker the storm-clouds grew, 

The rain fell thick and fast, 
When sudden gleamed a sun-ray through. 

That heaviest fall was the last. 

Then the birds sang sweet and clear, 
And the trees sang soft and low; 

Why did we not feel the sunshine near, 
W hen the darkness brooded so? 

—Eliza M. Hie kit. 



Unpleasant People. 

I Written for the Rural Prkss by Elsie Angb.I 
Two ladies were calling at the bouse of a 
friend, when the hostess, taming to one, in- 
quired : 

" You found it quite a distance to come, did 
you not?" 

"No," was the answer. "I was in such 
pleasant company that it did not seem far 
to me." 

The friend who had accompanied her laughed 
appreciatively and exclaimed : " Did you ever 
see such a woman as Gladys for paying com- 
pliments and saying pleasant things ?" 

Then Gladys answered, lightly : " Well, 
Mary, think how many people there are that 
never pay compliments." 

Gladys was right. There are scores cf such 
people, and it actually seems to be part of their 
religion to avoid praising others or speaking 
well of them. They pass through life with 
critical eyes and unsympathetic lips, and as 
often offend by their silence as their words. 
I have heard some say that they never flatter 
from principle, and thus excuse their chur- 
lishness by branding those who are more de- 
servedly popular than themselves as flatterers. 

Who in looking over the past does not recall 
with feelings of aversion some visitors to our 
childhood's home that embittered our existence 
by their presence in the house ? A well-known 
hat and walking-stick in the hall, or a familiar, 
feminine voice in the sitting room, has filled onr 
souls with dread, and Heaven only knows how 
reluctantly we have gone in to shake hands 
with Mr. Grim, or Mrs. Blunt or Miss Sharp. 
We were not as cordial as we might have been, 
and our kind mother has excused us on the 
grounds of shyness. 

"Shy! "came in satirical tones from the 
depths of an easy-chair. " She didn't seem very 
shy when 1 saw her tearing through the streets 
yesterday with her hat off and a big hole in one 
of her stockings. Really, Mrs. Blank, I 
couldn't believe that such a tomboy was your lit- 
tle girl." 

These visitors always saw us when we were 
bad in church. They knew when we climbed 
fences, or broke windows, or took jaunts on the 
sly. They were on hand when dirty faces and 
torn clothes were in the ascendency. They al- 
ways remembered Captain Cattle's injunction to 
make a note of it, for it was all stored up for 
future reference, and never forgotten as long 
as they lived. 

They were fond of asking: "What was 
going to become of that boy?" or "What 
would be done with that girl ?" They would 
smile superciliously or shake their heads doubt- 
fully when more lenient critics predicted an 
honorable future for ub. Then, in after years, 
when we had not turned out so badly as they 
expected, they Btill looked upon as with wary 
eyes. I was dubbed " a crooked stick " by 
Buch a one in my childhood, and he only knows 
me as a crooked stick to this day. I heard a 
lady eay that she had a good mother of this 
type, and whenever it happened to be her ill- 
fortune to meet her on the street the poor 
child always shut her eyes and ran as tor dear 
life. " I thought if 1 could not tee her she 
could not see me," she explained. 

Is it any wonder that we shed no tears when 
the Grim8 and Blunts and Sharps of our younger 
years died ? But alas for humanity, their de- 
scendants are numerous and flourish like a green 
bay tree ! These are not always known by 
their hats or walking-sticks, by their sinister 
gaze and surly speech, as we formerly knew 
and feared them. There are young people with 
charming faces and apparently winsome man- 
ners, yet those most intimate with them will 
tell you that they never lose an opportunity of 
being spiteful or disagreeable. 

A teacher recently asked one of her pupils if 
she did not need her wrap, as it was a very cold 
day. 

" Oh ! her pride will keep her warm," an- 
swered the Miss Sharp of the class. Now, if 



a girl of 10 or IS years can be bo unlovely, what 
will she be 10 or 20 years hence? We have 
only to look around among our acquaintances 
to find out. All their sweetness has departed 
with their youth. They may be, at times, 
plausible in their manners and gentle of speech, 
but we, who understand them, are prepared for 
the covert sneer or the unkind sting which fol- 
lows close upon their insincere pleasantry. 

There is the man or woman who prides him- 
self or herself upon being frank and outspoken. 
It is sufficient to state that such persons are as 
cordially disliked as they deserve to be. Then 
the close-mouthed people that say little, but 
look volumes, are just as detestable. Change- 
able people are unpleasant acquaintances, be- 
cause we never know where to find them — they 
are our friends one day and strangers the next. 
Quizzical people are amusing until we begin to 
suspect that we ourselves are not exempt 
from the shafts of their ridicule. Then there 
are satirical and cynical people. We all know 
what cruel wounds they can inflict, the former 
by words, which strike like well-aimed arrows 
at the heart of the victim, while the latter looks 
upon the world with jaundiced eyes, and strives 
to shake the faith of others even in those most 
worthy of their regard. 

" But people cannot help their dispositions " 
is a very familiar expression. I was acquainted 
with a young man whose satire was as cutting 
as a two-edged sword. I met him afterward as 
a genial, kindly man, and knew that he allowed 
opportunities to pass when he could have been 
brilliant at the expense of others. 

1 know women that will not permit them 
selves to be jealous of the beauty or prosperity 
of their friends. A lady called on an old 
schoolmate, to find that the latter had ex- 
changed a very simple cottage for an elegant 
home. 1 heard her give her experience as fol- 
lows : 

"I could hardly believe Nellie lived there, 
even when I saw the name upon the door, and 
while I waited in the parlors for her to make 
her appearance I felt myself growing bitter as 
I looked around upon such luxury, for I had 
always lived in better style than she had. All 
at once it struck me that I must conquer my 
jealous feelings, and as my friend entered I 
greeted her warmly and said : 1 Oh, Nellie, 
what a beautiful home you have l' All my 
bitterness vanished and I had a most enjoyable 
visit." 

It is natural to be outspoken, hence the ter- 
rible small boy or girl so well recognized in lit 
erature; yet many of these little people learn 
before they are grown that they must watch 
their lips and be careful of offending others. 
Rude and cranky children often develop into 
well-mannered men and women. The " black 
sheep " of the family has sometimes become the 
mainstay of the parent's declining years. So 
we can, in a measure, overcome our feelings by 
cultivating these graces of character which we 
find so attractive in those we most esteem and 
admire. 

One of the sweetest, most lovable persons I 
ever met was a young woman of plain features 
and insignificant appearance; yet she gathered 
about her a large circle of warm friends. It 
was with pleasure that she produced her album 
and displayed the many beautiful faces that 
adorned its pages. She was proud of her 
friends, and dwelt enthusiastically upon their 
charms. She said more than once: " Why 
should I grudge others the beauty which has 
been dented to me?" While she was gay and 
humorous, she was also tender and sympa- 
thetic, with smiles for the happy and tears for 
the sorrowful. Is it any wonder that she was 
considered lovely by those who knew her, and 
that she was always greeted with pleasure 
wherever she went ? Is it any wonder that her 
place is still vacant in the hearts of her friends 
although it is nine years since she entered into 
rest? Hers is a precious memory, fragrant as 
with the perfume of violets, and I am glad that 
there are many such as she in the world, that 
dispense the balm which heals the wounds in- 
flicted by our less amiable associates, the Grims, 
the Blunts and the Sharps. 



A True Gentleman. — This instance of 
genuine unselfishness is told in the Boston Post: 
Last September we took a canoe trip together, 
and in going down some rapids were upset and 
found ourselves floating about in a sort of bay 
where the river widened. As the weather was 
cold we were pretty thickly dre-sed, and our 
boots were heavy, so that the situation was rather 
precarious. We were struggling toward shore, 
and he had his paddle, hut I had lost mine. 
Seeing that I was in difficulties, although he 
was just as badly off himself, he said: "Take 
my paddle, old fellow, I don't want it; do 
oblige me." I believe I should have laughed if I 
bad not been afraid of drowning, at the con- 
trast between his statement that he was all 
right and the grasping voice in which it was 
spoken. However, we got ashore safely. 

A New Game — An exchange says a new 
game called " Editor's Delight " is played in 
this wise: Take a sheet of ordinary writing 
paper and fold it up carefully, inclosing a bank 
note sufficient to pay all arrears and a year in 
advance, and mail to the editor. What adds 
immensely to the pleasure of the game is 
to send along the name of a new sub- 
scriber or two, accompanied by cash. 
Keep your eye on the editor, and if a 
smile adorns his face the trick works 
like a charm. Being near the first of the year, 
now is an appropriate time to play the joke. 
Just try it. 



Sunset, Sunrise. 

[Written fur the Run; Paiss by N. P. C.) 
I. 

Crimson-tinted, golden-streaked clouds are hiding 

Earth's sparkling, blushing, low-set sun; 
Darkened chambers chill my heart, and death abid- 
ing. 

Shade my soul's sweet star of love-light. 
II. 

Slowly dawns the light of heaven, bright and more 
bright, 

Kull on waiting hill and lowland; 
God is gracious; when is passed life's cold, dark 
night, 

Dawn will bring unending rapture. 



The Lazy Board. 

[Written for the Rural Prkss by Dr. I. W Gallt ] 
It is not needful at present that I should tell 
my exact age nor the precise place where I first 
saw daylight, but I may truthfully say that 
more than a half a century of years ago I was 
playing marbles up against that great American 
topographical and political fence known as 
"Mason and Dixon's Line." That was when 
I was a boy. Then there was no railroad there 
because George Stephenson, in England, had 
invented the locomotive railway about the 
year I was born, and it had not, in my earlier 
boyhood, crossed the mountains which divide 
the waters of the Potomac and Ohio rivers. In 
place of the railroad there was the National 
road, a fine solid wagon-road built by the Acts 
of Congress from tide-water at Baltimore to 
steamboat-water at Wheeling, on the Ohio. 
One of my earliest attractions was the jingle of 
the housen bells npon the six big Pennsylvania 
horses drawing each wain, or road-wagon, along 
this National road. Sometimes in the afternoon 
of a summer day there would be 10, 20 or 30 
of these wains in procession, all with arches ot 
different-sized and toned bells over the tops of 
the hames above the housen, and such a jing- 
ling and jangling as they kept up is not often 
heard nowadays. Each six-horsed bell team 
wasm anaged by one man, and he rode 
upon the nigh horse at the wheel and 
drove with only one iline. Upon this, 
" the saddle-horse," there either were no bells 
or else the bells were upon his breast so as to 
permit the driver — he called himself a " team- 
ster " — room to handle hi* line and black-snake 
whip. Over the top of each arch of bells was a 
roof of black bear-skin, which came down at each 
end of the bell-arch some six or eight inches, and 
these hanging ends were often decorated with 
tassels of silk or with gold-cord fringes. The 
harness, upon the wheel-horses particularly, 
was a marvel of strength, breadth and weight, 
the breeching being of heavy solid sole-leather, 
six to ten inches wide, and all other leathers 
in proportion; but no leather went behind any 
horse's tail, for a back of that came iron chains. 
The harness was "gears" in those olden days. 
The first time I ever heard the word, harness, 
was from a newly arrived gentleman from 
Northern New England, and he called it " haa- 
ness." When these wains arrived at what, in the 
older times was called the " tavern stand," tbey 
drove into the yard, which was usually paved 
with small broken stone — that is to say, macada- 
mized — and supplied with gear poles scattered 
about. In this yard the teamB were unhitched 
— not unharnessed — and the gears hung upon 
gear poles thrust through the wheel-spokes so 
as to catch under the wagon-bed or coupling 
pole; and the heavy leather housen acted as 
roof over the gears. Then when the horses 
were stripped, two of them were fed from an 
iron-bound trough suspended behind the wagon, 
and four of them from another larger iron- 
bound trough, temporarily fastened by iron 
latches to the top of the tongue or pole. A 
sack of oats was emptied into this four-horse 
trough and each animal ate all he could 
eat — proportionally the two- horse trough 
was similarly filled. The old National road 
wagoner did not feed much hay, and what he 
did feed was fed from the ground or from can- 
vas racks suspended below the troughs. The 
horses were blanketed, but not stabled, and 
were bedded with straw or sawdust. What 
the wagoner most thoroughly despised and pro- 
fanely cursed was a wet winter, and, next to 
that, a rainy, late springtime; for in those sea- 
sons the pulverized limestone, ground to a sur- 
face of white dust on the road by the heavy 
wheels, became a coating of thin, gray slush 
that splashed over the four forward horses un- 
til they were half covered with it, and their 
tails hung down like icicles of mud. The 
wagon drawn by one of these teams was 
weighty; the wheels and " run gear " generally 
were of wood and iron, and very strong and 
heavy, the tires being six to eight inches wide 
and li inches thick, but the box, or wagon- 
bed, was the pride of the wainwright, or 
wagon-maker. It was framed up of the tough- 
est wood, and ironed and bolted at all joints, 
then faced inside the framing with poplar 
boards; it scooped np in front and behind, and 
sagged in the middle, so that when the bows 
and canvas were put on it looked like nothing 
else that I can now think of. This box was 
from six to eight feet deep, and as long as you'd 
a mind to make it, and bad an iron-bound, iron- 
fastened gate at each end, also two or three 
chains with " finger-hooks " to keep the box 
from spreading under heavy pressure from in- 
side. From thiB old "National Road " the an- 
cestors of the drivers of the prairie schooners of 
the Pacific Slope learned the art of heavy 
teaming, and improved on it; but it could 



not have been much improved on had it 
not been for the invention of the brake, or rnb- 
lock. When I was a boy there was no such 
thing as a wagon brake. I never saw one until 
I was ten years old, though I saw all sorts of 
wagons and stage-coaches every day. The old- 
time wagoner had a curious collection of lock- 
chains, but everything was for locking the 
wheel, or wheels, solid. He had a simple look- 
chain, then a slide-lock, a drag-lock and a 
scratch-lock. The first rub-lock I ever saw 
upon a wagon was a curiosity as compared with 
the wagon-brakes of to-day. It had a wooden 
block-beam and iron brake-rods and beams 
somewhat as they now are, but the hand-lever 
was between the hind wheel (above the hub) 
and the wagon-box, and upon the lever was a 
little chain that could be hooked, link by link, 
as the lever was pulled down, upon an iron pin 
in the block beam. At first the driver stopped 
his team and got down off his horse, to work 
this lever several times in going down a long 
slope ; because at intervals there were slight 
embankments in the road to carry off the snow- 
water and frequent rains of that country. But 
there was soon invented what was called a 
"lazy-board," that is, a board which could be 
pulled out in front of the brake-beam, from 
under the wagon-box, far enough to give a man 
a place to sit. In this position the driver 
would let his team keep the road while he 
worked the brake. That style of brake lever 
held its place for many years before we got to — 
or tumbled to — the long brake rod and lever 
that enables the driver to keep his driving-seat 
and work the brake with hand or foot. I have 
cause to remember the lazy-board. One Satur- 
day, in that season of the year which is called 
Indian summer, though wherefore "Indian" 
no man knowetb, I was taking a boy's holiday 
ride on horseback along the National road about 
four miles eastward of the city of Wheeling, 
and riding up a long grade I saw a big team 
coming toward me down grade, but seemingly 
going out of the road without a driver. Pres- 
ently, before I reached it, the big wagon went 
over on its side in the ditch — on its right side, 
too. I had seen no driver and supposed there 
was none, but I notified the neighbors of the 
catastrophe and went on my way, and after- 
ward found out that the neighbors discovered a 
dead man under that wagon. It was the driver. 
He was riding on the lazy board, when he fell 
asleep and the wagon tipped over on him. 

[When I began this writing some years ago, 
I seem to have intended it as the beginning 
chapter of a short romance, but I suppose I 
may think that man is safe under the wagon in 
the hands of the neighbors, and so let the writ- 
ing go as a pretty good description of how 
wagon-brakes, as we now see them and use 
them, came to happen, and leave to some abler 
pen the other chapters of the romance of " The 
Lazy Board."] 

For Young Men Who Are Thinking of 
Marriage. 

Select the girl. 

Agree with the girl's father in politics and 
the mother in religion. 

If you have a rival, keep an eye on him; if he 
is a widower, keep two eyes on bim. 

Don't swear to the girl that you have no bad 
habits. It will be enough to say that you never 
heard yourself snore in your sleep. 

Don't put much sweet stuff on paper. If you 
do, you will hear it read in after j ear*, when 
your wife has some especial purpose, inflicting 
upon yon the severest punishment known to 
married men. 

Go home at a reasonable hour in the evening. 
Don't wait till the girl has to throw her whole 
soul into a yawn that she can't cover with 
both hands. A little thing like that may 
cause a coolness at the very beginning of the 
game. 

If, while wearing your new 'summer trousers 
for the first time, you sit down on some molasses 
candy that little Willy has left on the chair, 
smile sweetly and remark that you don't mind 
sitting on molasseB candy at all, and that 
" boys will be boys." Reserve your true feel- 
ings for future reference. 

If, on the occasion of your first call, the girl 
upon whom you have placed your young affec- 
tions looks like an iceberg and acts like a cold 
wave, take your leave early and stay away. 
Woman in her hours of freeze is uncertain, coy 
and bard to please. 

In cold weather finish saying good night in 
the house. Don't stretch it all the way to the 
front gate, and thus lay the foundation for 
future asthma, bronchitis, neuralgia and chronic 
catarrh, to help you to worry the girl to death 
after she has married you. 

Don't lie about your financial condition. It 
is very annoying to a bride who has pictured 
for herself a life of luxury in her ancestral 
halls to learn too late that you expect her 
to aek a baldheaded parent who has been 
uniformly kind to her to take you in out of 
the cold. 

Don't be too soft. Don't say : " These little 
hands shall never do a stroke of work when 
they are mine," and " you shall have nothing 
to do in our home but to sit all day long and 
chirp to the canaries," as if any sensible woman 
could be happy fooling away time in that style; 
and a girl has a fine retentive memory for the 
soft things and silly promises of courtship, 
and occasionally, in after years, when she 
is washing the dinner dishes or patching the 
west end of your trousers, she will remind you 
of them in a cold, sarcastic tone of voice. — Ex. 



Jan 7 1888 1 



f> ACIFie I^URAb PRESS. 



After Christmas. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Mrs. J. M. K.] 

It is Christmas eve. The young folks are all 
in bed, and the stockings, well filled, all hang 
by the chimney. What great long stockings ! 
Not a real baby sock among them any more. 
Even the baby has been playing Santa Claus 
this year, testing the truth of the words, " More 
blessed to give than to receive." 

Well I the mother can draw a sigh of relief 
from the constant care of babyhood; but will it 
be| the only feeling expressed by that sigh ? 
How we miss the merry prattle, the wise say- 
ings of which every mother, no doubt, could 
fill a volume. 

Now, as I sit by the firelight alone, tired 
with the day's work, but thinking of the good 
cheer of to-morrow — of Christmas bells and 
Christmas carols — I seem to hear the merry 
chimes of many bygone years, yes, almost hear 
down the long ages the voice of the heavenly 
messenger saying " Behold, I bring you good 
tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. 
For unto you is born this day in the city of 
David, a Savior which is Christ the Lord." Al- 
most hear the triumphant music of the celestial 
choir singing " Peace on earth, good-will to 
men." Is it not a pretty story? A beautiful 
oriental fable ? 

To how many of us is it anything more ? 
Surely not to those who turn their eyes toward 
the light of Asia, or grope for wisdom among 
the writings of Hindoo sages; who turn from 
the sweet, strong simplicity of this Gospel of 
great joy to study the esoteric doctrines of 
Buddhism. For me, I want no man's wisdom. 
What are sages of any age or nation but poor 
mortals like myself, groping in darkness, vainly 
striving to solve the problems of life and death ? 
My soul cries out for a " thus saith the Lord." 
Prove to me the sweet, old story is but a myth, 
and I close the book. Prove to me the prom- 
ised Savior did not come, did no mighty works, 
did not seal His testimony by a well attested 
resurrection and ascension, and I lay the book 
upon a shelf; I read it no more. Until you can 
do this, although I cannot thrust my hand into 
His wounded side, or put my fingers into the 
ptintof the nails, I will cry out with Thomas, 
" My Lord and my God." 

Failing to finish my musings Christmas eve, 
interruptions occurred, until now, when I 
again take up my pen, the sound of the Christ- 
mas bells is growirjg faint. Merry greetings 
from east and wesc have all been received, and 
precious love tokens laid away. 

Ere these lines can reach the reader's eye 
the death of the Old Year will have been tolled, 
and the New Year rung in with glad acclaim. 
I have this season more than usual realized the 
gladness of the Christmas-time; the solemnity 
of the closing year and the opportunities aDd 
responsibilities of the New Year; but in trying 
to express them am tempted to lay down my 
pen in despair, for what can I say that has not 
often been better said or sung, of good resolu- 
tions for the future, turning fresh, unsoiled 
pages in life's book, and the certainty that 
some who welcome the New Year will not live 
to see its close. Oh, that the spirit of loving 
self-sacrifice, the peace and gladness of the 
Christmas-time, may linger as a sweet benedic- 
tion in every heart, and the New Year mark a 
grand intellectual and spiritual advancement 
for all. 
Tracy. 

Colluding With Swindlers. 

The Salinas Index puts things plainly and 
tersely in the following article: 

Every now and then there appears simulta 
neously in many country papers (and in some 
daily city papers, also,) an article from four to 
six inches in length, purporting to be a clipping 
from some S. F. paper, and telling how such 
and such a person has won a big prize in the 
Louisiana lottery. The seductive article often 
goes on to say that the lucky winner was a poor 
man; that with his prize-money he paid off all 
his debts, bought a comfortable home for him 
self and family, and placed a snug sum in the 
bank for a rainy day. There is nothing to in 
dicate that these articles are advertisements 
and paid for as such; yet such is the case. The 
agent who sends them out is very particular to 
stipulate that there shall be no mark attached 
to the articles in question to distinguish them 
from the general reading- matter in the paper 
or to indicate that they are advertisements. 
* * * Now then, publishers who insert 
these articles in their papers must know that 
they are aiding a barefaced swindling concern 
to fleece their readers, even if they are igno 
rant of the fact that they are guilty of a misde 
meanor every time they do it. Section 322 of 
the Penal Oode of California declares that every 
person who aids or assists, either by printing- 
writing, advertising, publishing, or otherwise 
in setting up, managing or drawing any lottery, 
or in selling or disposing of any ticket, chance, 
or share therein, is guilty of a misdemeanor 
Another section of the Code declares that any 
person who sells or gives another a lottery 
ticket, or share therein, is also guilty of a mis 
demeanor, and subject to punishment accord 
ingly. John A. Morris, the owner of the 
Louisiana State lottery, is worth $10,000,000, 
all of which he made out of the dupes who 
buy tickets in his swindle. He gave his 
daughter a million-dollar check for a wedding 
present a few days ago. 



^ching JE{olks' QobUMfj. 



Fables. 



[Written for Hie Rural Press by C. P. Nettleton.] 



The Sheep and the Lion. 
Some Sheep coming suddenly on a Lion at the 
edge of a forest were about to flee, when one of 
their number noticed that the Lion was en- 
tangled in the bushes, 'and called to his com- 
panions that there was no danger, as the Lion 
could not move. Hearing that, they returned 
and gathering round him, commenced to make 
fun of him, saying that his mane was too long 
and his feet too short, and wanting to know ot 
what use he found his tail. 

The Lion got so enraged that, making a 
stronger effort than ever to get free, he suc- 
ceeded, and quickly killed the whole flock 
and ate them all. 

Moral: Every one can fiod fault in others, 
but only the truly wise know when to speak of 
them. 

II. 

The Bear and the Deer. 
A certain Bear did not come out of his den 
one spring till later than usual, and being very 
hungry ate some dead Squirrels he found. Soon 
he began to feel sick, for the Squirrels were 
poisoned, and conscience smiting him for all the 
wanton mischief he had done in the many years 
of his life, he tried to think of some way to 
atone for it. Seeing a Deer passing some dis- 
tance off, he called to him, told his trouble, and 
asked advice. The Deer replied that the only 
thing to be done was to prevent further distress 
and offered to assist the Bear, if he were really 
in earnest, to a place where he could drown him- 
self. The Bear refused, however, and now 
waited anxiously for the effect of the poison to 
wear off, which it finally did. 

But with returning strength came a renewal 
of the old nature and immediately he went in 
search of the unconscious Deer. Having found 
him, the Bear was about to kill him when the 
Deer asked for what reason he wished to slay 
innocent Deer, especially in view of his 
recent regrets for just such deeds. 

' Because of your unfeeling and unreasonable 
advice when I was sick," replied the Bear. 

" But," said the Deer, "you asked me for 
my advice and honestly did I give it." 

But the Bear would hear no excuse and in- 
stantly killed him, then composed himself to 
enjoy a rich feast. 

Moral: Honesty may be the best policy, 
but there are times when silence is best of all. 
HI, 

The Man and the Rattlesnake. 
A Man who was taking a walk in some woods 
was suddenly startled by a Rattlesnake just 
ahead of him sounding his rattle. Insteau of 
quickly getting out of his way, which he could 
easily have done, the Man did not move and 
was struck by the Snake. He started for home 
at once, and on reaching there told his family 
what had happened, and added that he was 
sorry he had been predestined to die by a 
snake bite. 

"Fool!" said his wife, "why did you not 
avoid the Snake and save your life ? " 

" Why," the man replied, " if it were or- 
dained that I should die by the bite of that 
Snake, I could not have helped myself; we have 
to submit ourselves to Providence!" And in 
three hours he was dead. 

Moral: God looking in the future, sees man, 
able and obliged to choose for himself, decide 
between heaven and hell, and then, having al- 
lowed him to elect whether he will have life or 
death, predestines that as his choice is in time 
such shall it be through eternity: this is pre- 
destination. 

Home-Made Scrap-Books. 



[Written for the Rural Press by F. M. Payson.] 

Any one who has never tried her hand at 
making them has no idea of the artistic possi- 
bilities of scrap-books. 

To any one with a little patience and taste 
the work of making them is quite fascinating, 
and one well made is interesting not only to 
little ones but affords pleasant entertainment 
for older ones as well. 

If one has plenty of time and a little money 
and wishes to make for some little friend a de- 
lightful gift for a birthday, let her take fine, 
heavy black linen, and cut from it leaves 
(large enough to fold double) say 15x17 inches 
for each page, and laying two thicknesses to- 
gether, buttonhole them all around the edge 
with scarlet yarn or zephyr. If desired, a few 
leaves of white linen may be interspersed and 
make a pretty addition. 

Now collect all the colored pictures you can 
of any and every description for filling it. All 
sorts of colored advertisements, picture cards, 
cheap " chromos," etc., work in nicely and add 
to its beauty. 

Pat no whole picture in, but cut out all the 
figures or groups and lay on the dark back- 
ground. Nd matter how temptingly pretty a 
picture may look as a whole, remember it will 
spoil your book to insert it. 

Where the entire picture is not useful, out 
out the parts that are and use them, as you 
will need a great many. 

Having collected your pictures, proceed to 
arrange them in all sorts of odd ways; the more 



odd and irregular the better; diagonally, side- 
wise, every way, using taste and care in their 
arrangement. 

Select some especially fine, large, appropriate 
ones for the covers, and put the name of its future 
little owner and the birthday greeting either 
in painted or applique letters carelessly across 
the front cover; now tie the backs together 
with scarlet ribbon bows and it is finished. 

I have seen books made in this way too hand- 
some to be kept anywhere but on the parlor 
table, and so elegant and truly artistic and 
beauiiful as to attract the attention of old and 
young. 

Black bristol-board may be, if preferred, 
used in place of the cloth. If not quite as 
durable, it looks equally well, though the scarlet 
edges cannot be used. 

Such a book as I have described is very beau- 
tiful, and well worth the work and time, but 
really coats quite as much as a handsome one 
bought outright; therefore, for one whose time 
and purse are limited, the black and white 
scrap-books are preferable. 

These may be made very plain and common, 
or extremely beautiful, according to the work 
put upon them, and if well made, certainly re- 
pay the time put upon them, since the com- 
monest pictures can be utilized to make a truly 
beautiful thing. 

For a common book for little children, where 
large pictures are to be used, any old geography 
or book of that shape will do nicely, after it 
has had every other leaf carefully cut out to 
make room for the insertions. 

To fill a book of this kind requires little time 
or taste, as it is merely a matter of trimming 
the edges of the pictures and pasting them 
neatly to fill page after page. 

The covers of a book of this sort may be 
covered again with gay colored paper and 
illustrated with pictures in the same man- 
ner as the inside, and no matter how cheaply 
finished, the gift will always please a child, 
since all children love to look at pictures. 

However, if one can get a blank-book of any 
kind, and cut out the pictures the same as in the 
colored book, most beautiful and artistic effects 
may be had, almost equal to fine engravings, 
merely by using taste in selecting and arrang- 
ing the pictures upon this white backgrouud. 

Make each page of a separate character and 
work to produce a certain effect with your 
pictures. Parts of different ones may be so 
nicely pasted as to entirely deceive the eye, and 
in that way, bit by bit, designs may be built up 
out of fragments. A child's figure here, a spray 
of flowers there, a bit of tracery in another 
place, all dextrously cut out and applied with 
brush and paste, make a new picture grow under 
your hands, so that, if one desires it, an entire 
book of poems may be beautifully illustrated in 
this manner, as I have seen it done several 
times. 

Children delight in such books, and if they 
have pages devoted to different subjects, a dog 
and a cat page, a boy and a girl page, the de- 
light is enhanced. 

I know of no more charming work for an in- 
valid than to amuse herself by playing artist 
with pastepot and scissors for the benefit of her 
little friends, and my own experience goes to 
prove that these home-made books are valued 
far ahead of anything attainable in the stores, 
no matter how beautiful it may be. 

Kindly Tact.— It would be hard to afford a 
stronger evidence of being well bred than of a 
society leader who had among her dinner guests 
one evening a relative from a distant rural dis- 
trict, who, though refined and well educated, 
"knew but little of society ways and manners. 
Soon after the dainty finger-bowls were placed 
on the table the rustic visitor took up the bowl 
and drank from it. The hostess observed it, 
and showed admirable tact a moment after by 
drinking from her own bowl, thus sparing her 
guest the mortification which might otherwise 
have resulted. Another case where generous 
consideration and tact was shown was where a 
well-known lady of Boston was traveling in 
Europe not long since. She went to London for 
only a day or two for the sole purpose of seeing 
a friend who, by the way, belonged to the no- 
bility. When strongly urged to meet a few 
friends at dinner next evening she declined, and 
on being pressed for a good reason was frank 
enough to say that she had with her no suitable 
dress for such an occasion, but only a black 
silk. " Wear your black silk and I will wear 
one, too, so you may feel quite at ease," said 
the hostess, and a promise was given to be pres- 
ent. What was the surprise of the Boston lady, 
on entering the drawing-room, to find all the 
ladies in black silk gowns. Lady Dash had 
written her guests requesting them to " wear 
black silk." — Boston Courier. 



DojviESTie QeoNojviY. 



Kate Has Made a Pie. 

" f cannot ask you up, Ben Blend, 

To dine with Kate and me." 
Thus spoke a drummer to his friend, 

And sighed right heavily. 
" I know I promised to, but then — " 

A tear stole from his eye — 
" The cold, frost-bilten fact is, Ben, 

My Kate has made a pie. 

" The pie is not so deadly when 

An expert wields the plate; 
But that's a different pie, dear Ben, 

From pies composed by Kate. 
She's not an artiste with the flour, 

The spice, the lard, so I 
Cannot invite you to our bower, 

For Kate has made a pie. 

" You are an honest bachelor, Ben, 

Let me some truths unload; 
Some little facts to ponder when 

You're out upon the road. 
Our honeymoon was filled with joy, 

No cloudlets swept the sky; 
Things might have ihus continued, boy, 

But Kate, she made a pie. 

" A parody upon the pies 

My mother use to make ! 
A thing to breed a wild surprise 

Mixed up with stomach ache. 
A pie to conjure spirits up 

From Sheol's sulphurous state, 
On which might Macbeth's witches sup — 

That pie first made by Kate. 

" What strange fatality attends 

The young wife's pie-us art? 
Pre-matrimonial pastry blends 

Not with the wilely heart. 
Before the orange blossom fades 

Wide opens many an eye; 
E'en unsophisticated maids 

Should make a better pie. 

" And so I cannot ask you, Ben, 

With us to come to dine; 
Some other day--some Sunday, when 

My wile has ceased to shine 
As empress of the kitchen range — 

Grown more discreet — and rly — 
So, Ben, old boy, don't think it strange, 

But — Kate has made a pie." 



Broiled Chops. 

The choice of chops for broiling is generally 
decided by the price the customer wishes to 
pay. As a matter of fact, those cut from the 
lower neck and shoulder are the sweetest in 
flavor; those from the loin the richest, because 
the fat is largely distributed throughout the 
lean, and the kidney-fat, which is attached to 
them, is preferred by epicures. Chops cut 
from the middle part of the leg show the most 
meat in proportion to fat and bone; the so- 
called French chops, cut from the rack, or ribs, 
are the most expensive, because ail the fat and 
flesh is trimmed away from them, except that 
small portion at the thickest end. 

After the outer skin has been stripped from 
the chops, and the supeifluous fat cut off to be 
tried out for drippings, they are to be scraped 
lightly with the back of a knife, or wiped with 
a wet cloth, to remove bone-dust or any other 
foreign matter; place them between the bars oi 
a double-wire gridiron, and expose them to the 
hottest fire available. The rapid browning of 
the surface of meat determines its juiciness and 
flavor, and, therefore, the fire should be hot 
and clear; brown both sides as quickly as possi- 
ble, and then move the meat far enough away 
from the fire to prevent burning. During the 
cooking do not apply salt until the surface is 
brown, because if it comes in contact with raw 
meat it draws out the blood and deprives it of 
flavor. After the meat is cooked to the desired 
degree, season it palatably with salt and pep- 
per, and moisten the surface with a little but- 
ter; but do not cut it until it is carved, and do 
not put any water upon the dish with it. Be 
sure that the dish is hot upon which it is 
served, and use hot plates; the dishes can be 
heated without injury by immersing them in a 
pan of hot water while the meat is being 
broiled. — Juliet Corson, in Good Housekeeping. 



Archdeacon Farrar says that Cruikshank 
the artist, offered $500 for proof of a violent, 
crime committed by a total abstainer from in- 
toxicants, and that the money remains un- 
claimed to day. . The Archdeacon says that he 
will give the same amount for proof of any one 
case, either in the church or out of it, where 
drunkenness has been cured without total ab- 
stinence. — Exchange. 



Senorita Matilde Montoya is the first 
Mexican girl to become a doctor. A committee 
of young men of the City of Mexico got up a 
bull-fight in her honor, and devoted the pro- 
ceeds to the purchase of books and instruments 
for her. A oonntry that is civilized enough to 
have women doctors ought to abandon bull- 
fights. 



Scalding Brine for Meat. 

Editors Press : — While there have been a 
number of excellent recipes and directions 
about salting pork and bacon, one very essen- 
tial requisite has been omitted, and that is a 
thorough scalding and skimming of the brine 
before it is applied to the meat. After all im- 
purities that may arise have been carefully re- 
moved, it should then be poured on to the meat 
while it is hot. Even if it is hot enough to 
start the grease, no harm will result. I have 
tested this plan for more than 40 years, and 
I never have lost a pound of pork yet. I have 
sweet nice side-pork now which was put down 
in this way last August. J. S. Tibbits. 



Fried Potatoes. — Peel them and boil in 
salted water; do not let them boil until they 
are soft. Beat one egg and have ready some 
fine cracker crumbs; roll the potato in the egg, 
and then in the cracker and fry in butter until a 
light brown, turning frequently that the color 
may be uniform; or the potatoes may be dropped 
into hot lard. In this case a cloth should be 
laid over a plate and the potatoes should be 
drained for a moment in this before sending 
them to the table. 



s 



fACIFie I^URAlo PRESS. 



[Jan. 7, 1888 




A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 



Office, 220 Market St., N. E. cor. Front St., S.F. 
tM~ Take the Elevator. Ho. It Front Sr."B» 



Our Subscription Rates. 

Our Subscriptioh Ratks ars tiikkr dollars a year, in 
advance. While this notice appears, all subscribers pay- 
ing $3 in advance will receive 1SJ months' (one year and 
aix weeks) credit. For 11.60 in advance, six months and 
three weeks. All agents and clerks are required to 
adhere to these terms. No new names entered on the 
list without payment in advance. Our premium offer- 
ings are subject to these terms. 

Advertising Rates. 

1 Week. 1 Month. S Months. 1 Tear. 

Per Line (agate) $ .26 $.80 $2.20 $5.00 

Half inch (1 square). . . 1.00 3.00 8.00 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 14.00 45.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
In extraordinary type, or in particular parts ot the paper, 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month 

SCIENTIFIC PRESS PATENT AGENCT. 
DEWEY & CO., Patskt Solicitors. 

A T. DHWRV. W. B. KWKE O. B. STRONG 



Our latent forms go to press Wednesday evening. 



Registered at S. F. Post Office as second-class mail matter. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, Jan. 7, 1888. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



ILLUSTRATIONS.- English Shire Stallion Scamp- 
ston Tom, 1. Hon. A. L. Chandler, 4. 

EDIT' 'K1AL8.— Shire Horses; AGreatCanal in Alia; 
Our Wool Product, 1. The Week; Report on the Pa- 
cific Railways; The Eastern Fruitmen; The Tariff and 
Products; Placer at Los Angeles, 8; AGlimjiseat Santa 
Cruz; The Orange Crop of 18S8; Potatoes at the East, 9. 

COKKESPONDENOE. — Green Valley, Sonoma 
Countv, 2. 

HORTICULTURE. —The Apricot, 2. 

THE FIELD. — How to Destroy Rabbits; Claus 
Spreckeh on Beet Sugar, 3. 

THE STOCK YARD.— Spaying in Arizona; Utah's 
Cattle, 3- 

THE VINEYARD — Grape Pruning, 3. 
AGRICULTURAL MOTES— From the various 

counties of California. 5. 
THE HOME CIRCLE. — Why; Unp easant People; 

Sunset. Sunrise; A True Gentleman; A New Game; 

The Lazy Board: For Young Men Who Are Thinking 

of Marriage, 6. After Cnristmai; Colluding With 

Swindlers, 7. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. -Fables; Hoiue- 
Made Scrap Books, 7. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -Kate Has Made a Pie; 
Broiled Chops; Scalding Brioc for Meat; Fried Pota- 
toes, 7. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— The Fluted Scale in Town 
and City Gardens, 9. A Foe of the Cottony Cushion 
Scale, 10. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY —A Rfpresenta 
tive Granger; Grange Installations; San Jose Grange 
Divisions; Grange Elections; A Fine Sei.se of Honor, 4. 

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE. -The Extraction 
of Color and Tannin During Red Wine Fermentation, 
11. 



Business Announcements. 

Agricultural Implements— Hawlev Bros. Hardware Co. 

New Music— Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston. 

Windmills and Pumps— Woodin & Little. 

Fertilizers -Cal. Bone Meal & Fertilizer Co. 

Wire Fence— Sednwick Bros., Rbhmond, Ind. 

Harrows-D. N. Nash, Millington, N. J. 

Wine— H. Mills & Son, Lakeville, Cal. 

Mules— S. Scott, Cloverdale, Cal. 

Grapevines— Cla'ence J. Wetmore. 

Real Estate— Tyler B' ach, San Jose. 

Seeds— W. W. Kawson & Co., Boston. 

Harness— Chicago Harness Co. 

Seeds-W. A. Burpee & Co., Philadelphia 

Fruit Trees— G. W. Watson. Sacramento. 

Grape Seeds— C. Mottier, Middletown, Cal. 

Cattle— Smiths, Powell & Lamo, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Poultry— H J. Godfrey, San Leandro. 

Alfalfa Seed— Grangers' Business Association. 

Seeds— John Saul, Washington, D. C. 

Roofing— M. Ehret Jr., & Co., St. Louis. 

Butter Color— Wells, Richardson & Co. 

t&~ See Advertising Columns. 



The Week. 

The storm which opened so well as we went 
to press last week has continued with intervals 
of sunshine, and now enters upon its second 
week with new indications of strength and dura- 
tion. This Wednesday morning the higher 
hills around the bay were snow-capped, but the 
rain soon removed the unwonted covering. 
The rainfall is now reaching excellent figures 
and the State is drenched from end to end. 



We give the record of a few widely separated 
points, which Bhow how much more generously 
we are being served this year than last : 





This 


List 


Localities. 


Season. 


Season 




7- 75 


4.65 




5-°5 


1.99 




5-67 


2-51 


Merced 


2.80 


1.30 




2.6s 


•34 




2.28 


i-'S 






1. 10 




9 67 


i-S8 




5 °S 


1.96 




S.17 


4.09 




5" 


2.08 




5-3i 


2. 24 



Soledad 3.17 1.19 

Paso Robles 5.01 1.06 

As we go to press the storm is still on. 
Enough rain has fallen to answer for all imme- 
diate requirements and probably to insure a 
year of exceptional productiveness. 

The Eastern Fruit-Men. 

It seems likely that the coming this month of 
the excursion of members of the American Hor- 
ticultural Society will be one of the most nota- 
ble events in the horticultural history of Cali- 
fornia. The latest reports from the secretary, 
Prof. Ragan, indicate that much greater num- 
bers are applying for privileges than had been 
anticipated, and estimates vary as to the prob- 
able size of the excursion all the way from 400 
to 1000 persons. This will constitute a notable 
body, because they will be, for the most part, 
people who have given their lives to horticult- 
ural pursuits, and they come upon a special mis- 
sion to inform themselves upon California's 
deeds and adaptation in their special line. It 
will be a discriminating body of visitors who 
have cultured eyes and know how to use them 
effectively. Such an inspection we should 
court, if we have faith in our own works and 
our conditions, and it is plain that we should 
do all in our power to afford opportunity for in- 
spection. No better opportunity could be 
found for macs displays than at the two citrus 
fairs, at San Jose and at Riverside, and an ef- 
fort should be made as never before to set forth 
our best products of fresh and preserved fruits, 
and plants and flowers as well, for the excursion 
will include horticulturists in the broadest sense 
of the term. 

There seems to be so far most activity at 
San Jose, and a host of committees are at work 
upon all the features of the occasion, the recep- 
tion, the entertainment and the display. The 
co-operation of all is invited, and the invitation 
should meet with a general acceptance. Fruit 
and fruit-products should be sent from all the 
upper half of the State and from as much wider 
area as the growers choose. We do not dis- 
cover from the Riverside papers that prepara- 
tions are proceeding very actively, but possibly 
it is early. Certainly, as we stated last week, 
the effort should be to show the whole State 
to advantage, and the two meetings seem to 
afford a good chance for that. If both parts of 
the State do their very best there is no danger 
of doing too well, for it is not likely that in a 
generation as good an opportunity will present 
itself to show California horticultural products 
and to dispense California hospitality. 

The Tariff and Fruit Products. 

There has naturally been considerable feeling 
among those engaged in our various fruit indus- 
tries as to whether dried fruits would be caught 
in the free-trade shower which seems to be pre- 
vailing at the Kist. The State Horticultural 
Society, as reported in the account of its meet- 
ing given elsewhere, appointed a committee to 
draft a forcible memorial to Congress calling 
attention to the hardship which would be 
brought upon our growing fruit industries by 
such a course. 'Various efforts have also been 
made to ascertain, if possible, what were the 
intentions of the Eastern tariff reformers with 
reference to these special articles. Telegrams 
have been received from New Yorkers who are 
well informed as to public movements that the 
present scheme does not reach to fruit prod- 
ucts. It is reported that Abram S. Hewitt, 
Mayor of New York City, whose acquaintance 
with public affairs is generally known, has 
said that the tariff reformers will follow 
the line marked out in the President's 
message and endeavor to remove, or at 
any rate lower, the duty on such raw ma- 
terial as enters into the manufacture of ne- 
cessities with the aim of reducing the cost of 
living, and that raisins at least will be con- 
sidered as a luxury, and not be included in the 
list. Such in brief is the report which comes 
by wire, and we give it for what it may be 
worth. It will be just aa well, however, to 
continue efforts to impress npon Congressmen 
and the whole Eastern public the fact that our 
fruit-producing interests are in a promising 
condition, bnt cannot stand the throwing opr n 
of the gates to foreign competing products. It 
would be very easy to strike a blow at Cali- 
fornia's prosperity which might be fatal, and 
we do not believe any intelligent Congressman, 
with a full knowledge of the facts, would wish 
to do it. 



Report on the Pacific Railways. 

The Commission appointed by the last Con- 
gress to investigate into the affairs of the Pa- 
cific railways, which enjoyed the bounty of the 
Government and yet have failed to meet the 
obligations placed upon them in its bestowal, 
has made two reports. The majority report is 
by Commissioners Anderson and Littler and the 
minority report by Commissioner Pattison. It 
can hardly be claimed that either report adds 
much to the general knowledge of the policies 
and methods of these corporations, but there is 
a connected and emphatic restatement of old 
facts which are well to have on formal record, 
and in this form they may prove of lasting pub- 
lic benefit. 

Of the majority report it may be said that it 
is conciliatory in tone, and though it finds that 
the roads have not lived up to their obligations 
to the public, it advises extension of time and 
such other favoring conditions that the com- 
panies may ere long make partial return at least 
for the value intrusted to them. The majority 
report gives an elaborate analysis of the aid 
given the different lines and the manner of con- 
struction and management of the lines; its 
scheme for allowing the companies to repay 
their debts to the Government is also elaborate. 
We have not space for them nor does the gen- 
eral reader care for the information. All who 
desire to make special study of the subject can, 
no doubt, obtain full copies in the form of Gov- 
ernment documents which they will, doubtless, 
soon assume. 

The minority report by Ex-Governor Pattison 
of Pennsylvania presents the affairs of the com- 
panies in a pointed way and reflects the opin- 
ions of many people as to the character of their 
misdeeds. Here is a paragraph which will be 
found to accord with a wide experience within 
the territory traversed by these roads. 

■' The original purpose of Congress,'' says the 
Commissioner, " was to promote the public inter- 
esi, and the companies were made trustees for that 
purpose, but the public interest has been subordin- 
ated by these companies to ihe stockholding inter- 
est. Nearly every obligation these companies as- 
sumed has been violated. Their management 
has been a national disgrace. Since the date of 
thi ir inception they have been conducted upon a 
purely speculative basis. Their permanent prosper- 
ity has been lost sight o', while their managers 
greedily strove for temporary advantage. 

"They increased the cost of living. They laid 
proprietary claim to the traffic of large sections of 
the country. They constituted themselves the ar- 
biters of trade. They attempted to dictate the chan- 
nels that trade should follow and to fix rates of 
transportation that were extortionate. They dis- 
criminated between individuals, between localities 
and between articles. They favored particular in- 
dividuals and companies. They destroyed possible 
competitors and thev built up particular localities to 
the injury of other localities, until matters had 
reached such a pass that no man dared engage in 
any business in which transportation largely entered 
without first soliciting and obtaining the permission 
of a railroad manager. They departed from their 
legitimate sphere as common carriers, and engaged 
in mining articles for transportation over their own 
lines. They exerted a terrorism over merchants and 
over communities, particularly in election contests. 

"In their re'ai'ons to theGovernmenl they resorted 
to every device their ingenuity could invent in their 
efforts to evade the plain requirements of the law." 

The Commissioner finds that the four men who 
controlled the Central Pacific, Messrs. Stanford, 
Huntington, Hopkins and Crocker, had diverted 
the earnings of that company through contracts 
made by themselves with themselves for construc- 
tion, leases and repairs and divided over $142,000,- 
000 in cash and securities; that they built 1171 miles 
of adjunct lines, and, as directors of the Central 
Pacific Railroad Company, took leases of their own 
lines from themselves for the Central Pacific at the 
rate of nearly 13 per cent per annum. 

Fifteen months ago three of these directors con- 
tracted with themselves to build an extension of the 
California & Oregon division of the Central Pacific 
a distance of 103 miles, the actual cost of which 
work was $3,505,609, while they paid to themselves 
$8,000,000 in stock, and $4 500,000 in bonds; the 
market value of the stock and bonds at that time 
having been $8,340,000, so that they personally prof- 
ited by that single transaction to the extent of 
$4,834,391. As directors o( the Central Pacific, 
they also loaned the funds of that company to them- 
selves to build the Southern Pacific, a competing 
line, across the continent. 

The Central Pacific Co. also expended $4,818,- 
355.67, of which the manager declined to give any 
explanation or to permit others to explain. The 
balance sheet of the Central Pacific (or 1886 should 
have shown a deficit of $14,000,000, but by omitting 
the Government interest from the debt side and 
marking up the value of the unsold lands from $12,- 
500,000 to $23,500,000, an apparent surplus of over 
$28,000,000 was presented. 

The foregoing is but a part of the sharp ar- 
raignment which Gov. Pattison makes of the 
methods and policies which have prevailed in 
the conduct of the overland lines, but these will 
setve to call attention to the subject. Of course, 
holding such views of the behavior of the three 
companies after receiving Government bounty, 
which the report places at the colossal sum of 
$447,729,470 in the aggregate, the commissioner 
is forced to the conclusion that there is little 



need for temporizing or giving favors, and he 
recommends that the charters be declared for- 
feited and that suits be carried forward to re- 
cover as much as possible of the property to 
which the Government can show title. 

We understand that the managers of the com- 
panies stated before the commission that an at- 
tempt to force payment of sums due the Gov- 
ernment would close the issue. If this should 
be done, and one continuous line across the con- 
tinent should thus come into the hands of the 
Government, it would afford a good opportunity 
to test the Government conduct of railways 
in this country. If the Government should get 
possession of the Union and Central Pacific, 
and should run them, it would give us an over- 
land line which could not be brought into 
pooling arrangements and the like, but would 
serve as a permanent check upon such arrange- 
ments by other roads. It may be objected 
that the Government cannot conduct a railway 
successfully. This is decidedly opposed to theex- 
perience of European countries where the tend- 
ency is certainly toward Government operation 
of all railways, and where the Government roads 
I thuB far have proved a public benefit. Again, it is 
not likely that the Government could run the 
roads itself and lose any more than it has lost 
during the last 20 years by aiding them to the 
benefit of private parties rather than the pub- 
lic. The times seem ripe for Government rail- 
ways and Government telegraphs in this 
country, and the course of events may bring 
the Government into position to try the exper- 
iment on a considerable scale. 

Piacer at Los Angeles. 

In our Placer County Notes a fortnight since 
it was briefly stated that a carload of oranges, 
persimmons, olives, etc., had been dispatched 
from Newcastle, to be put on exhibition at Los 
Anaeles, and that E. W. Maslin, P. W. Butler, 
J. J. Morrison, J. F. Madden and other gentle- 
men accompanied the fruit. This step was 
taken by the Placer Board of Trade in order to 
present to the Eastern visitors, with whom 
Southern California is swarming, an object- 
lesson which should convince them past all 
doubting that foothill regions in the central 
part of the State enjoy a climate well adapted 
to the growth of citrus fruit, and in respect to 
freedom from insect pests superior to any other 
section. 

Ample room for the display was secured in 
the most frequented portion of the City of the 
Angels, and the fruit was arranged against the 
wall to the hight of a dozen feet, presenting 
nearly 100 square yards of bright, scaleless 
oranges. As we mentioned last week, the ex- 
hibit drew a deal of notice and aroused much 
admiration. The hall was thronged day after 
day and night after night with interested and 
inquiring visitors; a large map hung beside the 
fruit, showing the position of Yuba, Nevada, 
Placer, El Dorado and Sacramento counties, 
and the gentlemen in charged talked themselves 
hoarse in elaborate and repeated explanations, 
until the show was brought to a close last 
Tuesday evening. 

The result of this stroke of enterprise and 
peaceful invasion has been to send scores and 
hundreds of home-seekers to Placer county 
prospecting already, and it will probably send 
many more settlers thither. 

And it is pleasant to hear Mr. Maslin testify : 
" From the old citizens of Los Angeles we met 
nothing but kindness, and they were free to ex- 
press their surprise and pride, as Californians, 
that Placer was able to make such an exhibit." 
Indeed there is no cause for any sectional jeal- 
ousy in such matters; for, with the flood of im- 
migration now turning toward the Pacific 
Slope, the fertile acres of our favored State 
will prove none too ample for the nse of the 
coming millions. 

Butte County Fbcit-Growers. — It is an- 
nounced by telegraph that 300 citizens of Biggs 
neighborhood in Butte county have organized 
an association to develop the fruit interests of 
the section of Butte county along the Feather 
river. In half an hour pledges were made to 
set out fruit trees to the extent of 400 acres, 
and it is believed that there will be shares 
enough taken in the association to insure the 
setting out of at least 600 acres during the 
coming month. 

According to reports received from various 
parts of the State, crop prospects are very 
bright. 



Jan. 7, 1888] 



f ACIF16 RURAId press, 



9 



A Glimpse at Santa Cruz. 

Our correspondent who recently visited Santa 
Cruz and vicinity has given interesting ac- 
counts of the country and its development. 
He paid especial compliment to the energy and 
zeal of the Santa Cruz Development Associa- 
tion and the excellent work which is being 
done under it°i auspices for the improvement of 
the town. Alluding to these letters which 
have appeared in previous issues of our journal, 
we give now a glimpse of the city of Santa 
Oruz as seen from an adjacent elevation, the 
view being westward out upon the bosom of 
the Pacific ocean. For this engraving we are 
indebted to a publication by the association al- 
ready named and written by the secretary, Mr. 
I. H. Raymond. It is one of the best written 
of the descriptive pamphlets now being issued 
about California points, and should have a 
large circulation. The history of the region 
from the first period by Cabrillo in 1542 is 
sketched in a very interesting manner. The 
charms and resources are all faithfully put 
forth, and not least interesting is the appendix 
which contains a list of the fish of Monterey 
bay and the native 
trees and shrubs of 
the Santa Cruz dis- 
trict by Dr. C. L. 
Anderson. We have 
not space to repro- 
duce these import- 
ant matters. In con- 
nection with the en- 
graving, however, 
we give a paragraph 
descriptive of Santa 
Oruz City as follows: 

Situated on the 
northern side of the 
bay of Monterey, 
that magnificent 
horseshoe -shaped 
sheet of water, 22 
miles from point to 
point, which indents 
Monterey and Santa 
Cruz counties, the 
city of Santa Cruz 
extends backward 
from the beach 
acrosB a slightly ele- 
vated plateau, and 
then climbs two or 
three terraces, which 
encircle the lower 
part of the town like 
the seats of an am- 
phitheater. The bus- 
iness portion of the 
town lies on this 
plateau and aloDg 
the water front. The 
main street, Pacific 
avenue, is of good 
width, and extends 
from the foot of 
Beach Hill nearly 
a mile to the Lower 
Plaza. It is paved with the fine native 
bituminous rock, large deposits of which 
are found in several portions of the county. 
This forms, without combination with any 
other substance, an elastic and practically in- 
destructible pavement for streets, sidewalks 
and crosswalks, and is being used to replace 
other kinds of walks and drives throughout 
the city. It is possible to go from the bath- 
houses at the beach to the Bay View school- 
house, a distance of nearly three miles, with- 
out once leaving an admirably kept sidewalk. 
Intersecting Pacific avenue are a number of 
rural-looking tree-lined streets, bordered with 
cozy, picturesque, and even elegant homes, al- 
most every one environed by well-kept lawns and 
gardens abloom throughout the year. This 
portion of the town contains the courthouse. 
City Hall, Hall of Records, postoffice, two fine 
buildings belonging to the I. 0. 0. F., a Ma- 
sonic Temple, a pavilion for floral and agricult 
ural fairs, numerous excellent hotels and board- 
ing-houses and several churches. The terraces, 
mentioned in the letter above, offer most at- 
tractive building sites, many of which are occu- 
pied by residences and grounds, where the own- 
ers have vied with each other in tasteful orna- 
mentation and adaptation of the wonderful 
possibilities afforded by climate and soil. Mis- 
sion Hill is formed of two semi-circular terraced 
and a plateau, which was the site of the orig- 
inal Mission of Santa Cruz, and where the Ro- 
man Catholic church of to-day stands. Hotels 
and churches are also found on this hill. 
" Beach Hill " intervenes between the business 
portion of the city and the beach and is a fa- 
vorite location for homes and hotels. 



The Orange Crop of 1888. 

Accounts seem to differ somewhat as to the 
output of oranges from our southern counties 
this winter. The real estate excitement has 
damaged the crop in some parts by cutting up 
the orchards into town lots, and by winning the 
attention of the people away from production 
and into speculation. On the other hand, there 
are other parts where the boom has taken more 
moderate phases, that new orchards have come 
into bearing, and old ones increased their bear- 
ing capacity, so that a large increase of crop 
will be enjoyed. There has been, however, 
during the last few days, a windstorm which 
has knocked off 10 to 15 per cent of the crop, ac- 
cording to the Riverside Echo of Deo. 29th. On 
the whole the available surplus will be larger 
than last year, and for the most part of very 
fine quality. 

The Los Angeles Express gives an interview 
with Mr. Germain, the leading fruit-packer of 
that city, in which the following points are set 
forth: 

I have just received full reports from my ex- 
aminers, which show that the Ljs Angeles crop 



earlier have gone as high as 2500 carloads. 
Probably the lower estimate will be nearer the 
truth. Last year the surplus was 1600 car- 
loads. 



Potatoes at the East. 

We have a letter from Sgobel & Day of New 
York, alluding to our recent mention of the 
potato shortage at the East, and stating that 
there are now arriving in New York from Eu- 
rope fully 20,000 sacks of potatoes which will 
partially supply the Eistern lack. The best of 
these potatoes are coming from Scotland and 
are of the Magnum Bonum, Regents and Cham- 
pions, and having been grown on light soils are 
very attractive in appearance. We recognize 
in these varieties the ones which we have read 
most about in our English exchanges as com- 
paratively new sorts, propagated largely because 
of their resistance to rot. If we remember cor- 
rectly, some of them have been introduced for 
trial in this State. 

Our New York correspondents write that the 
potatoes from England grown on dark soil do 
not look as well as the Scotch tubers, and those 




In 1885 bituminous coal was the most valu- 
able mineral product, but in 1886 it was sur- 
passed by pig iron, which had a higher total 
value than eilver and gold combined. 

Wool from Buenos Ayres —The State De- 
partment is informed that the Argentine Re- 
public will repeal the export duty on wool. 



will not, on the whole, be a good one. By the 
Los Angeles crop I mean that of what is known 
as the Los Angeles district, i. e., Sinta Ana, 
Anaheim, Rmchito, Downey, Norwalk, Fulton 
Wells and the country immediately adjacent to 
this city and between it and Santa Monica and 
Compton. The great trouble with this district 
is that the orchards have been too much cut up 
into town lots and acre villa tracts, thus ruin- 
ing their crop. The trees have been largely 
neglected in the craze of real estate specula- 
tion, and many of them are therefore infested 
with white scale. The crop will be as good on 
those trees that have been taken care of, but it 
will he late. Oranges will not be fully ripe be- 
fore February or March. They will be yellow 
before that time, but sour. The yield will be 
500 carloads — about the same as last year. 
Fully 200 carloads have been wasted by neglect 
of the orchards. 

Next comes the San Gabriel belt, i. e., San 
Gabriel. Pasadena, Duarte, Azma, Santa 
Anita, El Monte and Savannah. The Duarte 
crop will be full and good; the San Gabriel, 
light, but good fruit, what there is of it. The 
Duarte and Pasadpna, and the foothill oranges 
generally, are better than those of the valleys. 
The D larte fruit is the best in the county and 
is entirely free from scale, but both red and 
black scale is found on the San Gabriel valley 
fruit. The yield for this district will be 400 
carloads — about the same as last year. 

The Pomona district, i. e. , Pomona, Puente, 
Spidra, Claremont and surrounding towns, will 
yield an excellent crop, almost free from scale. 
There will be 50 carloads from this district, to 
25 carloads last year. 

San Bernardino county — including the San 
Bernardino foothills, Riverside, Arlington, etc. 
— shows even finer fruit than it haB for years 
past. This district will yield 1000 carloads of 
magnificent fruit, to about 400 carloads last 
year. 

Mr. Germain thus puts the surplus this year 
at about 2000 carloads. Other estimates made 



from Germany, though of good quality, have 
suffered from cold weather there and are not 
arriving in good condition. 

Sgobel & Day are large receivers of these for- 
eign potatoes, and they write us that prices on 
December 231 were $2.25 per bag of 168 pounds 
net on the Magnums and $2 per bag on Regents 
and Champions. The freight is 23 cents per 
bag, and the duty 15 cents per bushel of 60 
pounds, or 42 cents per bag, and present prices 
leave a fair profit to shippers. 

As the Government estimate of the American 
crop is lower than it was in 1881, when over 
500,000 of these bags were imported, Sgobel & 
Day believe that very heavy supplies will be 
received for the rest of the season. Potatoes 
grown in the Eistern States have considerable 
rot in them this season, do not keep well, and 
orders are coming to New York from Chicago, 
St. Louis and other Western cities for the for- 
eign goods, which demand, they think, will 
grow to large proportions later on. 

These facts indicate that the East has other 
large sources of supply than we considered in 
our previous allusion to the subject. Still the 
coming weeks are likely to state these supplies, 
and if a good new .potato can be sent East early 
enough and cheap enough, it seems to us that 
large sales could be depended on. 



An Immense Oil Pipe-Line.— The projected 
Standard Oil Company pipe-line will be 1000 
miles long, extending from Chicago to New 
York. 

Capital has been subscribed to build a lum- 
ber mill ac Woodland, Yolo Co. The land has 
been donated. 



QNTOMObOGieAb. 

The Fluted Scale in Town and City 
Gardens. 



W. G. Klee, State Inspector of Fruit Pests, 
has issued the following circular addressed to 
town trustees and city aldermen in California: 
I desire to call your attention to the fact that 
the fluted or cottony cushion scale (Icerya pur- 
ehasi) exists in large numbers in the midbt of 
your town, being found on your streets as well 
as in your gardens. It is impossible for me 
personally to agitate the suppression of this 
insect in every one of the localities affected by 
it, since it is found in gardens and yards of all 
descriptions. I hereby appeal to you, as the 
representatives of the municipality, to do all 
in your power to prevent its further spread, 
and, if possible, to accomplish its total exter- 
mination. It should be borne in mind that the 
whole community is vitally interested in this 
matter, for the presence of this scale renders 
the cultivation of most of our garden plants and 
ornamental trees almost an impossibility. Let 
the whole community take hold and every 
property-holder do his share; and, if united, 
their efforts are bound to tell. 

As a step in the right direction, I advise the 
removal from the 
streets of all lo- 
custs, acacias and 
French elms which 
are found to be the 
least infected, and 
the eventual sub- 
stitution for these 
of trees less liable, 
such as the olive 
and the large-leaved 
California maple. 
In gardens, we re- 
commend a severe 
cutting-back of all 
deciduous bushes 
affected, the total 
destruction of the 
pittoBporum, the en- 
tire cleaning-out of 
all annual*, the 
thorough overhaul- 
ing of the premises, 
the burning-up of 
all infested twigs, 
and the rakiug-up 
and burning of all 
leaves and rubbish. 

If the infection of 
the Icerya is simply 
confined to a few 
trees in any portion 
of your jurisdiction, 
we advise the most 
thorough destruc- 
tion of everything 
infested, and the in- 
fested spot should 
be closely watched 
for at least six 
months afterward. 
The peculiar habit 
of this insect of 
crawling into the 
earth, crevices and 
cracks, together 
with its power of 
subsisting without 
food for a long time, makes this inaect 
by far the most difficult of extermination, 
and we ask every lover of plant life to do his 
share in preventing a spread of this insect; 
otherwise it will only be a question of time 
when it will be found all over this State. 

A valuable cheap remedy deserving thor- 
ough trial has been found in the resin washes 
first recommended by Prof Riley: Four pounds 
of resin; three pounds of sal-soda; water to make 
36 pints. Dissolve the sal-soda in a few pints 
of water; when thoroughly dissolved, add the 
resin. Heat until dissolved, and add water 
finally. Use two pints of solution to the gallon 
of water. Use at a temperature of about 100* 
Fahrenheit. Also the following: 60 pounds of 
resin, 60 pounds of tallow, 10 pounds of potash, 
dissolved in 10 gallons of water; 10 pounds of 
caustic soda (Greenbank, 98 percent.) Dissolve 
the resin and tallow; when dissolved, add caus- 
tic water slowly. After mixture is made, add 
ten gallons of water. Use at the rate of one 
gallon of mixture to ten gallons of water. 

These solutions are cheap, and if rightly and 
persistently applied, will clean off smaller trees 
and bushes. But we concede the impossibility 
of exterminating this insect by spraying on 
large trees without complete defoliation. 

We hereby repeat the recommendations made 
last year and also give the sulphide of soda soap 
mixture in a slightly different proportion: 10 
pounds of best whale-oil soap (80 per cent soap). 
Dissolve in 50 gallons of water, and boil 1 pound 
lye or 4 pounds of Greenbank caustic soda with 
1£ pounds of sulphur. 

When thoroughly dissolved it is a dark -brown 
liquid (chemically sulphide of soda). Mix the 
two, the soap and the sulphide of soda, well, 
and allow them to boil for about half an hour, 
and it is ready for use. Apply it warm, at 
about 130° F., by means of a spray pump. 
Used warm its effect is better, and less material 
is required than when cold. It must, however, 
be remembered that the minute scales are espe- 
cially numerous on the under side of leaves. 
This fact makes the extermination on a large 



10 



pAClFie f^URAlo f RESS. 



[Jan. 7, 1888 



tree in fall foliage almost next to impossible. 
Only small trees may be successfully treated in 
this way. Large trees must be either deprived 
of their foliage or cut down to a few limbs. 
Neither of these methods can be safely applied 
on tender trees during a season when sharp 
frost may be looked for. A spraying should, 
however, be done, as it will check their spread 
most effectually. Too great pains cannot be 
taken iu removing infected limbs, as the insect 
spreads often in this way. A canvas should be 
spread around the tree, so that none of the in- 
sects can escape. When the tree has been 
treated, spread hot ashes around its base and 
apply tight-fitting bands smeared with a greasy 
substance around the trunk to prevent any in- 
sects reascending. 

For the treatment of orchards we earnestly 
recommend that every one interested make him- 
self acquainted with the workings of the hydro- 
cyanic gas remedy, as tried by Jir. F. W. 
Morse of the University of California.* 

Our wholesale condemnation of the locust and 
acacia is based on the belief that the Icerya has 
spread, and is still spreading, to a large extent 
by means of these two trees. 

In conclusion we would still emphasize the 
fact that the insects, uulike other scale insects, 
are active travelers, and that they may adhere 
to your clothing and thus be carried many miles. 

•Bulletins explaining this method can he obtained by 
addressing Prof. E. W. Hil|jard, Berkeley. 

A Foe of the Cottony Cushion Scale. 

The project of sending some one to Australia 
to seek out natural foes of the cottony cushion 
scale and to bring them here if any are found, 
has been under discussion among our horticult- 
urists for a long time. The Riverside con- 
vention last spring adopted a resolution favor- 
ing the idea and other horticultural bodies 
have done likewise since that time. The meas- 
ure seems to be the wiser from the fact that 
effective foes of the pest are now being found 
in Australia by local observers. The following 
letter recently received by State Inspector \V. 
G. Klee from Frazer S. Crawford of Adelaide, 
South Australia, gives information concerning 
it and its work: 

I announce the receipt of your letter about the 
Icerya parasite with much pleasure, as I hope it 
may lead to correspondence that will be to our 
mutual advantage. 

I had intended writing to you about this very 
matter as soon as I found that I was in a position to 
do something; so that your letter has only caused me 
to write sooner than I otherwise would. 

Since Mrs. Ormerod's little work was published 
I have made what I think is an important discovery, 
viz., that one of our native coccids, a Coclosloma, 
is likewise attacked by this parasite fly. The 
Colostoma is a very large sluggish insect, capable of 
living a long time without food, and one that could 
be conveniently sent through the post. I therefore 
propose to send you some specimens, of course tak- 
ing the chance of their being attacked by the para- 
site. I will do the same with Maskell in New Zea- 
land. I might also try the effect of posting some 
Iccryas, as they might live long enough to survive 
the voyage. 

The parasite so completely did its work that I 
have not a single Icerya lelt in my gaiden. I am 
now trying to introduce it again, but it has some 
other enemy that I must find out. Some two months 
ago, I received a small branch of the common goose- 
berry covered with Icerya egg sacs nearly full size. 
One-halt, containing say 50 Icerya, was placed in a 
lemon tree, two or three of the finest specimens being 
put separately. The other part, with about a simi- 
lar number, was placed in a glass bottle. Now, at 
the present time, the gooseberry branch in the lemon 
is as bare as it could be — not a vestige of the Icerya 
istobelound; but that in the bottle is nearly as 
thick as ever, although two coccinellidne larvoe have 
been living and fattening upon them for the last two 
months, while the bottle is swarming with myriads 
of newly-hatched larv;e running about. This shows 
that the coccinela larva is not of great efficacy in 
putting down Icerya, but what clears off the rest in 
the lemon tree I am quite at a loss to make out, 
unless birds, and if so, in all probability the English 
sparrow. 

My next experiment will be to cover over some 
Icerya (should I succeed in rearing some from the 
larvae in the bottle), with wire netting, so that no 
bird can get at them, and then note the result. 

As soon as Mr. Klee received this interesting 
communication, he took steps for the intro- 
duction of the fly described by Mr. Crawford, 
and it is expected that a small consignment 
will arrive within a few months. Mr. Albert 
Koebele of Alameda, Prof. Riley's local assist- 
ant, has kindly consented to take charge of the 
importation and will endeavor to multiply them 
until enough are secured to distribute them for 
location where the cottony cushion scale is 
abundant in different parts of the State. For 
this purpose a small orange tree infested with 
cottony cushion scale will be completely cov- 
ered with fine wire gauze so that no escape of 
the minute fly is possible. It is of course pos- 
sible that mishaps may occur with the intro- 
duction or breeding, but the effort will be con- 
tinued until definite conclusions are reached. 



ing. Will some kind friend increase my New I 
Year's happiness by instructing me in the most 
effective method of warfare against this 
ubiquitous and ever-vigilant enemy? — Edw. 
Bkrwick, Monterey. 



The Cabbage Louse. 

Editors Press: — In our struggle for exist- 
ence with the passive yet active scale bug, 
his humbler congener, the cabbage louse, gets 
neglected, "gets left," unfortunately. 

I want to know all about him from the au 
thorities, especially the readiest method of 
slaughtering him. The work a single louse can 
put in by way of reproduction is, I know, both 
theoretically and practically, something appall- 



Velvet and Felt Hats. 

Fig. 1, in the group shown on this page, is 
a high-crowned hat, with a medium brim that 
widens at one side near the back and is caught 
up in a point. Bronze velvet covers the entire 
shape in the smoothest fashion. A fold of 
velvet is about the lower part of the crown, 
and wide loops of it stand up high on one side 
and in front. Against these rests a white bird 
with brown spots upon its wings. A pin of 
dull bronze is just in front. 

Fig. _ is a black felt hat; the crown is of 
medium (right and square, and the broad brim 
is only covered slightly at one side. It is ef- 
fective to outliue the brim with binding show- 
ing black and gold. Two straps of velvet are 



Citrus Fair Premiums. 

The various notes of the Butte County Cit- 
rus Fair, which have come in since our last is- 
sue, only go to deepen the impression in its 
favor. It is claimed that " while previous ex- 
positions of similar character may have excelled 
this one as regards quantity, none have 
equaled it iu quality or variety. This judgment 
has been corroborated by the public expressions 
of parties from Los Angeles and other points in 
Southern California." Even people who had 
lived for years in Butte appear amazed at the 
successes achieved. Extensive land-sales in 
Thermalito and other places near Oroville have 
already resulted from the fair, and a general 
desire is evinced by Eastern people to vieit and 
inspect the several valley districts of the county. 

The Oroville Register publishes the awards, 
which we condense below. The exhibitors are 
of Oroville, when no residence is named. The 
Gridley Herald remarks: "The awards are 
based upon actual merit, and ought to give 




VELVET AND FELT HATS. 



about the crown, and they are drawn to stiff 
loops in front and each fastened with a small 
gold butterfly. At the side, quite far back and 
well up on the crown, are several full though 
Bhort ostrich tips, from out of which springs a 
dainty aigrette of the somber hue. 

Fig. 3 shows a hat for a girl; it is a very 
large shape in brown and white felt. The 
broad brim, which curves slightly at each side, 
is faced on both sides with brown velvet. In 
the crown near the front are stuck two gold 
crescents, and the other decoration is a soft 
mode ribbon, plainly drawn abont the crown 
and tied in long loops and euds at the back. 
The simplicity of the hat is most commendable, 
for there is nothing in such bad taste as an 
over-trimmed hat on a little woman. 



Wild Silk in Yucatan.— The Economuta. 
Mexicana says that the Government ol Yucatan 
is experimenting with the product of the wild 
silkworm, Bompyx Ptydli, which is closely 
allied to the domestic silkworm. The silk on 
the cocoonB proves to be elastic and of an ex- 
cellent quality, though rather uncertain in 
color, varying from white to pale brown. It 
presents a peculiar difficulty, however, it being 
covered with a gum which is not easy to dj - 
solve. 



general satisfaction. Chico, Oroville, and Me- 
silla Valley are 10 to 15 >ears ahead of all 
other sections of the county in citrus fruit 
culture, hence it is no discredit to the latter 
that the former captured the bulk of the pre- 
miums. If the committee erred at all in mak- 
ing the awards, their errors were against rather 
than in favor of Oroville." 

List of Awards. 

Oranges — Best individual exhibits — 1st, C. H. 
Wilcox; 2d, Joe Gardella; 3d. T. B Hutchins, Cen- 
tral house; 4th, H. C BtU; 6th, Butte County In- 
firmary, 1 hermalito; 7lh, Watt M. Pence, Wyman's 
ravine; 9th, Mrs. S. S. Boynton; 10th, O. F. Lott. 

Oranges— Best 12 budded grown by one person — 
1st, C. H. Wilcox; 2d, A. F. Jones, Thermalito; 3d, 
T. B. Hutchins, Central house. 

Oranges -Best 12 seedlings grown by one person 
— Joe Gardella; 2d, H. W. Skinner; 3d, Jas. 
Wheeler, Wyman's ravine. 

Oranges— Best cluster — ist, Thos. Johnson; 2d, 
Joe Saccone; 3d, Joe Gardella. 

Oranges— 12 largest — 1st. W. M. Pence. Me- 
silla Valley; 2d, Mrs. Jane Rollins; 3d, Mrs. Mary 
Elliott. 

Oranges— Best individual exhibit, budded — 1st, 
C. H. Wilcox; 2d, T. B. Hutchins, Central house; 
3d, Jacob Mansfield. Wyandotte. 
.JLemons— Best indiv. exh.— ist, C. H. Wilcox; 
2d,_W. M. Pence, Mesilla Valley; 3d, H. C. Bell. 



Limes— Best indiv. exh.— 1st, C. H. Wilcox. 
Olives— Best indiv. exh.— ist, Wm. Dunsione, 
Wyandotte; 2d, Mrs. G. F. Jones, Chico; 3d. V. 
I Bunnel, Biggs. 

Olive Oil— Best indiv. exh —John Bidwell. 
Chico (exhib. by Chico Board of Tradr). 

Raimns— Best indiv. exh.— ist, C. H. Liggett k 
Son; 2d, C. L. Durban, Mesilla Valley; third, C. F. 
Lotl. 

Pr u N ES — Best indiv. exh.— ist, Matt Schwem, 
Chico; 2d, John Iiidwell, Chico (>xhib. by Chico B. 
of T.); 3d, Jesse Wood, Mesilla Valley. 

FIGS— Best indiv. exh.— ist, D. M. Mack. Ban- 
gor; 2d, M. V. Roe, Nimshew; 3d. C. H. Wilcox. 

Evaporated Fruits— Best indiv. exh.— ist, 
Jesse Wood, Mesilla V.lley; 2d, John Rid well, 
Chico (exhib. by Chico B. of T); 3d, H. Wright, 

Con cow. 

Sun-Dkied Fruit— Best indiv. exhib.— ist, B. 

F. Allen. Chico; 2d. John Bidwell (exhib by Chico 
B. of T); 3d, S. L. Skillen, Paradis-. 

Almonds -Best indiv. exh. — ist. R. Parker; 2d, 
John Bidwell (by Chico B. of T.) 

Walnuts— Bast indiv. exh.— ist, Watt M. 
Pence. Mesilla Valley; ad, John Bidwell (by Ch co 
B. of T.) 

Chestnuts -Best indiv. exh.— ist, C. F. Lott; 
2d. Ole I.und. 

Quinces -Best indiv. exh.— ist, Joe Gardella; 
2d, L. N. Eyler. 

Grapes — Best indiv. exh. — ist, C. H. Leggett Sc. 
Son; 2d, C. F. Lott, Oroville. 

Apw.es— Best indiv. exh. — ist. Heckert & Co., 
Mesilla Valley; 2d, M. V. Roe, Nimshew; 3d, P. 
Hefner. Central house. 

Pears— Best indiv. exh. — ist, M. V. Roe. Nim- 
shew; 2d, Jos. Entzman, Table Mountain; 3d, Jchn 
Bidwell (Dy Chico B. of IV] 

Pomegranates— Best indiv. exh.— ist, R. Park- 
er; 2d, C. H. Wilcox. 

Persimmons— Best individual exhibit— ist, Watt 
M. Pence, Mesilla Valley; 2d, Wm Thuuan, Chero- 
kee; 3d, Wm. Greenleaf. 

Preserved and Canned Fruits— B^st indi- 
vidual exTiibit— ist, Misses Orton & Bingham, Berry 
Creek; 2d, Jesse Wood, Mesilla Valley; 3d, B. F. 
Allen, Chico. 

General Exhibit— Largest and most varied 1 x- 
hibit by one pers n — ist, Joe Enlznian, Table 
Mountain; 2d, M. V. Roe, Nimshew; 3d, Heckirt 
& Co., Mesilla Valley. 

Largest and most varied exhibit by any associa- 
tion or community outside of Oroville — ist, Chico 
Board of Trade, gold medal; 2d, Mesilla Valley, 
silver medal. 

Most tastefully arranged exhibit of cilrus fruits by 
an individual or association — ist, D. K. Perkins, 
orange church; 2d, Chico Boird of 7 rede, citrus 
cottage; 3d, H. C. Bell; 4th, Mrs. S. S. Bjynton; 
Sih. D. F. Fryer. 

Largest exhibit of oranges by one person— 1st, O. 

G. Le Rossi j ml. 

Lirgest exhibit of minerals — ist, W E. Duncan, 
lr., Oregon Gulch, gold medal; 2d, li gra.fi., 111 ft 
Ctterback, Migtlia, silver medal. 

I.arg st exhibit of canned fruits, c.itsups, etc , 
Mrs, Dr. Bussey, Thermalito. 

Finest displ iy of flowers and plant- - ist, Heckert 
& Co., Mesilla Valley; 2d, Mrs. E. W. Fogg. 

Silk Cocoons— Best individual exhi .it, W. W. 
Long; 2d, Mrs. H. Poppe, Cherokee. 

Tobacco— Best individual exhibit — ist, John B. 
Thomas, Cherokee; 2d, J. W. Snyder, Wy.tr dotte. 

Cotton— Besi individual exhibit— ist, J. E. Allen, 
Bingor; 2d, Edward Fagin, Gridley. 

Potatoes— Best individual exhibit — ist, A. Lieb- 
hau-er, Forbestown; 2d, N. W. Slater. Fbrbest wn. 

Melons — Best individual exhibit — ist, S. C. 
Phillips, Gridley; 2d, A. Capura. 

Hops— Best individual exhibit— ist. Frank Cress, 
Wyandotte. 

The committee are of the opinion that the follow- 
ing localities are entitled to honorable mention for 
die general excellence of their display, and the care 
and attention given the exhibits by residents of the 
several places during the fair: Ch ar Creek, oranges, 
apples, etc.; Biggs, grains, oranges, nuts, preserves, 
etc.; Bangor, cilrus fruits, nuts, persimmons, dried 
fruits, etc.; Paradise, apples, dried fruits, etc.; 
Gridley, nuts, persimmons, grain, etc. 



Oregon Swamp Lands. — Gov. Pennoyer has 
written the General Ljnd Office at Washington 
that Colonel Elliott, Special Agent, has for- 
warded reports to that office of all his examina- 
tions of swamp land in Oregon, and Colonnl 
Shackelford has informed him that all of his 
reports will be completed and forwarded by 
the 1st of February next. The Governor asks 
the commissioner to act at once upon such re- 
ports, and cause patents to issue to the State 
of all the swamp lands so reported on by the 
1st of March next. He also informs the com- 
missioner that the State relinquished all claims 
to the lands embraced iu list No. 38 rejected 
by the Land Office March 21, 1SS3, for want of 
proof, but which lands are yet withdrawn from 
settlement in the local Land Office, except as to 
such lands concerning which supplemental 
proofs have been furnished, and asks that with 
these exceptions the land embraced in said list 
be opened for settlement. 

No Delay. — We have received notice from 
the Hiram Holt Co. of East Wilton, Maine, 
that the burning of their shops on the night of 
Dec. 20th will in no way interfere with the 
prompt shipping of all orders made upon them 
for Lightning hay knives, their storehouses not 
being damaged. 

Agricultural Directors have lately been 
appointed by the Governor as follows: For 
District No. 19: W. B. JameBof Sinta Bar- 
bara, E. C. R.'wdor, Sunta Birbara. For Dis- 
trict No. 16: P. W. Murphy, .L. M. Warden, 
and E. Leedham. 



Jan. 7, 1888 ] 



PACIFIC I^URAId f ress. 



11 



jgfciRIGUkTURAb jSeiENQE. 



Ttie Extraction of Color and TaiLin 
during Red- Wine fermentation. 

University Experiment Station Bulletin, 
No. 77. 

The observations of wine colors made last 
season in connection with the experimental fer- 
mentations at the Viticultural Laboiatory, 
showed unexpectedly great differences in the 
behavior of the wines from different grapes dur- 
ing the period following fermentation. It was 
found that some grapes while yielding a very 
deep color at pressing would lose it rapidly 
afterward, and frequently fall below others that 
at pressing had shown materially less color. It 
was also shown by comparative experiments in 
fermentation of the same grape uuder different 
conditions, that not only the initial intensity of 
color (». e. , at pressing) varied materially, 
but also that the rate of loss was different, and 
that apparent advantages gained (e. g., by hot 
fermentation) in securing intensity of color do 
not hold out, and that in certain cases an actual 
inversion of the proportion at first existing be- 
tween different samples derived from the same 
grape may take place. It was further shown 
that with the deposition of color the tints of 
wines change from the purplish-reds toward 
red, and from the reds toward orange-red. 

Considering the importance at present attach- 
ed, commercially, to depth of tint, it was deter- 
mined to study more closely, thissf ason, the ex- 
actcourseof thedevelojjmentof color in the wines 
foim^d under different methods of fermenta- 
ticn, in order to determine the conditions that 
would secure the greatest depth of tint from 
the same grape, not only at first but ptrma 
neatly. While the question of permanency 
cannot, of course, as yet be decidtd with re- 
spect to the present season's wines, the results 
already obtained are of sufficient interest to 
render a preliminary statement desirable. It 
is not intended to discuss at present other 
points elicited, that require a longer time for 
their full demonstration. 

As it is usually supposed that the extraction 
of color and tannin go together and continue to 
the limits of the ordinary periods of drawing- 
off, no special arrangement for the control of 
the progress of tannin extraction was made in 
the fiist series of fermentations. But after 
these had shown conclusively that the above sup- 
position is incorrect, another set of two was car- 
ried through with the very last grapes.available 
for the season, viz., a lot of third-crop Zin- 
fandel courteously sent by Mr. John Galle- 
gos. The material for the first series, amount 
ing to some 2500 pounds of excellent Oarignane 
(sugar 25.75, acid .53), was donated for the 
purpose by Mr. A. Saluzar, Jr., of Mission San 
Jose. The upper part of the table below refers 
to this last-named lot, the lower to the Zin- 
fandel; (sugar 21, acid .60 ) 

The conditions established for the several fer- 
mentations were as follows: 

The bulk (eight) of the first series of fer- 
mentations vi as carried out at the air tempera- 
ture of 75°, which may be considered as 
practically the most desirable for most pur- 
poses. The charge was 200 pounds for each 
tank. Four of the tanks were provided with 
^rated frames (" false bottoms ") to hold the 
pimace submerged; one having three of these 
(Perret's process) so as to divide the pomace 
iatD hree equal portions; another having the 
grating il 1 ced half way down, so as to hold all 
the pomace near the bottom of the tank. The 
two uthers had the grating placed near the top 
of the mash, as is usually done; but in one the 
wine was pumped over from below and 
sprayed over the top twice daily, in lieu 
of any other mode of stirring or aeration; while 
the other (788) was left to complete its fermen- 
tation without any kind of agitation. Of the 
other four tanks, one (794) was charged with 
unstemmed grapes, to be gradually crushed by 
daily stirring (" Morel " process); another (792) 
was left open and stirred twice daily with a 
cross-peg stirrer; the third (793) was similarly 
left open, but was stirred by pumping air to the 
bottom; while the fourth (787) was treated ac- 
cording to the method adopted for general pur- 
poses in the laboratory, viz., a floating, solid 
cover and twice-daily stirring. 

One charge of 230 pounds (796) was fermented 
according to the same method, with an air 
temperature of 62°. In this, as well as in the 
eight preceding, the mash was set at 63°. 

Two charges of 230 pounds each were fer- 
mented with the air temperature kept at about 
90°; the mash was set at 86°. One of these tanks 
(795) was provided with floating cover as above; 
the other (797) was left uncovered and both re- 
ceived twice-daily stirring. 

The observations given in the table are 
those made at 9 a. m. In the second series, two 
tanks only were used, both with floating top 
and stirring, as above; but one (799) with an 
air-temperature of 75° and set at 63°, the other 
(800) set at 86° and kept in a warm chamber 
with air at about 90°; the charges in this case 
were 60 pounds each; the observations were 
made at short intervals in order to be sure of 
not missing the maxima of color. — The latter 
are printed in full-face type, for a readier view 
of the facts. 

The figures given in the columns headed 
" Intensity " refer to the scale in which a diso of 
wine four-tenths millimeter or about the sixty- 



second part of an inch in thickness is equal in 
intensity to the type discs of Chevreul's color 
scale. 

In the columns headed "Tint," r. means 
red and v. r. violet-red, the figures referring to 
the numbered tints of Chevreul's scale. 

The last column to the right shows the per- 
centage of decrease, referred to the deepest 
tint observed, taken as 100. 

A glance at the full face figures shows at 
once the very great differences in the greatest 
intensity of color attained in these experi- 
ments, under the varying conditions. The 
maximum, 77.0, was reached on the third 



M I-t tO 

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Qlbb^tn* 3000>[9 | ' — 



day by No. 795, one of the two hot fermenta- 
tions, being the one that reached the maximum 
temperature of 106°. The minimum, 42.5, is 
shown by tank No. 788, fermented according to 
one of the most usual methods of procedure, 
viz.: A single grated frame keeping the pomace 
submerged just below the surface. That is, 
No. 788 attained only 55.5 per cent of the color 
reached by No. 795 three days before. Bu t 



when, as in the case of No. 789, the pomace 
was held down near to the bottom of the tank, 
a maximum of 60.0 of the color scale was 
reached within the same time. Where the 
single frame was used near the surface, but the 
wine pumped over from beneath (No. 790), 55.0 
was reached, and that two days earlier; where 
the three frames were used (No. 791) 57.1 was 
the color, the maximum being reached at the 
same time as in the two former, viz.: on the 
sixth day. 

Comparing the three tanks treated in the 
same manner, but at different temperatures, to 
wit, Nos. 796, 7S7 and 795, having a floating 
cover and stirring twice daily, it appears that 
the same maximum of 70 was reached within 
the same time (fifth day) both with air-tempera- 
tures of 62^ and 75°; in the one kept in a cham- 
ber at 90°, the maximum of 77.0 was attained 
on the morning of the third day. This marked 
influence of high temperature upon the extrac- 
tion of color is also shown in the second series 
of the table, as well as in last year's. 

Contrary to expectation, the "Morel pro- 
cess," in which the frequent stirring and pro- 
longed fermentation would lead one to expect a 
deep color, comes next to the lowest, with only 
50.0 of color, reached on the sixth day. 

It thus appears that in all but one of these 
cases (795) the maximum of color was attained 
between the fourth and sixth days. After 
reaching the maximum, whether the wine is 
drawn or not, there immediately begins a de- 
crease, which, on the whole, is the more rapid 
the higher the intensity that has been reached. 
But the percentage of decrease (see last column 
of table) varies materially, according to the 
method of fermentation employed, as will be 
seen from the figures in the last column to the 
ruht. But w hat interests us most is the absolute 
iuttnsity remaining after the tame lapte of time; 
and in that respect the color readings last made 
(Dec. 12ih) are very instructive, as they doubt- 
less foreshadow the ultimate outcome more or 
less accurately. It will be seen that the deep- 
est tint (45.0) was at that time retained by trie 
wine made according to the mode (with floating 
cover and twice-daily foulage) adopted in the 
viticultural laboratory, and at 75° air temper- 
ature (No. 787). Next highest (38.0) are Nos. 
796 and 791, the first also fermented with float- 
ing cover but at 62°, the second, according to 
Perret's method, with three frames. No. 795, 
■ermented with floating cover but at 90°, and at 
first showing the deepest tint of all, comes 
next below (35.3) having lost 54.2 per cent of 
its color. Nus. 792 and 793, both greatly ex- 
posed to air during fermentation, stand re 
spectively 12 and 14 points below No. 787, fer 
mented with cover on; and the same ibtluence 
of t xcess of air in diminishing colors is even more 
-trikingly shown on comparing Nob. 795 and 
797, both fermented at the high temperature 
but one with cover on, the other open; the color 
ratio being 35.3 to 20.0. 

Omitting tor the present the discussion of 
the causes of these differences, the broad fact 
remains that in all cases the maximum of color 
was reached, and its diminution began, long 
before the ferrnenta ion was completed; that 
therefore the increase of alcohol beyond a cer- 
tain point which from actual measurement iu 
one case was only five per cent, has no influ- 
ence in promoting extraction of color. Also, 
that the long-continued maceration sometimes 
practiced with the idea that it increases the 
color, is erroneous. 

In the second series of the table, as in the 
first, the hot fermentation completed the ex- 
traction of color (12 hours) sooner than the 
cooler one; and it is interesting to note the 
rapid course of these fermentations, as com 
pared with the long-drawn-out process in the 
Oarignane series, due, of course, to the differ- 
ence in the sugar and acid contents. The high 
temperature in this case rushed the fermenta- 
tion right through, but the maximum reached 
was only 98.5° against 106° in the former case. 
Here also the color was at first much deeper in 
the hot than in the cold fermentation (66.6 
against 55.8), but the decrease was also more 
rapid, as is shown in the later observations. 

But during the whole time there was a steady 
increase in the tannin contents, ending with .20 
per cent for the hot and .144 for the cooler fer- 
mentation. As it is proved that in sound wine 
there is no subsequent diminution of tannin, 
this shows that longer time on the pomace 
steadily increases the tannin, as has been sup- 
posed; also, that hot fermentation materially 
favors the extraction of tannin. 

The practical precepts following from these 
experiments may then be thus stated: 

1. Maceration of the wine on the pomace 
after fermentation is through, increases tannin, 
but adds nothing to color. 

2. When blends are to be made for the sake 
of color, or when blends of white and red 
wines are to be made, it should, whenever 
possible, be done before fermentation, in order 
that the white juice may help to hold up the 
color that otherwise will come down very 
rapidly during the first weeks after drawing- 
off. 

Berkeley, Dec. 30, 1S87. E. W. Hiloard. 



Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper bn received by any subscriber who 
docs not want it, or beyond the time he intend* to pay 
for it, let him not tail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card (costing one cent only) will guflico. We will 
not knowingly send the paper to any one who does not 
wish it, but if it is continued, through the failure of the 
subscriber to notify us to discontinue It, or some irre- 
sponsible party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
demand paymentfor the time it is sent. Look oakkfulijA 

AT TJJB LABKL ON YOUR PATBK. 



Lapds Jiale apd Jo Lei. 



A. D. Sharon. Establishfd 1849. S. P. Miudlkton. 

MIDDLETON & SHARON, 

Real Estate aod General 

LAND AGENTS & AUCTIONEERS, 

22 Montgomery Street, 
Opposite Lick House, San Francisco. 

Santa Rosa Office, 310 B St. 
Large tracts subdivided at auction or private sale. 

WEST COAST LAND CO. 

TEMPLETON, SAN LUIS OBHPO CO., CAL. 



Home of Wheat, Fruit, Wine and Olive; 15,000 acres 
sold in past 8 months to 220 settler-", representing a pop- 
ulation of 1100; 4!),000 acres— small subdivisions— aver- 
age, $22.50 an acre; J cash, balance 6 years. 6 per cent. 
Catalogues and maps free. C. H. PHILLIPS, Manager. 



A NEW COLONY 

On the new extension of Southern Pacific Railroads, 
on the lands belonging to R. T. BUELL, Esq., near Los 
Alamos, Santa Barbara county, Cal. Parties desiring to 
visit the property now, oan go via San Luis Obispo and 
take the cars from thence to Los Alamos, thence by stage 
to the Colony. 20, ooo acres of the best lands in Cali 
fornia, subdivided into 20, 40 and 80-acre farms; $20 to 
$30 per acre. INTERNATIONAL, IMMIGRANT 
UNION. 401 California St., San Francisco 

GOOD CROPS EVERY SEASON WITHOUT 
IRRIGATION. 

Free by mail, specimen number of " The California 
Real Estate Exchange and Mart," full of reliable infor- 
mation on climate, product ions, etc., of 

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 

Address, "EXCHANGE AND MART," Santa Crnz. Cal 



DRESS REFOPIM. 




Equipoise Waist. 



A Corset and 

Comb'iied. 



Cover 



Union Underflannel. Ready Made and Made 
to Order. 

The Perfect Corder Corset, all colors, for ladies and 
children; b itton or steel front. Skirt and hose suj port- 
ers fir ladies and misses. All styles of bustles. 

CWi'orsetR ready-made and made to order. Send for 
Illustrated Catalogue and price list. 

MRS. M. H. OBEB, 
332 Sutter Street, San Francisco. 



HALL'S 

SARSAPARILU 

Cures all Diseases originating from 
a disordered state of the BLOOD ot 
LIVER. Rheumatism, Neuralgia 
Boils, Blotches, Pimples, Scrofula, 
Tumors, Salt Rheum and Mercurial 
Pains readily yield to its purifying 
nroperties. It leaves the Blood pure 
the Liver and Kidneys healthy and 
the Complexion bright and clear. 
J. R. GATES & CO. PROPRiEroRS, 

417 Sansome St. San Francisco 

PIANOFORTES. 

UNEQUALLED IN 

Tone Touch Workmanship and Durability. 

WILLIAM KNA.BE <fc CO. 

BalTIUORB, 22 and 24 K'ist Kaltimore Street. 
Nkw Yokk, 112 Fifth ave. Washington, 817 Market space. 



bPRAY PUMPS. 

Now is the time to buy. Do not waste money on poor 
pumps with leather valves, but buy the "ClIMAX 
SPRAK PUMPS," the only pump having all its 
pans made of non-corrosive metal, ami the very 
best Spray Pump in the market. 

Send lor circulars and prices. Hose furnished to 
farmers at wholesale prices. 

CAL. FIKB APPARATUS M FG CO., 

18 California St., S. F 



MEMORY 

Wholly unlike artificial systems. 
Auv hook learned in our reading. 

Bsoommended i'y m.uik Twaiw, Richabd proctor, 
the Scientist, linns, w. w. aktou. Judas P. benja- 
min. Dr. Minoii, Ac. Class of 1(10 Columbia Lnw stud- 
ents; two olusee Of SOOeoeh at Tale; 400 at University 
of Penn.Pliila. , I(K) at Wi,llrsli\v UollrKc mid tlmm liirue 
clussns Jit OliiMiliiiiciuii University Ac. Prospectus I'oST 
jruuEfroin PKOF. LOIBETTE, 287 Fifth Ave.. N.Y. 



Iluvs our IIAISY H tllNKSH, worth lit retail *af. 
Sent to examine and return at our ex -?~-t 
penes. Catalogue tire. CH1CAUO HARNESS to.. 
Wholesale Mfg., 376 Wubuth Ave.. ChicaRO, III. 



12 



PACIFIC RURAlo fRESS. 



[Jan. 7, 1888 




STRYCHNINE! 

STRYCHNINE! 

Farmers who want the PUREST and BEST 
Strychnine., SDKK TO KILL. Ground Squirrels, 
Gophers, Mice and other anmals which destroy the 
crops, should specify " VfALLIVCKRODT'S ST. LOUIS' 
STRYCHNINE, manufactured by 

Mallinckrodt's Chemical Works, 

ST. LOUIS and NEW YORK, 

—AND— 

SOLD BY ALL DEALERS. 



43TInsist upon having ora hrand. and allow no sub- 
stitutI'N i.f other makes. See Uat our cap and label is 
on the bottles. 



"qqick: meaij" 

Gasoline Stoves. 

No Smoke. No Soot and A bsolntely Safe. 

less Expensive to Operate than Wood or 
Coil Stoves. 

AL8RECHT & SMITH 

Pacific Coast Agents, 

1386 MARKET STREET, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 




ONTO. 107 ^23.00. 




MONARCH GASOLINE RANGES 

ARB THE BEST. 
Gasoline Stoves. *6 to *35. Gas Stoves, 75 cents to 
Oil Stoves, "5 cents to $30. 
WOOD AND COAL RA N GES.-Roval, No. 6, 
$10. No. 7, $20. Pacific No. 6, 818 No. 7, $25. 
Lamps, 20<-. to $10. Hanging Limps, $2 to 820. 
Agate Ware, Tin Ware, and Kitchen Ware at low prices. 
JOHN F. MYERS & CO.. 
Opp. Bildwin Hotel, 883 Market St., S. P. 



JOHN T. SULLIVAN, 

Manufacturer of CUSTOM MADE 

Boots and Shoes, 

20 Fourth St., Pioneer Building. 

FACTORY, N. E. Cor. Battery & Jackson. 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Full line of Ladies', Misses' and Children's Fine Shoes. 
Aqknth FOR 

Howell's Men's $3.00 Shoes 

In Button, Congress and Balmorals; Opera and French 

Toes. SEND FOR TRIAL PAIR. 
CUSTOM HEAVY WORK A SPECIALTY. 



H. M. NEWHALL & CO., 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

309 and 311 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Agents for Growers and Manufacturers. Charterers of Vessels for all Trades. Agents 
for the Mexican Phosphate and Sulphur Company's Products. 
General Insurance Agents. 

Have correspondents in all the chief cities of the United States, Europe, Australia, India, China and the princi- 
pal islands of the Pacific. Purchase goods and sell California products in those countiies. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast of NATIONAL ASSURANCE CO., of Ireland; 
ATLAS ASSURANCE CO.. of London; BOYLSTON INSURANCE CO., of Boston, Mass. 



THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY. 

JUDSON POWDER, 



PATENT OWNERS OF 



NOBEL'S DYNAMITE, 
NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE, 
NOBEL'S GELATINE-DYNAMITE, 

Best and Strongest Explosives in the World. 

As other makers IMITATE our Giant Powder, so do they Judson, by Manufacturing 
a second-grade, inferior to Judson. 
BANDMANN. NIELSEN & CO, General Agents, San Francisco. 



The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stump and Bank Blasting. From 5 to 20 
pouDds blows any Stump, Tree or Root clear 
out of ground at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 



SANTA YNEZ, 

Santn Bar To County, California. 

THE SANTA YNEZ LAND AND IMPROVEMENT COMPANY 

Is now offering for sale at low prices and upon very moderate terms the choicest of 

Agricultural and Horticultural Lands 

Of the famou" College Grant, in the aforementioned beautiful valley. The CLIMATE is perfect, SOIL rich and 
i\ rrt.itit'd, T< MM m; I; \1'11 V ummiialh varied and beautif I. ap rk llfce MttHth Qj Oaks owriag tne entire valley. 
WATER SUPPLY more than sufficient for irrigation of ail ii ridable lands, and no alkali either in water or blU. 
TRANSPORTA i ION FACILITIES superior now, and two trunk lines certain to pass through the valley 

within a year. 

43.000 ACRES OF THESE CHOICE LANDS 

Are for sale at from $25 to $150 per acre; terms of payment being one-third cash, one-third in two, balance in three 
. ' urs; six per cent interest on deferred pa.vruents. 

To rtach the Santa Ynez valley take any transportation line to San Luis Obispo, thence by Pacific Coast Rail- 
way to Santa Yrez or to Santa Ba bara, thence by st^ge to Santa Ynez. Persous seeking lovely homes or lands for 
.olonies or quickly paying investments, cannot do better than purchase here. For further information lefer to 

E. W. STEELE, Manager, Santa Ynez, CaL 

E. de la CUESTA, Agent. Santa Yrez. 

McCLUNG & PRAY, Agents, 325 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 
SIDNEY LACEY, Agent, Los ADgeles. 

COOPER & DREYFUS, Agents, Santa Barbara. 

McCLUNG & PRAY. Agent-?, San Diego. 



THE "BOSS" ROAD MACHINE. 




The WHITE IS KING 

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WHITE SEWING MACHINE COMPANY, 

108 St 110 POST ST.. S. F. 



FOR BUILDING ROADS, MAKING DITCHES, LEVEES, Etc. 

Is s'^ng and durable, of light draft and of great strength. Just the thing for farmers in 

optniDg d t lies through their grain fields. Sold by 

THOMAS D. POOLE, State Agent, 

1S06 San Antonio Avenue, Alameda, Cal. 




^ BOOMING! 



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SEND STAMP FOR 
80-PAGE ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

of Guns, Pistols, Cartridges, Powder, Shells, Air Guns, 
Hunting Coats. Leggings, Loading Implements, Rase Ball 
Goo is, Lawn Tennis, Boxing. Fencing and Gymnasium 
Goods, Dumb Bells, Hammocks, etc. 

Fiti«*Gun work (ton* by Heat-clasH smiths. 
GEO W. SHREVE. 
5i?5 Kearny Str«et. S»n Francisco. Cal. 



The Celebrated Dr. Fisherman's Carbol- 
ized Alkaline Lotion, 

A Specialty for Stable and Farm, is B< oming. Why? 
| Because i has greater m.-rits than any other remedy ami 
, ten times cheaper. Order one ijuart or one gallon. 
Price, $1 per quart, $3 per gallon, making h If a gallon 
and two gallons of Lotion Money re'uinled in all cases 
of dissatisfaction. Ask your Druggist to get it for you. 
Send for rel able tes imonials. 

LYNDE St HOUGH, 

116 California St., S. F. 



Well Drills 

For Every Purpose 
SOLD ON TRIAL. 




Investment 
email, prof- 
its large. 
Send SOc.IOT 
mailing 
larL'e Illus- 
trated Cata- 
logue with 

particulars. 
Manufactured by 

GOULPS & AUSTIN, 

167 & 1R9 LAKE ST. 
CHICAGO, ILLINOi* 



BEST TREE WASH. 

" Grccnbank " 95 degrees POWI>KRKD CAUS- 
TIC SODA (tests 09 3-10 per cent) recommended by 
the highest authorities in the State. Also Common 
Caustic Soda and Potash, etc., for sale by 

T. W. JACKSON & CO., 
Manufacturers' Agents, 
104 Market Rt and 3 California St.. 8. F 



MISS BISEEE'S 

BOARDING and DAY SCHOOL 
For Young Ladies and Little Girls, 

WILL KBOI'KN 

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 4, 1888, 
Cor. Seventh Avenue and Sixteenth St., 
East Oakland, Cai. 



This space is reserved for the 
NEW HOME SEWING MACHINE 
COMPANY, 725 Market St., Ban- 
croft History Building, S- F. , Cal. 



If STANDS AT THE HEAD! 




DO NOT FAIL to SEE THE " DOMESTIC " 

Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 

It is the leader in practical progress. Send for price li-t 
to J. W. EVANS, 29 Post St., S. F. 



WHERE TO BUY PIANOS! 



Each Piano on our list is SELECTED for PARTICU- 
LAK MERIT, and even one the Best of its class. 
DECKER 8 BUS., the Attists Piano. 
M A SON & HAMLIN, Improved Method of String- 
ing. 

IVkRS & POND, Eighty In constant use In the New 

Englan i Conservatory of Music. 
Ill HK BROS., Patent Cylinder Top. 
BO A RDM AN & GRAY, Celebrated for Tone and 

Durability. 
THIS FISCHER, the Old Favorite. 
A POLLO, and other Ger nan P. anna. 
WE BUY FOR CASH anil "Take our Pick." 

We I an suit all purses and tastes. 

We guarantee every instrument, backing it with a 
guarantee, if necessary, of $50,000. 
Particular attention given to orders by mall. 

KOHLER & CHASE, 

No. 39 POST ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 




SPECTACLES, OPTICALGOODS 
PHOTOGRAPHIC OUTFITS etc 

H I RSCH, KAH N &C0. 

333 KEARNY STREET. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



Microscopes, Telescopes. Field & Opera Glasses, 
Magic Lanterns, Barometers, Thermometers, 
Compasses, Electric Batteries. Drawing. Mining, 
Surveying and other Scientific Instruments. 

(t7* Send for Illustrated Catalogue and liye Tests, free. 



ON 30 DAYS' TRIAL. 

THIS NEW 

ELASTIC TRUSS 

Has a Pud diir.Tcnt from all 
others, is cup shape, with Self- 
adjusting hull in center, adapts 
Itself to all pusitlousof the body, wtoito 
iheoaliintiie cup. presses back 
the intestines Just as a per- 
son does with the finger. WhnugBt pressure 
the HernlaTfth.-ld securely day and night, and a radical 
cure certain. It Iseasr. durable and eh. sn. S- nt hv mall 
Circulars tree. iw.i.imu.\ lias-, to. , CMeigo, 111. 

C I I hi *-'AKDS». set Of scrap pictures, one checker 
■ 1 1 Pi ''"aril, and large sample book of hidden name 
I VII .a <ls an i .g- ts' outfit. All onlj 2c. C'Al'iTAi. 
Card Co., Columbus, Ohio. 




Jan. 7, 1888.] 



fACIFie f^URAIo pRESS. 



13 



Grape-Growers' Meeting. 

At a meeting of the Grape-Growers' and 
Wine-Makers' Association in this city on Tues- 
day, I. De Turk of Santa Rosa presided in the 
absence of the president, Oapt. H. W. Mc- 
Intire. 

Mr. John T. Doyle introduced and supported 

the following resolutions : 

Resolved, That the increased and increasing prod- 
uct of wine and the decline in prices renders it 
highly important to enlarge the market for Califor- 
nia wines, and that we urge on our delegation in 
Congress an earnest effort to secure an exemption 
from tax of pure grape brandy used in fortifying 
such wines. 

Resolved, That while we desire the privilege of 
fortifying pure wine with pure grape spirits free of 
internal revenue tax, we are of opinion that if that 
privilege cannot be obtained for all purposes, 
our delegation in Congress should use their efforts 
to secure the privilege of so foriifying for exporta- 
tion, and that a measure conceding the latter privi- 
lege should not be antagonized merely because it 
fails to give us all we ask for. 

The resolutions were vigorously opposed by 
J. H. Wheeler. Mr. Estee offered an amend- 
ment to Mr. Doyle's second resolution, adding 
the word "sweet," as referred to by Mr. 
Wheeler, and also to change the word " brandy " 
to " spirits" in the first resolution. Mr. Doyle 
accepted the amendments, and the resolutions 
were adopted. 

On motion of Mr. Eatee, a committee of 12 
was appointed for the purpose of representing 
the different branches of the grape and wine 
industries; to take into consideration the future 
of the grape and wine industry of the State, and 
to formulate such action for the benefit of pro- 
ducers and wine growers as may seem necessary 
to protect these industries; the committee to re- 
port at the next meeting of the society. The 
following were appointed such committee: M. 
M. Eitee, E. C. Friber, George West, John T. 
Diyle, Captain C. de St. Hubert, L. J. Rose, E. 
W. Davis, H. M. Larue, E. W. Maslin, J. P. 
Smith, H. W. Crabb and F. Pohndorff. 

Considerable discussion was given to the 
holding of a grape-growers' convention in 
March next. It was finally decided by adop- 
tion of the following resolution- 

Resolved, Thit a committee of five be appointed 
to co-operate with the Viticullural Commission in 
holding an annuil convention of viticulturists, and 
that such committee see that a proper time during 
the convention be set apart for the annual meeting 
of the association. 

The following were appointed as the commit- 
tee: Messrs. Priber, E9tee, Husmann, Portal 
and Rixford. 

Prof. Hilgard addressed the meeting upon 
the subject of extraction of color and tannin 
during red-wine fermentations. The subject- 
matter of the address appears as University 
Bulletin No. 77 on another page of this issue. 
The association then adjourned to the first 
Tuesday in March. 

Geo. W. Meade & Co. 

A meeting of the creditors of this firm, whose 
suspension was noted last week, was held on 
Tuesday. A very considerate and kindly feel- 
ing seemed to prevail. The following state- 
ment of resources and liabilities was made: 
LIABILITIES. 

Bink of California $ 30 287 

Bills payable 110,500 

F. A. Schneider 33.480 

Accounts payable 0.859 

Unpaid bills 21,922 

Los Angeles bank 10.000 

First National Bank of Fresno 10,000 

Unpaid accounts at Fresno 5,000 

Total $288,048 

ASStTS. 

George W. Meade & Co., in Los Angeles. . $ 27,166 

Asshs receivible 19 714 

Bank of California securities 12,000 

Merchandise, per inventory '55 354 

Plant at Fresno 22,400 

Plant at Santa Clara 10,000 

Surplus in hands of Eastern consignees. . . . 153.240 

Real estate of George W. Meade 208,910 

Etc., etc 6,636 

Total $615,420 

From the two tables it will be seen that there 
is a surplus amounting to $387,276. Mr. Meade 
proposed to make payments in full in three 
parts, the first payment to be due in six- 
months, the second in nine and the third in 12 
months, with interest at seven per cent. A 
committee was appointed to consider this prop- 
osition as follows: Thomas Brown, D. D. 
Shattuck, J. Woodward, Frederick Gibbs, 
Frank S. Johnson and H. L. Dodge. After 
a day's deliberation, the committee decided 
to advise the creditors that the proposition be 
aocepted. The real estate is deeded to the 
Bank of California in trust as security for the 
notes. It is stated that all creditors for sums 
less than $100 will be paid at once. 

The valuable cargo of sheep gathered from 
various parts of Vermont, and shipped for Aus- 
tralia a few weeks ago, arrived in London safe 
and sound. None of the sheep died on the 
voyage, although about 100 cattle on the same 
vessel succumbed on account of the unusually 
rough weather. 

Mr. Moulton of French Corral, Nevada 
county, harvested 100 pounds of large, juicy, 
well-flavored clingstone peaches in November. 



Truman, Hooker & Co. 

The following circular has been sent to some 
of the patrons of the above firm, and will no 
doubt be of interest to many other users of ag- 
ricultural implements : 

San Francisco, Dec. 27, 1887. 
Dear Sirs : — We desire to inform you that A. 
H. Isbam is no longer a member of our firm and 
that his connection ceased the 20th inst., though he 
was restrained previously from transacting business 
for the firm. The ne* firm of Truman, Hooker & 
Co. will continue the business with increased facili- 
ties for the transact on of a large trade, and thank- 
ing you for past favors desire a continuance of your 
orders, which shall have prompt and careful atten- 
tion. We are selling agents for the David Bradley 
M'f'g. Co. of Chicago, one of the oldest, most 
successful, and the makers of the best steel and best 
chilled plow in the world. They have now put on 
this market what they call their Square-Corner sulky 
2-gang, 3-gang and 4-gang riding plows and 3 and 
4-gang walking plows. These new Bradley plows 
give great satisfaction. The following telegram is 
just received: "Williams, Colusa Co. . Dec. 23, 
1887. — Ging trial Grimes' Landing yesterday, Brad- 
ley Square Corner victorious over the ' New Deal,' 
' New Model' and ' Williams Gang.' Sold six Brad- 
ley walking gangs." Signed, Geo. W. Bruckner. 
The new Bradley Gangs have iron center molds 
and shares. The others have common sheet-steel 
molds. This is why the Bradley is more durable. 
They have the rear wheel, which makes the draft 
lighter than other plows. The Bradley Garden 
City Clipper Steel plows are models of perfection. 
They scour in any soil. 

We are also agents for Messrs. Biddle, Smart & 
Co., the largest carriage-makers in Amesburv. We 
carry a full line of their carriages, buggies, Surreys, 
etc., and will be pleased to give you prices for 
either a carload or single vehicle. 

The Milburn hollow iron-axle wagon is greatly im- 
proved in material and workmanship. They are 
guaranteed. 

The McCormick mowers and binders were the 
best last year, and are perfection this year. It will 
piy you to buy these if you need a mower and 
binder. We have a full line of implements, buggies, 
carriages, etc. Thanking \ou for past favors, we 
desire your patronage and influence in the future. 
We wish you a merry Christmas and a happy New 
Year. Yours truly, 

Truman, Hooker & Co. 



List of D. S. Patents for Paoiflo Coast 
Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 

From the official report of TJ. S. Patents in Dbwry & 
Co.'s Patent Office Library, 220 Market St., S. F. 



for week ending december 27, 1887. 
375,471. — Chair-Back and Head-Rest- 



-F. 



The Chino Valley Manufacturing and 
Improvement Company has lately filed articles 
of incorporation at San Bernardino in order to 
push a great industrial enterprise, which is 
outlined as follows in the Lofi Angeles Times: 
Richard Gird has sold 2.3 000 acres of his 
famous Chino rancho to a Minneapolis syndi- 
cate for nearly $4,000,000, himself retaining a 
handsome interest. The syndicate includes 
Mr. Gird, H. L. Drew (president of the 
Farmers' Exchange Bank, San Bernardino), R. 
B. Hunter, H. M. Ryan, J. R. Wolcott and 
others. The capital stock is $10,000,000, all 
subscribed. The company intends to spend 
at least $1,000,000 within the next 18 
months in the way of improvements on the 
property. Rolling-mills, blast furnaces, pipe- 
mills, etc., will be erected at the new town of 
Chino, which Mr. Gird has already started, 
and which the company proposes to make the 
Pullman of Southern California. The companv 
controls an immense deposit of fine iron ore, 25 
miles from Daggett, said to be better than Lake 
Superior ore, which has driven European ores 
out of the market. To get plenty of coke 
cheap the company has purchased a lot of 
Washington Territory coal lands, from which 
an excellent coking coal is being mined. It is 
claimed by the company that it can manu- 
facture pig iron in Southern California for only 
$3 per ton more than Cleveland prices, while 
freight from Cleveland costs $15 to $16. Such 
an establishment, operated in a town of its 
own workmen, will be of great financial im- 
portance in Southern California. 

A Great Event with the Teachers. — The 
California teachers had a grand time in Berke- 
ley last week, when several hundred of them 
gathered in the halls of the University to hold 
their semiannual convention. Three days 
were passed in discussions, etc., relating to the 
science and art of teaching, and the season was 
pleasant and profitable to all. One of the most 
interesting items of action to the public was 
the arrangement for the meeting of the Na- 
tional Teachers' Association, which will be held 
in California next summer, and which will 
bring several hundred Eastern educators to 
our State. It is evident that they will be re- 
ceived warmly and hospitably. 



Binder, Alameda, Cal. 

375,344. — Securing Sashes in Window- 
Frames— S. R. Deacon, Los Angeles, Cal. 

375.480.— Cable Railroad Channel — W. 
Dunham, Igo. Cal. 

375,486.— Grain Separator— J. Grider, Stock- 
ton, Cal. 

375 499.— Apparatus for Distilling Wood — 
G. Hunziker, Cloverdile, Cal. 

375,496.— Music Chart— C. S. Mason, Orange, 
Cal. 

375,565. — Two-Wheeled Vehicle — N. S. Park- 
er, Salem, Ogn. 

375,509 —Wad-Sorter — P. Selby, Oakland, Cal. 

Note. — Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewby & Co., in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patent* 
obtained, and treneral patent business for Pacific Coast 
inventors transacted with perfect seourity, at reasonable 
rates and in the shortest possible time. 



Rural Seed Offering— 1888. 

Great Inducements for New Subscriptions. 

To encourage gardening and further extend the circula- 
tion of the Pacific Rural Press, we will offer, while this 
notice remains in our columns, to furnish to all old or 
new subscribers the following seeds on the favorable 
terms named below: 



An Item ok Esteem.— A friend writes us 
that in his locality it is the practice with our 
subscribers to lend their copies of the Rural 
to " all their neighbors for five miles around." 
We are glad people think enough of the Rural 
to go that far to borrow it, for it shows that 
they must think something of it. Possibly a 
" borrower's edition " printed on cloth would 
not be a bad thing for people who get their 
information that way. We submit, however, 
that the time expended in going so far to bor- 
row would be worth more than it would cost to 
have a copy of one's own. Then, too, the 
Rural should not only be read but should be 
filed for reference. However, we will not com- 
plain; if the Rural is so valuable to you, get 
it any way you can, except by stealing it. 

The tonnage of the United States vessels 
engaged in the coasting trade increased largely 
last year. 

The pnblic debt was diminished during the 
past year $117,016,000. 



Attention is called to the adve tisement in an- 
other column of M. Ehret, Jr. , & Co. This com- 
pany are the largest manufacturers and distillers of 
coal tar, asphaltum and roofing material in the 
United Stales, iheir output on roofing alone be- 
ing 200.000 squares, or 500 carloads. Their cele- 
brated Black Diamond roofing has been in use in all 
climates in the United States, Canadas, West 
Indies and Europe, nearly six years, and it is con- 
sidered all and more than they claim for it. They 
claim superiority as a roofing covering from the fol- 
lowing: Any one can put on six to eight squares 
per day; it is water and fire proof and adapted to 
any climate; it is inexpensive and will outlast metal 
or shingles with less expense for repairs, and weighs 
but 75 pounds to 85 pounds to 100 square feet. 
They guarantee the goods first-class, and make 
shipments anywhere delivered, or at their houses at 
St. Louis, Mo., at satisfactory prices. 



Bees in a Chimney. 

Editors Press: — Several of my swarms have 
left their hives and gone into a chimney where 
a large number have collected during the last 
two years. Can I by placing a weak swarm on 
top of the chimney trap them so they cannot 
get down the chimney again ? Any informa- 
tion how to recover them would be gladly re- 
ceived through your columns and would no 
doubt be of interest to other readers besides. 
Wm. Styan , San Mateo. 



Wells,Richardson & Ctfs 

Improved 




XL 

utter 



r. 



EXCELS 



1N STRENGTH 
PURITY 
BRIGHTNESS 

NEVER TURNS RANCID. 

Always gives a bright natural color, and will 
not color the Buttermilk. 

Used by thousands of the best Creameries and 
Dairies. Do not allow your dealer to convince you 
that some other kind is just as good. Tell him l he 
BEST is what you want, and you must have Wells, 
Richardson & Co's Improved Butter Color. 
Three sizes, 25c. 50c. $1.00. For sale everywhere. 

WELLS, RICHARDSON & CO. 
BURLINGTON, VT. 



ROOFING! 




(HEABEST&liirT?OOF d 





AJsfD AN*Y (TLIMATE.t) 

M.ElIRET Jr.&Co. 

■ X] SOLE MANUFACTURERS. fX^— - 

113 N. 8th St., ST. LOUIS, MO. 

W. E. CAh/IPE, Agent. 



VEGETABLE SEEDS. 94 Caealia Coccinea (Tas- 

«q v n .: A fi A . 8 el flowerj 5 

»a varieties. I 95 Ca pauul* Speculum, 

In Papers, postpaid. Cts . (Venus' L'king Glass) 5 

bekt. ! 96 Candytuft, white frag't 5 

1 Early Blood Turnip... 10 97 CeutaureaCyuus(Bach- 

2 Early Extra Bassauo. . 10, elur's Button) 5 

3 White Sugar 10 98 Clarkia, fine mixed ... 5 

4 Yellow Sugar 10] 99 Convolvulus (Morning 

5 Early Long Dark Blo'd 10i Glory) mixed 5 

cabbage, 100 Foxglove, mixed 5 

6 Early York 5 101 G lia, mi.ed 5 

7 Early Dutch 10 102 Globe Amaranthus. . . . 5 

8 Early Wakefield 10 103 Cyp ophlla Elegaos... 5 

9 Ex'a Fine Large Dutch 10 104 Ice Plant 5 

10 Ea ly French Oxheart. 10 lO.'i Larkspur, finest mixed 5 

11 Larg<- Late Druml-ead 1'i'lOB LinumGrandifl'a(FUx) 5 

12 Red Dutch (pickling). . 10 107 Love-in-a-mist 5 

celeky. [108 Marigold, dh IFreuch. 5 

13 White Solid 10 IPS Marigold, African, dbl. 5 

cauliflower. 110 MUnom tte, Sweet 5 

14 Early P .ris 10 111 Nasturtium 5 

CARROT. |112 Nulana 5 

15 Extra Early Forcing.. 10 113 Portulaca, mixed 5 

16 Lor g Grange 10 114 Poppy, Double, mixed. 5 

17 Early Horn 5 115 Rocket, Swett 5 

18 White Belgian 5116 Sccbiora, Dw'f, mixed. 5 

cucumber. 117 Sensitive Plant 5 

19 White Spine 10 118 Sweet Pea, White 5 

20 Early Cluster 10 119 Sweet Pea, Crimson, 

21 Early Frame 5 Everla ting 10 

22 Long Green 51120 Swe-it Peas, mixed 5 

23 Eng. Ghe kin, Pickles. 10 121 Swe t William, mixed 5 

lettuce. 122 Sunflower, Cal., Dbl'e. 5 

24 Early Curled Silesia. .. 10 123 Adlumia Cirrhosa 

25 Ice Drumhead . 5! (Mountain Fringe).. 10 

26 Simp on k Early Curl'd 10 124 Al hea (Hollyhock) tine 



27 Prize Head . 
2-1 White Paris Cas., 

29 Hanson 

30 Boston Market... 

MELONS. 



mixed 10 

125 A--ter, China, mixed... 10 

126 Australian Vim* 10 

127 Balsam (Lady Slipper) 
tine mixed 10 



31 Large Yel. Uanteloupe 10 12, Balsm, Fine Paris, dbl 15 

32 Extra Fine Nutmeg... 10 129 Balsam Splendid, dbl. 10 

33 Casaba (new) 10 130 Balsam, Dwarf, double 25 

34 Cuban Queen W'm- Ion 10' 131 Balsam, Rose Fl'd, dbl 15 

35 Mt. SwietWat rmelon 11 132 Balloon Vine 10 

36 Iron Clad Watermelon 10 133 Browallia Grandiflora. 10 

37 Scaly Bark do 10 134 Canua (Indian Shot).. 10 

I'H Black Spanish do 10 135 Canua, tine mixed var, 10 

39 White Imp. or Lodi do 10 136 Celosia CristataVarie*a 10 



ONION. 

40 Early Red 10 

41 Red Wether field 10 

42 Yellow Danve s 10 

44 W. Por'gal or Sil. Skin 10 

PARSNIP. 

45 White Dot' h 5 

46 New Early Round 

RADISH. 

47 Mammoth California. 

48 OUT* Shaped Radish. 

49 Ea ly Scarlet Turnip 



137 Celosia Ciistata Pur- 
purea 10 

138 Clematis Flarumnla... 15 
39 Dahlia Supertiua, mxd 25 

140 Dianthus h i n e n s i s 
(Indian Pink) 10 

141 Dianthus C h i n e n si s 
ltjl D uble White 10 

142 Celosia Cristata, fine 

10 miX'd(Cox(omb) 10 

10 143 Chrysanth um Album. 10 

5 144 Datura, fiue mixed 10 

50 Bl'k "Spanish or Wint'r 10 145 Evening Primrose 10 

squash. 146 Four O'clock, mixed. . 10 

51 Early Scollop Bush 5147 Forget-me-not 10 

52 Eaily Sum. ■ r'k Neck. 5 148 Geranium Zouale. . . 10 

53 California Field )0 149 Geranium, fancy color- 

54 Maiblelvad 10 ed leaves 25 

55 Bo ton Marrow Wint'r l.i 150 GodetialThe Bride)... 10 

56 New Hubbard Winter. 10 151 Goulds (Hercules tub) 10 

tomato. 152 Ipomce. (Cyiiress Vine) 10 

57 La ge Yellow 10 153 Ind an Pink, dbl , mxd 10 

58 The Conqueror 10 154 Lobelia, Crystal Palace 

69 Early lied Smooth 1' Compacta 25 

60 Trophy 10 1=>5 Lobelia, Blue 10 

61 Canada Victor (earli'st) 10 156 Miuk PI nt 10 

62 Acme 10 157 Nierembergia Gracilis. 10 

turnip. 158 Pansy, fiue mixed 10 

63 Cow Horn 10 159 Petunia, mixed 10 

64 Yel. Rntab'aorSw'd'h 10 160 Phlox Drummoudii, 

65 Early Wh e Flat Dutch 5 finemixed 10 

66 Long White French 10 161 Pyrethrum Aureum 

67 Imp. Lati Rutabaga.. 5 (Golden Feather) ... 10 

spinach. 162 Salpiglossis mixed 10 

68 Round Leaf 10 163 Stock (Ten Weekl. . . . 10 

69 Large Fland rs 10 164 Wallflower, fine mixed 10 

peas. 165 Wallflower, purple 10 

70 Extra Early 10 166 Zinnia, mixed fiue 19 

71 Champion of England 10 167 Zinnia, Scarlet, dbl.... 10 

72 Yorkshire Hero U 163 B. lies Pereuuis (Daisy) 

73 Queen of Dwarfs 10 single 15 

BEANS. 169 Campanula Mfdnnn 

82 Black German Wax... 10' (Canterbury Belle).. 15 

83 Refugee 10 170 Canary Bird Flower... 15 

84 Red Valentioe 10 171 Thunbergia, mixed 15 

mjscellanious. 172 Aquilegia Alpina (Col- 

74 Kohlrabi 10 umbrae) 20 

75 Scotch Kale 10 173 HeUotropium.flne nutd 20 

76 Cuiled Parsley 5 174 Heliotrop'm.dark. mxd 20 

77 Sage 10 175 Verbena, cloice, mx d. 20 

78 Thyme In 176 Violet, Blue 20 

79 Tobacco 2fj 1 7 BalsamCamelia, flow'd 20 

80 Blue Gum 2k 178 Carnation, fine mixed. 25 

81 Mouteiey Cypress 2>. 17'.» Digitalis .... 5 

,180 DolichoMHvac'thBean) 10 
FLOWER SEEDS. 1181 Gaillardia Grandiflora 

107 Varieties. i,™ w Hybri , d - i 1 a ' « '.Vi ?n 
182 Nemopuila, finemixed 10 

85 Acrocliuiuin 5 183 P. rillia Nankineusis.. 5 

86 Alonsoa, Grandiflora.. 5i 184 Saponaria Multiflora. . 5 

87 Alyssum, Sweet 10 185 Scabiosa Atropurpuria 10 

88 Amaranthus Ahyssin's 15 186 ScirletRuuners(Climb- 

89 Agcratum Las-eauxii. 10 ers) 5 

90 Adlumia Cirrhosa. ... 10 187 Schizanthus (Hardy 

91 AmbroniaUnibollata. . 10i Annual ) 5 

92 Amaranthus Camlatus 188 Sch-zanthus, finest 

(Love-lie -blee *iug).. 6 mixed colors 5 

93 Antirrhinum Majlis, 189 Mjrsii hylium AFpara- 

tiue-t mixed 5] goides (Smilax) 25 

£3T Refer to tins, in latest issue when ordering. 

For 81.00 we will furnish now subscribers the Pacific 
Rural Prkss for three months, and 81.00 worth 
of the above seeds. For 81.75 the Rural six months 
and 81.00 worth of seeds. For $3.25 the Rural 13J 
months, and $1 worth of seeds. [When preferred, a due- 
bill for seeds to he furnished at any time within 12 
months will be given.) The seeds will be carefully 
forwarded, post paid, from some one or more of our lead- 
*ne and reliable seedsmen, whose name will accompany 
the package. In ordering, write on a separate sheet the 
number only of each articlo wanted as numbered, 
together with your address. 

Old subscribers can advance payment so that their sub- 
scriptions will be paid the same length of time in advance 
and receive the same terms as above. Those who have 
remitted since this offer was made can send the addi- 
tional amount which would have entitled them to a 
premium, and receive the same by statin),' which numbers 
they prefer. 

For other kinds of seeds, or for seeds in larger pack- 
ages, patrons are referred to reliable seedsmen advertising 
in this paper. Wc wish to aid in increasing the planting 
and cultivation of gardens. 

We are not going to embark in the regular seed busi- 
ness, and have not time to investigate or answer many 
questions of private interest only, nor respond to orders 
received without remittances. 

Subscribers will please notify neighbors who do not 
take this paper of this offer, and the merits of the Rural. 



Should consult 
DEWEYAOO' 
American 



California Inventors 

and Forkion Patent Solicitors, for obtaining Patents 
and Oaveats. Established in 1860. Their long experience as 
journalists and large practice as Patent attorneys enables 
them to offer Pacific Coast Inventor* far better survlce than 
they can obtain elsewhere. Send for free circulars of Infor- 
nation. Office of the Mining and Scientific Press and 
Pacific Rural Press No. 220 Market St., San Francisco 
Elevator, 12 Front St. 



14 



pAClFie RURAb PRESS. 



[Jan 7 1888 



breeders* Directory, 



Six lines or lees in tliis Directory at 50c per line per month. 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



W. J. MARSH & SON, Dayton, Nevada. Regis- 
tered Shorthorns of choicely hred stiains. 



JERSEYS— THE BEST HERD— All A. J. C. 
C. registered, is owned bv Henry Pierce, San Francisco. 



J. H. WHITE, Lakeviile, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 

of Registered Holstein Cattle. 



R. J. MBBKELEY, Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percheron Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

HOLSTEINS— New lot Eastern-bred animals, includ- 
ing Netherlands; Aagaie's and Case Strains. Punch 
for ringing bulls, $1.00 postpaid. Be.kshire Swine. 
Catalogues. F. H. Burke, 401 Montgomery St., S. F. 



M. D. HOPKINS, Pctaluma, Cal. Eastern Imported 
registered Shorthorn Bulls and Heifers for sale. 



SETH COOK, Danville, "Cook Farm," Contra Costa 
Co., breeder of Aberdeen Angus, Galloways and De- 
vons (Registered). Young stock for sale. 



PETER oAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 16 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for circular. 

BRADLEY RANCH, San Jose, Cal., breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. A choice 
lot of young stock for sale. 



J . R. ROSE, Lakeviile, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 



J. A. BREWER, Centerville, Alameda Co. Short- 
horn Cattle and Grades. Young stock for sale. 



T. E. MILLER. Beecher, 111. Oldest and best herd 
Hereford Cattle in U. S. Cattle delivered in California. 



P. a. MDRPHY, (Brighton,) Perkins P. O., breeder 
of Recorded short Hjrnj and Poland China Hogs. 

COTAIE RANCH BREEDING FARM, Pages 
Station, S. F. & N. P. K. R. P. O., Peun's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 



POULTRY. 



H J. GODFREY, Box 1S5, San Leandro, Cal. Thor- 
oughbred Plymouth Kocks. Eggs, $2 per 13. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouse and Embden 
Qeesc, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 



O. J. ALBEE, Lawrence, Cal., breeder and importer. 

O. H. EVERETT, 1616 Larkin St.,S. F.. importer and 
breeder of Thoroughbred Langshans and Wyandottes. 



CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM, Stockton, 
Cal.; send fur illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 



E. C. CLAP P. South Pasadena, Cal. Light Brahmas 
(Williams-Foot stock), Plymouth Rocks (Kieffer-Conger 
stock). Fowls and Eggs in season. No circulars; write 
for wants. 



R. G. HEAD, Napa, cal., breeder of the choicest va- 
rieties of Poultry. Each variety a specialty. Send for 
new Catalogue. 



JAS. T. BRO \ffbi, 18 Georgia St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeder of I horoughbrcd Poultry of the leading va- 
rieties. Send for circular and price list. 



THOS. WAITE, Perkins, Sacramento Co., importer 
& bleeder o' thorough jred fowls of all leading varieties 

W. C. DAMON , Napa, $2 each for choice Wyandottes, 
Leghorns, Lt. Brahmas, Houdans. Eggs, *2. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



L. O. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys & Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 



E. W. WOOLSEY <Ss SON, Fulton, Cal., importers 
& breeders Spanish Merino Sheep; ewcsai rams for sale. 



F. BULLARD, Woodland, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanisn Merino Sheep. Premium baud of the State. 
Choice bucks and ewes for sale. 



J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal., Importer and 
breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds cross-bred 
•lerino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale 



R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer. 
South Down of Long John Aentworth herd for sale. 



KIRKPATRIOK & WHITTAKEK, Knight's 
Ferry, Cal., breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for sale. 



SWINE. 



I. L. DICKINSON, Central Point, Merced Co., Cal., 
breeder of thoroughbred Essex Hogs. Pigs now 
ready for sale. Prices reasonable. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My etook of Hogs are all 
recorded In the American Berkshire Record. 



TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder of 
thoroughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pies. Circulars free 



BADEN FARM HERD 
Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

ROBERT ASHBURNER, 
Bade" station, - San Mateo Co., Cal 



^yShotCuni 



22 <, 



^Htntt ifnTnf i — 1ITTBT wenern -^^BB| 
tor /Vice Lttt. 0MWork«.PItUbnrjh7!? 



.Revolvers, 
.Rifles, 

- ^JEtc. 

, AddrrJT^^t^^ 

^Orefct Wetter^ 



MPORTANT! 

That the public should know that for the past Sixteen Tears our Sole Itaslneaa has been, and now is, 
importing (Over 100 Carloads) and breeding improved Live Stock — Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrsliires, 
ana Jerseys (er Alderneys) and their grades; also, all the varieties of breeding Sheep and Hogs. We can sup- 
plv anv and all good animals that may be wanted, and at very reasonable prices and on convenient 
terms. Write or call on us. PETER SAXE and HOMER P. SAXE. 

San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 22, 1886. PETER SAXE * SON, Lick Hons*. S. F. 



HOLSTEIN & JERSEY CATTLE 

Heifers in Calf in such grand bulls as Nether- 
land Star, Clifden Prince (Holstein) and Ashan- 
tee's Saltan (Jersey) for sale at reasonable prices. 

Also POLAND-CHINA and BERKSHIRE PIGS. 

P0ULTRY-A11 Varieties. 

Write to WILLIAM NILES. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 




HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN BULLS. 

Not the $50 Kind— We do not breed them. 
NOR CAN BREEDERS AFFORD TO USE THEM 

i in animals of High Breeding of great Individual Merit, and 

cuit-hiloe wat. rWf" backed by pedigrees based on actual performance of ancestry at 
toe pail and cnuiu. We acknowledge no competition. Write for our catalogue or come and 
see and judge for yourself as to the truth of our assertion. Mention the Rural Press. 

SMITHS, POWELL & LAMB, Syracuse, N. Y. 




CHAMPION GOLD MEDAL STUD 
Q nn CLEVELAND BAYS AND ENGLISH SHIRES. 

\J \J \J Our Stalli'ins. mostly imported as Yearlings, are grown on our own farms, and thoroughly acclim- 
ated, [naming the best results in the Stud from the start. 

TTAT CIHHI W T**T*» ■ KC1T A Ta.Tg1 Be'ng crowded for room, we will make 
H"Jj^lIjl '» - r JtlXiOliiilrt. h XI K. T1..N AI.I.Y LOtV PKICES 

TO REDUCE OUR HERD OF ISO CATTLE. A grand opportunity to secure foundation Stock at a 
low figure. Send for Illustrated Descriptive Pamphlet, and mention this piper. 

GEO. E. BROWN & CO., Aurora, Kane Co., III. 




THE HOME and HEADQUARTERS 

FOR ALL KINDS OP 

BRITISH: HORSES. 

Royal Society Winners in Each Breed 

oaxiBHaitix buothehs, 

X of Janesville, Wisconsin, have Imported during the present season over 200 STALL- 



BilTHE Bf»l«3»i 



ION 3. including 



Olydesutue, English Shire, Suffolk Punch. Hackney, Cleveland Bay, and Yorkshire 

Coach Horses. 

More prize winning, high-class stock, imported hy us than any three firms in America. Superior horses, fash- 
ionable pedigrees and all guaranteed good breeders. Prices and terms to suit everybody. Visitors cordially invited. 

GALBRAITH BKOS , Janesville. Wis 



PoJix^y, Eye. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Cor. 17th & Castro Sts., Oakland, Cal. 

Manufactory of the PACI- 
FIC INCUBATOR and 
B.iOODEK. Agency of 
the celebrated silver finish 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabbit and Poultry-proof I 
fences, the Wilson Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Pacific 
Egg Food, and Poultry ap- 
pliances in great variety. 
A'so every variety of land 
and water Fowl, which 
have won first prizes wherever exhibited Eggs lor 
hatching. The Pacidc Coast Poulterer*' Hand-Book anil 
Guide, price, 40c. 8end 2c. stamp for iiO page illustrated 
circular to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR Co., 1317 Castro 
St., Oakland, Cal. 





MT. EDEN STUD 



AND IIEIU) OF 




JOHN McFARLING, 

Importer and Breeder of 

Langshans, Plymouth Rocks. 

Browu ~ Leghorns. Pekin Bantams. Light 
Brahmas. Patirldge Cocnins. Buff Coch 
Ins, Roistered Berkshire Pigs Also one 
pen of Langshans di'ect from China. 

706 TWELFTH ST., OAKLAND. CAL. 

Large lot of young birds ready for sale: send for circulars. 

The Halstecl 
Incubator Co. 

1312 Myrtle St , 
Oakland, • • Cal. 

Price from $20 
up. Model Brooder 
from $5 up. 
Thoroughbred 

THE MODELTH 1 S^rnt^ 
I siLF-xeauLATma, u3 1 culars containing 
re liable , % much valuable in- 

aho SIHPLC a formation. 




Pure-Bred Clydesdale Horses 

And Holstein-Friesian Cattle 

And their grades. Young stock for sale on reasonable 
terms. Call on or address, 

H. P. MOHB, Mt. Eden, Alameda Co.. Cal. 

NWPORTANT! 

To Breeders of All-work Horses. 

FOR SALE! 

A twenty-months-old Stallion Colt; weighs 1300 pounds; 
color, beauti ul steel gray; perfectly eound; broken to 
drive single and douijle, and for style, considering 
weight, • izc and age, perhaps cannot be ixcelled in the 
Stite. Is thrcc-f urtbs Norman and one-fourth Bel- 
mont. For fuither particulars apply to 

G. J. VANDEB VOORT, 

Sunol, Cal. 




THE IMPROVED EGO FOOD. 

Has for more than ten yearn been the 1 Standard Paul- 
1 1 y preparation." It cures every diseaae and makes hens 
lay at all seasons of the ve*r. Errrybodij know*, it! 
Everybody «««« it! Ask for it. B. t. WELLINGTON, 
Proprietor, also Dealer in Seeds of every variety, 435 
Washington St., San Francisco. 



AUCTION SALE 
THOROUGHBRED 

AND 

TROTTING STALLIONS, 





-AT- 



BAY DISTRICT TRACK 

AT 11 A. M. ON 

Thursday, Jan. 12, 1888. 

PROPERTY OF 

COLONEL CALEB DORSET. 

THOROUGH BRBD8. 

BlrrtVatoher, brown hoise, 8 years, by Spectre- 
Pet by Melbourne. 

Hl.-k pocket, chest"ut horse, 4 years, by Joe Dan- 
iels— Mut'ie c. by Spectre. 

Trouble, brown m lc, 2 jears. by Imp Partisan — 
Partisana. 

KrKl Archer, chestnut colt, 3 years, by Thad. 
St vena Brown Best. 

Th«0. Winters, che tnut colt, 2 years, by Joe 
H"oker — MaUie C. 

TKOTTINO STALLIONS. 

Prearent, sorrel horse, 8 jears, by Nutwood — Pet 
by Melbourne. 

► bony, blac k colt, :i years, by Revolution - L«dy 
Eaily by im . Nena Sahib. Revolution is an inbred 
ILiiibU. Ionian. 

Catalogues giving full |>edigree8 now ready. 

KILLIP & CO., 

Auctioneers, 22 Montgomery St., S P. 

Percheron Horses, 

SAOKRIDER & CH/SHOLM, 
SRfitfS. - OAKLAND, CAL. 




We have a choice collection of Imported Registered 
Stallions on hand and for sale, unsurpassed for quality, 
breeding and prices. Call and see them, or write for 
further information. 



NEW IMPORTATION 




Ol'R IMPORTATION OF 1SS7 HAS JUST ARRIVED 
from Europe, where II. Wilsey, assisted by one of 
the firm who tesides there, Beltcted the stallions from 
the choicest strains of Europe, omprising 

English Shire, 

Suffolk Punch, 

Normans and 

Percherons, 

AH of dark co'ors, from one to four years old, and each 
pedigreed in their own country. 

We will sell cur stallions cheaper than the same class 
can be bought anywhere else in the U. S. We import 
to sell. Call and examine our stock. 

Send for Catalogue. 

H. WILSEY & CO., 

PETALUMA, CATj. 





i a Xxi.£'exalovi.a X2a.-creaa.tl.0za 
* You Can Make Money 

WITH THE 








effackp 


An Indispensable convenience for the kitchen and 
laundry. Send for illustrated circulars explaining- 
territorial right* in exchange for land. 

W. C. Aiken-. St. Helena, Cal. 



Italian 



Shoop "VV asli . 

EXTRACT OF TOBACCO. 

Free from Poison. 

Cures thoroughly the SIC A B 
ok rut; KHHP, The 
pj BK.8T remedy kuown. Cost* 
I.ettN than 1 rent per head 
for dipping. Reliable testi- 
monials at our office. For 
particulars apply to 
CHAN. ItriNKXKKKU A « «►.. Nolo Agent*, 
tie. 314 Hit criiiufnlo «»«.. nan Iranelieo, 




Jan. 7, 1888.] 



fAClFie f^JRAlo PRESS. 

Farmers and Fruit-Growers, Attention! 

To grow large and profitable crops and at the same time to make the farm 
better each year, is the problem for the farmer. 

FERTIL IZE I FERT ILIZE! 

NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATE. 

University of California, Nov. 3, 1886. fertilizer. It is especially well adapted to use in 

Dr. J. Koebio — Dear Sir: I have analyzed your sample £ a l i I; > , rnla : on. account of the predominance in 

of '■Nitrogenous Superphosphate," with the it of Phosphoric Acid, which is generally in small 

following retulf supply in our soils. Yet it is desirable that "coin- 

„,.,„, ..... plete" fertilizers be used in our orchards and vine\ards, 

Soluble Phosphoric Acid 12.90 per cent aml yo urs is of that character in furnishing 

Reverted Hiosphoric Acic 95 " Potash and Nitrogen as well. Very respectfully, 

Insoluble Phosphoric Acid 2.83 " E W HILGARD 

Pota-h 2.23 " ... 

Ammonia 1.87 " The value of this Fertilizer consists in the large per- 

NitricAcid 2.95 " centage it contains of Phosphoric Acid — the chief 

rrv,„ »k„ „ „„., • „« ku ij "■' , t n 01 element of all plant food— in combination with the 

The above amount of N.tr>c Acid is equal to 0.85 nece quantities of Potash and Ammonia, and 

Fale as aZ™ N 7? oer cent ^ the ease a " d che ^ neas with whith " can be a ^ d - 

'a'ca as Ammonia, J./, per cent. In ordinary soils the following quaulities will be found 

This Fertiliser is a Valuable Manure for vine- sufficient: / or Wneat B a.ley, Corn and Oats, 300 to 350 

yards, orchards, gardens, farms, and I recommend its d acre Fo ' r Q £ s Beets and Vege- 

usebythecu ivatorsof the soil genera ly.nCali- to 300 pounds per' acre. For Vines, Fruit 

forma. Vours truly, _1)R E. A. SCHNEIDEK. Trees / from J pound to 6 pounds each. For Flower Gar- 

.. . ., m n ft n ii i ■ dens. Lawns, House Plants, etc., a light top dressing. 

University Ot California, College Of Agri- applied at any time, will be found very beneficial. 

culture - FOR SALE IN LOTS TO SUIT, 

Berkeley, Nov. 20, 1886. 

Dr. J. Koebio, San Francisco— Dear Sir: I take pleas- 0n board cars at Ssobranto, Station of the C. P. R. R., 20 

ure in adding my testimony to that of Dr. Schneider as miles north of San Francisco, at $30 per ton, by the 

to the high quality of the "Nitrogenous Super- MEXICAN PHOSPHATE & SULPHUR 
phosphate" Fertilizer, analyzed by him at your re- „ „,-,„, . ^ „ . 

quest. It is a high. grade article, and as such re- CO., H. DUTARD, President, room 7, Safe 

turns the user a better money value than a low-grade Deposit Building, or 

H, M. NEWHALL & CO., Agents, 309 and 311 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



15 



GRANGERS' BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA. 
SAN FRANCISCO, OAL. 

Authorized Capital^ - - $1,000,000 

In 10,000 Shares of $10O each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $624,160. 

Reserved Fund, $26,500. 
OFFICERS 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretory 

DIRECTORS: 

A. D. LOGAN, President Colusa County 

H. J. LEWELLING Napa County 

J. H. GARDINER Rio Vista, Cal 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus County 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara County 

DANIEL MEYER San Francisco 

H. M. LARUE Yolo County 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo County 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento County 

C. J. CRESSEY Merced County 

SENECA EWER Napa County 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 

usual way, bank books balanced up, and statements of 

accounts rendered every month. 
LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 
COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made 

promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 
DEPOSITS received. 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on demand. 
BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 

and sold. ALBERT MONTPELLIER, 

Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, July 1, 1887. 



HORTON 

FAMOUS 

ENTERPRISE 

Self-Regulating 

WINDMILL 

Is recognized as the 
BEjT. 



KENNEDY'S 




A lways gives satisfaction. PIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wrought iron Crank Shaft 
with double bearings for the Crank 
to work in, all turned and run in ad- 
justable babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating, 

With no coil springs, or springs of any kind. No little 
rods, joints, levers, or anything of the kind to eet out of 
order, as such things do. Mills in use 6 to 12 years in 
liood order now, that have nevercost one cent for repairs. 
All genuine Enterprise Mills for the Pacific Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out for this, as 
inferior mills are beii g offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept in stock. Address, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before), 
LIVEKMORE, ALAMEDA CO., CAL. 

San Francisco Agency, JAMES LINFORTH 
120 Front St., San Francisco. 




M<-IITM\<J WELL MINK 
1NO MACHINERY. Our V r- 
tesian Well Kncyclopedia cod- 
taius near 700 eugravings, illustrating 
and describing all the practical tools 
and appliances used in the art of well 
sinking; diamond prospecting ma- 
chinery, windmills, ar- 
tesian engines, pumps, 
etc. Edited by the 
"American Well 
Works, ' ' the largest 
manufacturers in the 
world of this class of 
machinery. We will 
send this book to any 
party on receipt of 2fS cents for mailing. Expert well drill- 
ers and agents wanted. Address, The American 
Well Work*. Aurora. !!»».. C. S. A. 

J. L. HEALD'S 

AGRICULTURAL WORKS, 

Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers. 

Portable Straw-Burning Boilers & Engines. 

IRON AND BRASS CASTINGS. 

Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

including Grape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, Wine 
Presses and Pumps, and all appliances u tin Wine 
Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Engine Governor. Etc. 



D" R0WEUS 7v 




FIRE OF LIFE 



A MAGIC CUKE 



Rheumatism, Neural- 
gia, Pneumonia, Pa- 
ralysis, .asthma. Sci- 
atica, Gout, Lumbago 
and Deafness. 

Everybody should have it. 
G. G. BURNETT, Ag t 

327 Montgomery St., S. F. 
Price, $1.00. Sold by all Drug- 
gists. £2TCall and see 
DR. OHAS. ROWELL. 
Opkick, 426 Kearny St., 
San Francisco. 



MISSION ROCK DOCK 

AND 

GRAIN WAREHOUSE, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

if% nno tons capacity. 7« nnn 

I KJ t \J\J\J storage at Lowest Rates. « d, WW 

OHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt. 
Oal. Dry Dock Co., props. Office, 318 Cal. St. room 3 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION. 

SHIPPING 1 COMMISSION HOUSE, 



OFFICE, 108 DAVIS STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Warehouse and Wharf at Port Costa. 



CONSIGNMENTS OF GRAIN, WOOL, AND ALL KINDS OF PRODUCE SOLICITED. 

Money advanced on Grain in Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice 

ALSO ORDERS FOR ORAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited 

B. VAN RVERY, Msnagnr. A. M. BELT. Assistant Manatrer 



Booth's Sure Death Squirrel Poison 

For Squirrels, Gophers, Birds, Mice, Etc. 

$2S Endorsed by the Grange and Farmers wherever used.^y 
The Cheapest and Brst. 
Put up in 1-pound, 5-pound, and 5-gallon Tins. 
Every Can Warranted. 

This Poison has been on the market less than two years, yet in 
this short time it has gained a reputation of ' sure D^ath,' 
equaled by none. Bv its merits alone, with very little advertis 
lug, it is now ustd extensively all over the Pacific Coast, as well 
as in Australia and Ntw Zealand. 

SEND FOR. TESTIMONIALS. 




MANUFACTURED BY 



Patented Jan. 23d. 1883. 

For Sale by all Wholesale and Ketail Dealers. 



BOOTH & LATIMER, San Luis Obispo, Cal. 

Special Terms on (Quantities in Bulk. 



GALVANIZED FLAT RIBBON FENCING, BARBED. 



PRICE, 44 cents F. O. B. CARS. 




GAuVANIZED OR PAINTED. 



2 or 4 POINT CACTUS BARB WIRE. TWISTED RIBBON FENCING. 

Special prices quoted on application for lots for delivery at interior points 

A. J. ROBINSON, Manufacturers' Agent, 

26 Beale St., San Francisco. Cal. 




Copissiofl fAerchapts. 



DALTON BROS., 

Commission Merchants 

AND DKALER8 IN 

CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE, 

Green aDd Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 
308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

[P. O. Box 1936.] 
tSTConsignments Solicited. 



ALLISON, GRAY & CO. 

SCCCKSSORB TO 

LITTLEFIELD, ALLISON & CO., 

501, 503, 505, 507 and 509 Front Street 
and 300 Washington St., S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 

GREEN and DRIED FRUITS. 

Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 
Wool. 



MOORE, FERGUSON & CO., 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOOR 

—AND— 

General Commission Merchants, 

810 California St., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

taTPersonal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad- 
vances made on Consignments at low rates of interest. 



Geo. Morrow. [Established 1864.) Geo. P. Morrow 

GEORGE MORROW & CO., 

HAY and GRAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

30 Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street 
San Franoisoo, Cal. 
tW SHIPPING ORDERS A SPECIALTY. "» 



0. L. BENTON & 0O M 

Commission Merchants, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 
Poultry and Wild Game, 65, 66,67 California 
Market, S. F. iSfTAll orders attended to at the 
shortest notice. Goods delivered Free of Charge to 
any part of the citv. 



WETMORE BROTHERS, 

Commission Merchants, 

Green an'< Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc 
Consignments solicited. 413 415 & 417 Washington St. , 
San Francisco. 



EVELETH & NASH, 
COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Eggs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221,223 
225 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 



S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

'Free Coach to and from the Houee. J. W. BECKER, Proprietor. 



J. W. WOLF. RALPH BROWN. W. U. WOLF. 

WOLF, BROWN & CO., 
General Commission Merchants 

And dealers in California and Oregon Produce, 
321 Davis Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

P. STEIN HAGEN & CO., 
Fruit and General Commission Merchants 

BRICK STORES ! 

408 & 410 Davlw St.. San Frapclsco 

WITTLAND & FREDRICKSON, 

Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Green and Dried Fruits. 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. 324 Davis St.. S. F. 



AMERICAN EXCHANGE 

HOTEL, 
319 & 321 Sansome St., San Francisco 

One door from Bant: of California. 

The above well-known hotel offers superior 
commodations to parties visiting the city. 
The table is kept at top grade and 
the prices are within the 
reach of all. 

RATES-$1.00, $1.25 and $1.50 per day. 

Free Coach to and from the Hotel. 
OHAS. & WM. MONTGOMERY. Proo'rs 



^GLADD ING, McBEAN & CO. 

f\ SEWER'S CHIMNEY PIPE, \1 
£ DRAIN TILE:, 
g ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA Etc 
1358-1360 MARKET ST. S.'E / 



MANUFACTORY AT LINCOLN CAL. 



TLIC nflP In health, habits and disease. All breeds 
I n U UUU and treatment; 60 outs; 26a This office. 



16 



pAClFie f^URAb PRESS. 



[Jan. 7, 1888 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODOOB, BTO. 

San Francisco, Jan. 4, 1888. 

The three days' heavy rains the past week have 
put farmers and dealers in farm products in a more 
cheerful mood. As the rains were well distributed, 
plowing is reported to be very general. In farm 
products the New Year opened dull, but with prices 
showing no material change. Eastern and English 
advices continue to give a strong wheal market. 
Foreign Review. 

LONDON, Jan. 2. — The Mark Lane Express, in its 
weekly review of the British grain trade, says: Eng- 
lish wheat is firmer. In the provinci il markets the 
supply is smaller and quotations are 6d to is higher. 
In London the prices have advanced 6d. The sales 
of English wheat during the past week were 41,560 
quarters at 30s od against 34,766 quarters at 33s 
for the corresponding week last year. Foreign 
wheat wasstronger, and Indian, Russian and Ameri- 
can winter 3d to ad better. In Liverpool the prices 
are id to 2d per cental higher. Linseed has risen is. 
There were two arrivals ot wheat cargoes; one was 
withdrawn and three remain. At to-day's market 
both English and foreign wheat were held for ts ad- 
vance; 6d to ad was readily obtainable. Flour was 6d 
higher. English barley is dearer. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 

Chicago, Jan. 4.— Wheat, 77XC for Jan., 78c for 
Feb , 78 He for March and 84^0 lor May. 

New York, Jan. 4. — ooHc for Jan., oi^c for 
Feb., 92&C for March, 93^0 for April and 94 5-16C 
for May. 

California Fruit at Chicago. 

Chicago, Jan. 2. — The Tribune, in its annual 
r< v ew ih'S morning of the commerce of Chicago for 
1887, says: During the yeir about 800 carloads 
ol California fruit arrived, including oranges. Ow- 
ing to the light crop in some sections of that State, 
the shipments of grapes did not show any increase 
ovrr 1886. and were estimated at 150,000 packages, 
averaging $2 per case. The usual number of pears, 
apricots andptaches arrived, while few lemons were 
off ted. Navel oranges were popular with the trade, 
while other varieties ranged at $2 to $3. 

Honey. 

New York, Dec. 24. — The Mail and Express re- 
ports that Cahlornia honey is bringing about double 
in this market what it did one year ago. The stock 
is small. 

Local Markets 

BAGS — There is an improved inquiry for June- 
July delivery, but so far as can be ascertained, the 
price remains, at 7J4jc@7K c - 

BARLEY — Owing to the heavy rains, many 
thought prices would break, and have been sur- 
prised at the strength of the market. On Call, 
there was free selling of futures, but strong buyers 
took all offered, only allowing pries to shade off a 
little. To-d iv's sales on Call are reported as follows: 

Morning Session: Buyer spason— 300 tons, 95Mc; 
300, 95 %c per ctl. Afternoon Session: Buyer sea- 
son — 900 tons, 95c. Buyer 1888—100 tons, $1 per 
ctl. 

BUTTER— The market is bare of pickled. Many 
large retail dealers are selling solid packed. Owing 
to rains and improving pasture, receipts of fresh 
roll are not kept, but worked off as soon as possible. 

CHEESE— New mild cheese is wanted at full 
figures; old, strong cheese is slow. Eastern is un- 
changed. 

EGGS — Under free receipts and accumulating 
supplies, prices are weak at a lower range. 

FLOUR — The mirket is steady for standard 
brands, but in Oregon and interior brands, more 
or less cutting in prices continues. 

WHEAT — The sample market holds strong, with 
no sellers, except at figures, and even then only a 
few are willing to let go. Buyers still bid down, 
notwithstanding higher prices in England and lower 
charters. On Call, trading was fair up to Satur- 
day, but on Tuesday nothing was done, both buyers 
and sellers appearing to be afraid. To-day's sales 
on Call are as follows: 

Morning Session: Buyer season — 100 tons, $1.- 
48X; 800. $148^ per ctl. Afternoon Session: 
Buyer season — 900 tons, $1.48^; 100, $1.48^ per 
ctl. 

(COMMUNICATED.) 

Market Information. 

The following are the receipts of the principal 
items of California produce at San Francisco from 
the beginning of the harvest year to date, compared 
with the corresponding period in the previous har- 
vest year: 

July 1 »o July 1 to 
Dec. 31. '86. Dec. 31, '87. 

Flour, qr. sks 2,530,269 1.815.149 

Wheat, ctls 8,866,015 4,937.617 

Barley, ctls 1,778.147 1.559. Q34 

Oats, ctls 106,341 125,692 

Potatoes, sks 534 585 650,717 

Corn, sks 49. 137 122,160 

Rye, sks 13 662 13.240 

Buckwheat, sks 4.-148 742 

Bt:ans, sks 346,881 328,713 

Bran, sks 261,324 255,829 

Hay, tons S9-9 11 69.151 

Salt, tons 13.498 9,740 

Wool, bis 45 042 38,372 

Hides, No 60,315 53.939 

Raisins, 20-It) boxes 111,628 80,777 

Quicksilver, flasks 7.552 16,768 

Hops, bis i2.'93 14. '35 

The receipts of certain articles of produce from 
Oregon, Washington Territory and other distant 
points, for the same period, compare as follows: 

July 1 to July 1 to 
Dec. 31, '86. Dec. 31, '87. 

Flour, sks 44,879 "7.735 

Wheat, ctls 243. 122 473>'4 2 



Barley, ctls 1,693 75 

Oats, ctls 191,805 107,860 

Corn, ctls 5 2 i775 12,590 

Wool, bales .... 9058 7.189 

Bran, sks 26,418 33,290 

Hops, bales 753 228 

Hides, No 17.462 18,054 

Potatoes, sks 35.397 2 .455 

Cereals. 

The estimated production of all India as officially 
given is 251,690.880 bushels wheat in 188384, 
against 299. 155.584 bushels in 188485:258,317,632 
bushels in 1885-86 and 238,885.947 bushels in 1886- 
87. The aggregate gives an average of 261,937,511 
bushels. In 1884-85 the average yie'd was nearly 
11 bushels per acre, and last year a traction under 
9 bushels. The average yield taking several years 
together has been about 9 bushels. 

The wheat exports from India from January i 
to December 3, 1887, have been 27,672,000 bushels, 
comprising 13,984,000 bushels to the United King- 
dom and 13.688,000 bushels to the continent of 
Europe, against 41,232.000 bushels the correspond- 
ing time in 1886, comprising 18.836,000 bushels to 
the United Kingdom and 22,396,000 bushels to the 
continent of Europe. The decrease for 11 months 
of 1887 is 13,560,000 bushels. 

English advices report that the stock of wheit in 
the leading seaports is fully up to last year at the 
same time, but the stock in the interior is considera- 
bly less. 

The New York Produce Exchange Reporter, Dec. 
25, reports as follows: A strong effort was made to 
break the market, but it was only partially success- 
ful; theinhcrent strength of the position (and which is 
now better understood) caused buyers to take hold 
boldly and a marked change in public sentiment 
was soon apparent. Every day's experience makes 
the situation more pronounced, and it is becoming 
plain to all that the exporting power of the country 
has been overestimated, and the very unpromi.-ing 
condition of the growing crop is an element of great 
strength which should not be ignored. It cannot 
fail to be interesting to dealers in options to note the 
fact that an unusual proporlion of the spring crop 
grades below No. 2. The lower prices of Nos. 3 and 
4 spring has attracted the attention of feeders of 
live-stock, as at the current low prices they are 
cheaper than new Indian meal, because they possess 
fattening elements in a large degree and are selling 
at low figures, and the latter is true of all grades. 
The export demand has continued extremely light, 
more so than any one familiar with the trade had 
any idea of, but notwithstanding the paucity of the 
output, prices of spot have slightly improved and a 
feeling of confidence is noticeable on al' sides; this 
is chiefly due to the lact of the visible supply being 
so much below that of last year and the quality on 
passage is also much smaller. Our correspondent 
in the winier wheat Sta'es all agree in saying th it 
the quantity in the hands of farmers is much less 
than at the corresponding time last year; this ac- 
counts for the reluctance of farmers to sell, which is 
almost universal. 

The same authority says: " The news from the 
West the past three mails has been of more than 
usual interest, especially south of this parallel, 
where the cold weather they have experienced has 
crea:ed much appreh nsion for the growing cmp, as 
they have very little snow to protect the wheat plan». 
In many loc ililies the plant looks poorly ; the growth 
this month has bten slow, though in some sections 
very much better than others. The cold wave they 
have experienced during the week has created some 
anxiety for the growing plant and some damage is 
reported. The gencal condition in the- Western 
w heat belt is much below that of last year We have 
discouraging reports of the crop from Kansas, also 
from Illinois, Ohio and Michigan. From the 
Southern States we have few complaints. At the 
Northwest there was a decided falling off in farmers' 
deliveries, and afier this month the vi-ible supply 
is likely to decrease steadily. Our domestic wants 
it is believed will exceed farmers' deliveries during 
the month of January, The consumption of spring 
wheat in this country is rapidly increasing; it is being 
used in the winter wheat States more generally 
than ever before; it is claimed this will exert a 
mark'd influence in its value later on." 

Portland, Oregon, advices report that the wheat 
shipments from that place from August 1, 1887. to 
January 1, 1888, aggregate larger than for the like 
time in 1886. The demand was fair from exporters, 
with California buyers still taking freely of the more 
choice grades. Pric 'S ruled the same as reported 
in last week's Rural Press. 

In this State plowing is very genrral. It is now 
claimed that a larger acreage will be seeded to 
wheat than last season. 

The stock of wheat in this city and Port Costa 
was on January 1st over 20,000 tons less than on 
December ist. As the tonnage on berth is large 
with new charters being made, it is not at all un- 
likely but the stock will show a much larger decrease 
on February ist. 

The wheat market in this city is very strong, with 
holders holding off. and buyers not in the market. 
As the lalter's wants are known to be quite large, 
they will be forced to come in soon. Private cables 
from England report a very strong market and fur- 
ther advances looked for. If this is realized a high- 
er range of values is looked for in our market. 

Barley is very strong; the late rains not affecting 
the market to the extent looked lor, indeed values 
did not go off a cent a cental, ow ing to stocks be- 
ing under good control. The consumption con- 
tinues free, while receipts are only fair. The stock 
h re January ist was a little over 38,000 tons, a re- 
duction of about 1500 lens since December ist. 

The stock of oats shows a further reduction on 
January 1st, As receipts are light and demand 
good it is claimed that a higher range of values is 
likely to rule before the end of the s-ason. 

Corn is very strong at a further advance for choice 
grades. The stock in the city shows a further re- 
duction on January ist. The prevailing impression 
is growing that the output of the 1887 cop will not 
come up to the preliminary estimate of 1,453.000,- 
000 bushels, some estimates being nearly 100,000,- 
000 bushels less. The corn crop in the six com- 
mercial States, or those from which the surplus is 
largely moved for local use and export, is probably 
less than the crop of 1881 therein. The advance of 
three weeks ago was too rapid to hold, and a part 
of it has been lost, but is generally expected to be 
again resumed and a further advance obtained. The 
Argentine Republic exported 9,627,035 bushels of 
corn in 1885 and 5,583,970 bushels in 1884, with a 



still larger movement in 1886. Southeastern 
Europe, if all accounts shall be confirmed, will have 
much less surplus in 1888 than usual, and the only- 
countries that can make up the European deficiency 
are the United States and the Argentine Republic, 
If, however, the price shall be too dear, Europe's 
consumption will be diminished. 

Both rye and buckwheat rule strong at full fig- 
ures. The stock in hand is light and under good 
control. 

Fruits. 

Cold-storage grapes come in sparingly. The 
quality is good, but the demand is slow. Some of 
the grapes have been in store over four months, 
and show nearly as well as at the time of picking. 

Pears are in light stock, but as the demand is 
slow, values are unchanged. 

Oregon continues to send us fair supplies of ap- 
ples, which, wilh free receipts of California and 
Eastern, cause the market to continue at unchanged 
prices, notwithstanding the demand is gocd. 

California oranges are weak, under free receipts 
and a light call. Receipts so far are considerably 
below last season for the like time. At the lower 
prices and more settled weather, a better demand is 
looked for. 

Lemons and limes are slow. Mexican limes are 
strong and California weak. 

Dried fruits are quiet. There are no buyers in 
the market, consequently any selling pressure will 
be met by low bids. The stock is not large for the 
season, particularly of the more choice grades. 
Holders are indifferent, believing in belter prices 
before the close of the season. 

Raisins are dull, but as the stock is light, no lower 
range is looked for unless a selling pressure sets in, 
which is hardly likely. Eistern advices report a 
light stock for the close of the year, simller than for 
several years past. This causes a generally ex- 
pressed opinion that values will rule much higher 
before another season. 

Feedstuff. 

Bran and middlings are lower and weak at the de- 
cline. Feedmeal a->d ground barley are firm. The 
call for all kinds is only fair. 

Under continued light receipts, hay rules firm, 
particularly the better grades. The supply to draw 
from is reported light, while the consumptive call 
is unabated. 

Live-Stoclc. NK 

Bullocks are in lighter receipt, and as the de- 
mand is good, prices show a slight advance for the 
better grades. Considerable poor is offering. Mut- 
ton sheep are firm, but no higher. More calves 
have come to hand, but the market took all at full 
prices. Spring lambs are scarce and high. Grain- 
led hogs continue scarce and high. Acorn-fed are 
arriving more freely. In horses, there is nothing 
new to report. The rains stopped trading, but with 
more settled weather and improved driving, a good 
demand is t xpected for general utility horses, driv- 
ing horses and matched teams. 

The following are the wholesale rates of slaugh- 
terers to butchers: 

BEEF — Extra, 8@8J^c; first grade, grass fed, 7!~ 
(Si7K $lb. ; second grade, 6J4@7c; third grade, 

@6c. 

MUTTON— Ewes, s!4(a/6<", wethers, 6@6Mc 

LAMB — Spring, 12^(51150. 

VEAL — Large, 6@7c; small, 6@8c. 

PORK — Live hogs, 4 54 (0)4 &c tor heavy and me- 
dium; hard dressed, 6 M@7c per lb; acorn fed. 4® 
4%c; dressed, 5Ji(5;6}£c; soft hogs, live, 3H(g)4C. 
On loot, one-third less for grain or stall fed, and 
one-half less for stock running out. 

Vegetables. 

Rains and milder weather have caused more 
active outdoor work. 

Cabbages are strong for the better grades. The 
demand lor the moment is quiet, but an improve- 
ment is looked for before the close of the month. 

Mushrooms are strong and in light receipt. 

Root vegetables are quiet, but as the supply is 
only fair and vegetation backward, the market holds 
strong. 

Under light receipts and a good demand, pota- 
toes are strong at a slight advance. At the close, 
buyers only take for immediate use, fearing that 
with more settled weather, heavy receipts will lollow 
and a lower range of values result. 

Onions are lower, but at the decline the tone is 
firmer, as receipts have fallen off. 

Miscellaneous. 

The market for turkeys is quiet and weak, but for 
hens, roosters, broilers and ducks, the demand is 
good, wilh receipts light, as are stocks in dealers' 
hands. 

In wool there is nothing doing. The stock on 
hand is 6,000,000 lbs. against 4,500,000 lbs. last 
year at this time. The bulk now held is interior 
and hard to place. 

Hops are slow, with nothing reported to be doing. 
The bulk of the holdings is poor and undesirable. 
Both Eastern and European advices report a slow 
and low market. 

Deerskins are 5c a lb. higher. Hides are weak 
at last week's prices. 

Both honey and beeswax are strongly held at full 
prices. 

Beans rule very strong. Stocks are light, receipts 
fair and Eastern inquiry good. 

The tonnage movement compares with last year at 
this date as follows: 1888. 1887. 

On the way 320,644 215943 

In port, disengaged 121,477 63,981 

In port, engaged 2 3.865 49. 2 4i 

Totals 465.986 329,165 

To obtain the carrying capacity, add 60 per cent 
to the tonnage. 

Charters h*ve fa'len to 22s for wooden vessels 
and 255 for iron to U. K. 

6"u« Francisco, Jan. 4, j888. 



The State Board of Trade has now 26 af- 
filiated organization!. El Dorado county is the 
latest that has come in. Dr. G. G. BlaDchard 
of Placerville has presented his credentials as 
delegate from the county Board of Trade which 
was organized Dec. 29ch. An exhibit of the 
products of the county is being prepared and 
will soon he forwarded to the headquarters of 
the State Board in this city. 



Domestic Frodaoe. 

Extra choice in good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades .ell less than the lower 



quotations. 

BKANS AND PBAB. 

Bayo, ctl..". 2 10 A 2 50 

Butter 2 50 & 3 25 

Pea 3 10 <3 3 35 

Bed 2 05 fi 2 40 

Pink I 20 @ I 50 

Large White.... 2 65 
Small White.... 3 00 

Lima 2 10 

Fid Peas,blk eye 2 00 



do green..... 1 50 I 
do Niles 1 50 @ 1 75 River r»a s . 



3 00 

3 31 I 



Wednesday, Jan. 4. 1888. 

Braxil 1 «< lit 

Pecans 10 «t 16 

Peanuts 4 A 6 

Fllherta 10 • 12 

Hickory 5 @ 6 

POTATOES. 

Burbiok I '0 @ 2 00 

Early Rose H f 1 «0 

2 SO OutfeyCove 80 

2 10 Petaiuma. 75 

I 75 Tomales... ... 1 00 

„ 1 75 RWer r~ts. ... 55 

BROOM CORN. i Jersey Blues.... 75 

8outh'Dperton..50 ro @ 75 fO Huniuoiat ... 

do Kidney.... — m — 

Peaehblows 87l(tf 1 10 

ohile — im — 

do Oregon... wf 

Peerless 90 I 1 05 

Halt Lake - 1 - 

45 Sweet 1 25 1 2 25 

47 POULTRY AN i' GAMK. 

Sens, dot 5 50 <tr 9 00 

30 Roosters 5 SO SU1 00 

27s Broilers 4 00 8 00 

Ducks, tame. 7 00 611 00 

17 do Mallard.... 4 00 (a 4 50 

do Sprig 1 50 8 2 00 



6 75 

North'npertou..50 00 i 75 00 
CHICORY 

California. 6 ■ 7 

German 7 @ 8 

DAIRY PRODTJC.lt, BTO 

BUTTER 

Cal. fresh roll. lb. 37jit 

do Faucy br'nda 45 & 

Plokle roll - g 

Firkin, new 25 S 

Eastern 20 Q 

CHIB8E 

Cheese, Cat.. g>.. 13 g 
Eastern style... 12 @ 

coos. 
Cal.rauch.doz.. 

do. store 

Ducks 

Oregon 

Eastern 

FEED 



3713 
30 a 



20 i 



2.. 



tteese. pair... 
do Goslings . . . 

Wild, do. 

Turkeys, tb 

do Dressed. . 
rurkeyFeathers, 
tail and wing.. 



Bran, ton 16 00 <6rl 7 50 Snipe. Eng., dot. - « 

'27 00 do Common.. — i 

21 IX) Doves. - « 

19 00 Quail 1 75 i 

■ 6 51 Rabbits 1 00 a 

28 50 Hare 1 25 % 

i 60 Venison — j 

PROVISIONS. 
4 25 Cal. Bacon, 

i 4 00 Heavy, It. 10 fl 

I 3 51 Medium 11 j 

Light. 11,| 

95 Extra Light. . . 12}! 

! 1 15 Lard 9 i 

1130 Oal.SmokedBeef 1iM 

I 1 IS Hams, Cal 12J(S 

1 45 | do Eastern.. 14 6 
SEEDS 



Commeal . . 25 00 
Gr'd Barley ton. 20 00 

Hay 11 00 

Middlings 19 00 

Oil Cake Meal. 26 50 

8traw. bale 40 

FLOUR 
Extra. City Mills 4 00 
do Oo'ntry Mills 3 75 

Supernne 3 25 

GRAIN, ETC 
Barley, feed, ctl 85 
do Brewing.. 1 00 

Chevalier 1 15 

do Coast... 95 

Buckwheat 1 15 _ 

Corn, White.... 1 20 V 1 3u 

YeUow 1 15 B 1 27J 

Small Round. 1 25 ■ 1 3.'j Canary 

Nebraska 1 10 1 1 20 Clover red 

Oats, milling.... 1 55 @ 1 60 White 

Choice feed 1 42 If 1 47 1 Cotton 

do good 1 37,f 1 40 Flaxseed 

do fair 1 20 W I 3f Hemp 

do black 1 25 (9 1 40 Italian RyeOrass 

do Oregon a Perennial 

Bye 2 00 <g 2 55 Millet, German. 

Wheat milling. do Common. 

Gilt edged.. 1 45 <» 1 474 Mustard, white.. 

do 'boloe 1 40 @ 1 42;, Brows 

dn fair to good 1 371 or 1 40 hape 

Shipping choice I 4l]<<r 1 ).;. Ky. Blue Grass. 

i'ogood 1 40 «r 1 411 2d quality 

do lair 1 35 (fir 1 38. -iweet V. Oi 

HIDES 

Dry 12J9 

Wet salted 5119 

HONEY, E T C. 



13 

6i 



21 
l-'Jf 

16 @ 

Hi 

5J§ 
121® 



Beeswax, lb 

Honey in comb. 
Houey in comb. 

fancy 

Extracted, light, 
do dark. 

HOPS 

Oregon 

California 

ONIONS 

Pickling — ft 

Red - @ 

Silvcrskius 50 tg 

NUTS-Jobbivo. 
Walnuts, l 'al ,lli 8(9 
do Chile. 8 «1 
Almonds, hdshL 5 « 

Wt .h«H 12 @ 

Paper shell 15 @ 



16 



Orchard 

Red Top 9 

Hungarian.... 8 

Lawn |n 

Meaquit 8 

Timothy . 7 
TALLOW . 

19 Cmde, lb 2 

n Refined ( 

6i| WOOL BTO. 

tall -1887 

20 Humboldt and 
171 Mendocino... 

Sact'o valley. . . . 

— (Free Mountain. 

— N*hern defective 
1 00 8 Joaquin ralley 

do mountain. 
10 Cara'r & F t ill. 

— Oregon Eastern. 
7 do valley 

13 Southern Coast. 



II ' 


» 20 


14 ' 


i 18 


18 i 


1 20 


11 I 


i 16 


II i 


i 17 


12 | 


* 17 


14 i 


t 20 


II « 


i 21 


9$ 


1 16 




Fruits and Vegetables. 

Extra choice in good packages fetch an adran M on top 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the tower 
quotations. Wednesday, Jan. 4, 1888 

Apples, bx com.. 75 @ 1 10 Figa, loose.. 

do choice 1 III (fir 2 00 Nectarine* 

Apricots, lb — (gr — do evaporated 

Bananas, bunch. 2 50 0* 5 CO Peaches 

Blackberries, ch. — ® — do pared 
Oaoteloupes. cr. — @ — j do evaporated. 
Cherries whit bx — @ — Pears, sliced .... 

oo Muck bx. .. — (g — do qrtd 

do Royal Ann.. - (0 — do evaporated 
Cherry plums... — ■ — Plums, evapo'ed 

Crabapple* — @ — dounpitted.. 

Cranberries 10 00 012 00 Prunes 

Currants ch — (a — do French — 

Gooseberries !b.. — ot — Zante Currants 
Fl.s, black bx... —fit _ RAISINS 

do white bx.. . — (fie — DehesaClus, fey 3 25 @ 3 50 
Grapes, white... 45 @0 75 imperial Cabin- 
do black 45 (rt 75 1 et. fan y. . . . 2 00 48 2 25 

do Rose Pern. — <& — Crown London 

do Muscat.... — # — Layers, fey. . 1 80 @ 2 00 

dn Tokays.... — @ — do Loose Mus- 

Isabel — (A — j catels. faucy 1 80 (a 2 00 

Wine, Zinfandel — @ —I do Loo e Mm- 

do Mi.,sion.... — <9 — j catels 1 60 19 1 75 

Limes. Mex ... 12 ro Sl4 no Cal. Valencias.. 1 60 (a 1 80 
do Cal. box... 1 50 @ '-' 50 do Layers .1609161 
Lemons, CaL.bx 1 75 @ 4 00 do SulUnas... 1 60 (d 1 75 
do Sicily, box. Z 00 S 7 00 Dried. *acks. It.. 5 <| 6 
do Australian. — <j$ - Fractioos come 25, 50 and 75 

— cents higher for halves, quar- 
2 25 ters and eighths. 
2 75 [ VEGETABLES. 
4 50 Artichokes, dox. — ■ — 

— Asparagus fc* bx . — (3 - 
doext'a choice 



Nectarines box. — 
Oranges, Cum bx 1 50 

doCho'ce 2 '0 ® 

do Navels 3 00 @ 

do Panama... — @ 

Peaches, bx «r 

do bask — <(t 

Orawfords. bx — @ 
do bskt.. - 9 

do choice — @ 

Pears bx — (3 

do choice 1 00 m 

do Bartlett, bx — @ 
Persimmons, 

Jap, bx — G 

Pineapples, dox. 2 00 ® 

Plums tb - ® 

Pomegranates, b — % 

Prunes lb — <g 

Quiuoes bx — 0) 

Raspberries ch. . — @ 
Strawberries ch. — @ 
Waterme ub, 100. — <g 
DRIED FRTTIT 
Apples, sliced, lb 
do evaporated 
do quartered . . . 

Apricots 

do evaporated 

Blackberries 

Citron 

Dates 

fik». preaaad,. 



16 I 



■ 



Okra, dry, lb. 

— I do green bx . . . - - ■ — 

— Parsnips, ctl 1 50 | — 

— Peppers, dry lb. 10 <tg — 

— do ween, box — (a — 
1 65 Pumpkins pr ton — &J — 

— Squash, Marrow 

I fat, too 10 00 013 00 

— I do Summer bx — ■ — 
4 51 String beans lb.. - ■ — 

— Tomatoe* box . . . - (3 

— do choice — & — 

Turnips oil 

Beets, sk 

Cabbage, 100 fbs 
Carrots, ak 




K«gpiant, %> bx. 
Garlic, lb 

S Green Corn, cr. 
do sweet cr... 
do large box . . 
Green Peas, It. . . 
Sweet Peas lb. . . 
Lettuce, dos . . 
Lima Beans tb. . 
Mushrooms, lb. . 
Rbulwrb bx .. 



75 
7i I 
1 00 I 
35 I 



1 25 
1 00 



40 



The Nevada City Transcript siys: Phil. J. 
Meyer of Liberty Hill, in this county, has at 
various times trapped albino squirrels and sold 
them to residents of Dutch Flat and other 
places. The animals have all the characteris- 
tics of the common ground squirrel, aside from 
their color. An old hunter says that be be- 
lieves these freaks of nature are peculiar to the 
Liberty Hill region, 



Jan. 7, 1888.] 



fACIFie r^URAIo f RESS, 



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fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send dolb 
but worthy men. 

F. B. Logan — Santa Clara Co. 
M. S. Prime — Alameda Co. 

G. W. Inoalls — Arizona. 
William Pool — Fresno Co. 

Wm. Wilkinson— San Joaquin and Stanislaus Co.'s. 

A. F. Jewbtt— Tulare Co. 

E. H. Sciiaefflb— Nevada and Placer Co.'s. 

C. E. Williams— Yuba and Sutter Co.'s. 

Dr. Stanley T. Peet, San Ditgo Co. 



Ooitony Cushion Scale. 

At last the remedy for this pest has been found. 
Abmt five weeks ago the orange orchard of Mr. Frank 
M. Pixley at Coite Madera (bully infested with cottony 
cushion scale) was treated wi h Ongeith's Liquid Tree 
Protector according to direcion. The insects and all 
eugs are killed, the trees are now free from this pest and 
also from black smut, ami show incieased healthv 
growth. As (Jngerth's Liquid Tree Protector does not 
contain any poisonous, c»ustic, or corrosive Hubstance 
it can be handled wiihoit any danger. —From Argonaut, 
Dec. 31, 1887. For sale by Woodin & Little, 609 and 511 
Market street, San Francisco. 



Buena Vista Rancho. 

This fertile tract of land, containing 7725 acres, has 
been platted into 60 firms suitable for mixed farming and 
fruit growing. It is four miles from Salinas City, Monte- 
rey Count)', and will be sold at low prices and liberal 
terms. Address, J. C. Hoag, 312 Van Ness avenue, San 
Francisco, or Tyler Beach, San Jose, Cal. 



Sorghum. 

Now that sorghum is once more attracting the at- 
tention of farmers throughout the country and has 
this time apparently come to stay, it is well to know- 
that the Sorghum Hand-Book, a valuable treatise on 
the cultivation and manufacture of sorghum may be 
had free of charge on application to the H ymyer 
Iron Works Co., Cincinnati. O. 



Consumption Surely Cured. 
To the Editor: — Please inform your readers that I have 
a positive remedy for the above named diseabe. By its 
timely use, thousands of hopeless cases have, been per- 
manently cured. I shall be rflad to send two bottles of 
my remedy xkk.r to any of your readers who have con- 
sumption, if they will send me their Express and P. O. 
address. Respectfully, 

T. A SLOCUM, M. C, 181 Pearl St., New York. 



PACIFIC COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

[Furnished for publication In this paper by Nklson Gorom, Sergeant Signal Service Corps. TJ. S. A] 



$500,000 

On Country Real Estate in large and small amounts 
at lowest rates, by A. Schuller, 106 Leidesdurff St., 
room 3. ** 

A Positive Fact. 

Clothes boiled in a suds made from the King of 
Soaps become white and clean with each successive 
washing. 



THE MUSICAL 1888. 

As the musical New Year heaves in sight, we greet 
it with the "sound of Cornet" (or any other musical 
instrument, for all of which Oliver Ditgon & Co. 
provide the very best Instruction Books). 

With the New Ytar, many new pupils will commence 
to learn the Piano; to them and their teachers we com- 
mend 

RICHARDSON'S NEW METHOD 

FOR THE PIANOFORTE, 

A peerless book, which has held the lead for many years, 
and, unaffected by the appearance of other undoubtedly 
excellent instructors, still sells like a new book. Price $3 

CHILDREN'S DHDEM 

(30 cents, S3 per dozen) is filled with happy and beautiful 
Sunday School Songs, and is one of the best of its class. 
The newest book. 

UNITED VOICES 

(50 cents, Si. 80 per dozen) furnishes abundance of the 
best School Songs for a whole year. The newest book. 

Books mat Sell Everywliere and all the Time: 

College Songs, 50 cents; War Songs, 50 cents; 
Jubilee and Plantation Songs, 30 cents; Min- 
strel Songs, new and old, $2; Good Old Songs 
we used t o sing, SI. 

KINKE.'S COPY BOOK (75 cents), with the Ele- 
ments and Exercises to be written, is a useful bjok for 
teachers and scholars. 
JVAny book mailed for the retail price. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., Boston. 

C. H. DiTSON & CO., - - 867 Broadway, New York. 



John Saul's Washington Nurseries 

Our Catalogue of New, Rare and Beautiful Plants for 
1883 will be ready in February. 

It contains list of all the most beautiful and rare 
Or-enhouse and Hothouse Plants in cultivation, as well 
as all novelties of merit, well grown and at very low 
prices. Every plant lover should have a copy. Orchids 
— A very large stoc't of choice East India, American, etc. 
Also, catalogues of Koses, Orchids, Seeds, Trees, etc, 
All free to applicants. JOHN SAUL, 

Washington, D. C. 



TJNFERMENTED WINE. 

Made from Zinfandel grapes. Put up in quart and 
pint bottles. Price, 86 per dozen quart bottles; S4 per 
dozen pint bottles. Orders can be filled through this 
office or by H. MILLS & SON, Lakeville, Cal. 

SYLVESTER SCOTT, Cloverdale. importor 
and breeder of Jacks; a choice lot of Jacks for sale. 



DATE. 

Dec 29-Jai.4. 


Portland. 


tied Blufl. 


Sacramento. 


8. Francisco. 


Los Angeles. 


San Dioko. 


Rain | 


Temp | 


Wind | 


Weather. | 


r° 
5* 


Temp 1 


B" 

B> 


Weather.. 


Rain 


Temp 


Wind .... 


| Weather.. 




Temp 


Wind 


| Weather . 


| Rain 






| Weather. . 


S? 
s. 

p* 


Temp 


| Wind .... 


ft 
9 

V 
a 




.16 


38 


S 


Rf. 


.41 


48 


3 


Cy. 


88 


48 


S 


Cy. 


.95 


52 


SW 


Cy 


1 16 


56 


W 


Ry 


.00 


6 


SW 


Cy. 




.35 


4) 


S 


Ry 


.05 


46 


8 


Cy. 


12 


48 


8W 


CI. 


.27 


51 


NE 


Cy. 


.73 


56 


W 


ci. 


74 


58 


Nw 


Cy. 




.34 


40 


s 


Cy. 


.00 


42 


N 


Cy. 


.00 


42 


sw 


Oy. 


.04 


48 


SE 


Fr 


.T 


54 


SE 


Cl 


.CO 


54 


w 


Cy. 




.20 


44 


s 


Cy. 


.56 


36 


Nw 


Ry 


11 


44 


SE 


Ry. 


19 


48 


SE 


Ry 


.00 


58 


E 


01. 


.00 


56 


Nw 


Cl. 




.22 


34 


N w 


Ry. 


.24 


42 


S 


Ry. 


.30 


50 


S 


Oy. 


85 


55 


H 


Ry 


.00 


60 


SE 


CI 


.00 


58 


Nw 


01, 




.04 


36 


S 


Cy. 


.46 


50 


Nw 


01. 


1 86 


52 


SW 


CI 


1 50 


51 


Nw 


OL 


.14 


4S 


E 


Ry. 


.00 


58 


8 


Cy. 


Wednesday.. . 


.24 


32 


E 


Fr. 


.T 


34 


Nw 


Sy. 


.00 


42 


s 


Cy 


.2J 


37 


SW 


Sit 


3 26 


54 


W 


Fr. 


1 04 


52 


Nw 


Cy. 


Total 


1.56 








] 72 








3.30 








1 fm 








5 20 








1 78 









Explanation.— Cl. for clear; Cy , cloudy; Fr , fair; Fy., foggy; — indicates too small to measure. Temperature. 
Wind and weather at 12:00 M. (Pacific Standard timel, with amount of rainfall in the preceding 24 hours. T indicates 
trace of rainfall. 



PERCHERON HORSES. 

FRENCH COACH HORSES. 

More Imported and Bred than by any other Eight Establishments. 

1 PURE-BREDS Now Actually on Hand. 

Experience and Facilities Combined for Furnishing; iiest Stock of Both Breeds 
at Reasonable Prices. 
Separate Catalogues for each breed, with history of same. Say which is wanted. Address 

M. W. DUNHAM, Wayne, Du Page Co., Illinois. 





(Copyrighted 1W. Thi Gould's Mfg. Co.) 

STAR SPRAY PUMP, 

With Two Hose and Bamboo Extensions, Barrel and 
Nozzles- all complete in operation. 

The above cut represents our Double Acting Star Spray Pump arrangid for one or two Sprays or Hose Thh 
Pump is especially adapted for spraying liquids or poisons of any kind upon tr eg, shrubbery, orange trees, vines, 
etc., affected by bugs, worms, inseccs, etc. The valves are consr.rujted entirely of Brass and even to the packing 
it is made of asbestos, which resists acids or hot mixtures of all kinds, and is cap%ble of doing infinite more service 
than any other pumps in the market, as it is of greater capacity, and, being double-acting in principle, throws a 
continuous and powerful stream. 

The need and usefulness of a Pump of this kind as an aid to the Orchardist and Fruit Grower, is so well known 
as to hardly need any encomiums from us, although we could ap end hundreds of letters from private parties, as 
well as prominent members of State Agricultural Societies, whkh show this to be the only reliable and effective 
manner of treating these pests. We make thtse pumps so they will fit on the head of an ordinary barrel, capable 
of holding from 30 to 50 gallons of the liquid to be used, according to the purpose intended. With one of the Siar 
Spraying Pumps attached, this barrel may bs placed on a wagon or stone boat, and a spray directed from either 
one or both sides, as may be required, thus saving nearly one-half of the labor usually consumed in doing the 
same work. 

ONGERTH'S LIQUID TREE PROTECTOR should be used for 
spraying to kill the Red Scale, Black Scale, "White Cushion Cottony 
Scale, San Jose Scale, or any other insect. 

Send for Prices and Complete Circular of Spraying Outfits. 

WOODIN & LITTLE, 



509 and 511 Market Street. 



San Francisco, Cal. 



FOR SALE. 

Grapevines and Cuttings, 

OLIVE TREES and CUTTINGS. 

KIPARIA SEED. 
Applj to CLARENCE J. WETMORE, 
2j4 Montgomery St., S. P. 



Gabilan Rancho, 

Containing 7605 acres, situated near Salinas City, 
Monterey County, is offered for sale. For particulars 
address J. C. HOAG, 312 Van Nes) avenue, or TYLER 
BEACH, San J>se,Cal. 



Tnis paper is printed with Infc Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson & Co., 600 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ces— 47 Rose St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Coast- 
Joseph E. Dorety, 628 OommerctalSt.. S. F. 



SEDGWICK STEEL WIRE FENCE. 




The best Farm, Garden, Poultry Yard, Lawr., 
School Lot, Park and Cemetery Fences and Gates! 
Perfect Automatic Gate. Cheapest and Neatest 
Iron Fences, iron and wire Summer Hon? ^s, Lawn. 
Furniture, and other wire work. Best Wire Stretch- 
er and Plier. Ask dealers in hardware, or address, 

SEDGWICK BROS.. Richmond, Ind. 

AGENTS 

;<nd farmern wit h do ox perlence make $t'.i.50 n n 
hoor daring spare tlm . .T.V. Kenvon.Cllens Falls, 
N.Y., made flj.8 o' «■•• 876.50 one week. 
So can you. I'rnotM and cm n louni- free. 

J. K. Saw**J> & Co., Cincinnati, O. 



H.H.H. 

HORSE UNIMENT. 




"THE H. H. H. Horse Liniment pnta 

v ,? e V . , lntotae Ant, ° 1 n;l,P(l Horse I 
Fpr.the last 14 years the H. H. H. Horse 
Liiniment has been the leading remedy 
among farmers and Stockmen for the 
cure of Sprains. Brnises, Stiff Joints, 
Spavins, Windfalls, Sore Shoulders, etc., 
ind for iamily Use is without an ennal 
ior Rheumatism. Neuralgia, Aches, Pains, 
Bnueea, Cuteand Sprains of all characters, 
ine H. H. H. Liniment has many imita- 
tions, and we caution the Public to see 
that the Trade Mark " H. H. H." is on 
Bvery 1 nttln before purchasing. For sale 
everywhere for 60 cento and $1.00 per 
Home. * 

For Sale by all drusrgiste. 



WINCHESTER HOUSE, 

44 Third Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

This Fire-p-oof Brick Building is centrally located, in 
the healthiest part of the city, only a half block from 
the Grand and Palace Hotels, and close to all Steamboat 
and Railroad Offices. 

Laundry Free for the use of Families 

HOT AND COLD BATHS FREE. 

Terms, Board and Room, $1.00 per Day 

And upward. 
ROOMS WITH OR WITHOUT BOARD. 

FREE COACH TO THE HOUSE 
J. POOLET. 



LEFFFL'S IMPROVED 



IRON encm'ne 




DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending December 31, 1887, the Board 
of Directors of tho German Savings and Loan Society 
has declared a dividend at the rate of four and one-half 
(4J) per cent per annum on term deposits, and three 
and three fourth-) (.Ijf) per cent per annum on ordinary 
deposits, and payable on and after Tuesday, the 3d day 
of January, 1888. By order 

GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 



OEDERICK'S HAY PRESSES. 

..e v,e^ e .\.e „». 9 the customer 
*tl« o? 6 ' j& keeping the ona 




Order O I trial, ndriress for circular and location of 
Westeri and Southern Storehouse! mul Agents. 
P. K DEDERICK &. CO., Albany. N. V. 



To Dairymen, Fruit-Growers and 
Farmers ! 

SITUATION WANTED. 

An experienced man, with wife, wants a situation. 
Understands Dairying, Irrigating, and General Farming 
Can give the best of references. Address, II. B., Box 
2361, San Francisco. 

I DURE FITS ! 

When I any cure I dn not menn merely to stop them for 
ttune and then have tin-in return again. I mean n rad. 

ical <."ir». I have mail.. I he disease 1. 1 FITS HP1LUP.SY 
nrl'AI.LINC KICK MOSS a life-lung study. 1 warrant 
m remedy In cure the werst cases. Bemuse others have 
failed is unreason tor not now receiving; a cure. Send 
otonco foi n treatise and a Free Bottle of my infallible 
remedy. Give Express and Post Office. 
H. U. HOOT, JU. C, 183 Pearl St., New York. 

SORGHUM 

A LITTLE book that every farmer ought to have 
is the " Sorghum Hand Book " for 1888. which 
may be had free. I>y addressing The lilymycr 
Iron Works Co., of Cincinnati, (). Sorghum is a 
very valuable crop for synipmnking, feed, and 
fodder, and this pamphlet gives full information 
about the different species, best modes of culti- 
vation, etc. Send and got it uud read it. 



HEALD'S 



BUSINESS 
COLLEGE, 

94 Post St. 8. V 

^*T7<H for <r%rYB1.VjT 

Shorthand, rutimanBhip, Typewriting, Hook-kecking 



18 



pACIFie fiURAb press. 



[Jan. 7, 1888 



jieeds, Wants, ttc. 



NAPA VALLEY NURSERIES. 

ESTABLISHED 1878. 

Fruit Trees, Grapevines, Resistant Grape- 
vine Stock, 

And everything to be found in a first class Nursery; ' 
the following new fruits, obtainable only at these Nu 
lies: 

Cly man - Earliest and finest shipping Plum. 
Ul at Is— Earliest and finest shipping Peach. 
California Advance— Earliest and best Cherry. 
Purity — Most beautiful, white, canning Cherry. 
Black Mastodon— Largest black Cherry known. 
Centennial— The finest keeping and Bhi pping, 

colored Cherry. (This variety is now cultiv 

throughout the State; to be safe, however, it is be 

procure it from headquarters. ) 
Commercial — The largest Almond. 

8end for catalogue and price list. All stock unirri- 
gated and free from disease. LEONARD COATFS, Napa 
City, Cal. For County Kights for a new and valuable 
Fruit Drier, address as above. 



GUM AND CYPRESS TREES. 

All Fresh. Healthy, Hardy Stock. Regularly 
Transplanted in Boxes by Hand. 

Monterey Cyprenn. 6 to 10 inches high, of 100 trees 
per boi. at .*2 per 100, or $19 per 1000; (in larger spacer). 8 
to 12 iuchei bieh, of 70 trees per box, at $2 per box or Si'' 
per 1000; or 12 to 15 inch es, of 50 trees per box, at S2 per box 
or $35 per 1000 Seedlings. 2 to 4 inches (slow g .own], at $5 
per 1000; transplanted thick, 4 to 6 inches, at $10 per 1000. 

Monterey Plnea. 4 to G inches of 100 tiees pe- box 
at $2.50 per box, or $22.50 per 1000; ti to 8 in, lies of 50 tre' s 
per box at $3.50 per 100, or $30 per 1000. Acacia Melanoxy- 
lon, 15 to 20 inches of 35 trees per box at $1 75 per hoi. 

Blue tiumR, 6 to 10 inches of 100 trees per box at $1.50 
or $14 per 100. In larger ppaces. 10 to 15 inches of 70 trees 
per box at $1.50 per box, or $19 per 100' 1 : 15 to 2t inches of 
SO trees per box at $1 50 per box; 2 to 3 feet of 30 per box at 
the rate of s5 per K0. Also large straight sacked or bulked 
Gums, 6 to 15 fef*t. at low rates. 

TJ. 8. stamr s will he taken for sampl" boxes. A'l trees 
will be delivered promptly snd iu g od condition, free to 
shipping points. Send all money orders, postal notes or 
drafts to 

GEO. R BAILEY, 
Box 106. Berkeley, Cal. 



NEW 

CATALOGUE 
o OF 

FOR 1888. Jg£ 




iWOur New Catalogue for IsSS, mailed free on appli 
cation, contains description and price of Vegetable, 
Flower, Grass, Clover, Tree and Field Seeds; Australian 
Tree and Shrub Seeds; native California Tree and Kliwer 
Seeds, Fruit Trees, and many new novelties introduced 
in Europe and the United States. 

THOS. A. COX & CO., 

411. 413, 415 San°ome St., San F'acci'co. 

Orange Growers, Look Here ! 

J. VILLINGER'S 
Covina Nursery ! 
150,000 ORANGE TREES 

One y ar old from the seed. Absolutely the finest plant 
in Southern California Will be carefully budded from 
the world's most famous varieties. 
For particulars apply to 

J. VILLINGER. 

Covina, Cal. 

SAN LEANDR0 NURSERY. 

FINE ASSORTMENT of tub LEADING VARIETIES OF 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

The Hardy White Tuscany, Harriy Yellow 
Tuscany, Clingstone Peaches. 

LARGEST PEACHES IN CALIFORNIA. Splendid 
flavor; good shippers; excellent for canning. 

Gum, Cypress, Pine and Pepper Trees in boxes. Flow* 
ers and Sbru s. 

C3TA1I trees grown on new, rich soil, without irriga- 
tion, and are positively free from insect pests. 

G. TOSETTI, 
San Leandro, Alameda Co , Cal. 



FOR SALE! 

30,000 Golden State Almond Trees 



OAK SHADE FRUIT COMPANY, 
Davlsvllle, Cal. 

These Trees are spring budded anil have grown this 
season from one to three feet high The tree from which 
thev were budded has home seven full crops of Almonds 
and no failure. This is a finei and better Almond than 
the Languedoc, and ripens three weeks earlier. 

WEBSTER TREAT. Manager. 



West Side Nursery, Los Gatos. 

Situated on the bills west of Los Gatos. orange, 
Lemon and Lime Trees. Strawberry Guavas and Date 
Palms. Citrus Fruits only. 

N. E. BECKWITH. Prop'r. 



Bartlett Pear Stock for Sale. 

50 n O Bart'ctt Pear Trees, one and two yea's old, for 
sale at bed rock prices; special rates to dealers. 

H . B. MUaCOTT, San Bernardino, Oal 



FRUIT TREES. -»—™> •»» FRUIT TREES. 

THOS. MEHERIN 



AGENT 

CA.LIPORNIA PJUnSERY COMPANY. 

NOW OFFERS THE LARGEST STOCK OF 

FRUIT TREES, GRAPEVINES, OLIVES, SMALL FRUITS, Etc , 

Ever offered on the Pacific Coast at verv low rates. Samples on hand at below address. 

SEEDS. SEEDS. 

We also offer at lowest rates a large and fresh stock of 

GRASS, CLOVER, VEGETABLE, FLOWER, and TREE SEEDS, 

All of which are thoroughly tested before being sent out. Large stock of Ornamental Trees and Plants, Bulbs, 
Roses, Magnolias, Palms, etc., constantly on hand. 

P. O Box 2059. THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery Street, 

Priced catalogues mailed free on application. Agent for California Nursery Co. in San Francisco. 



SEEDS. 



160 ACRES NURSERY! 1,500,000 TREES AND VINES! 

W. M. WILLIAMS & CO.'S 

SEMI-TROPICAL AND GENERAL 

— =NURSERIES^- 



Fresno, Oal. 



We would respectfully call the attention of the public to our very complete list of Nursery 
Stock for the ensuing Beason, consisting of a full line of all the Standard Varieties of 

APPLE, PEAR, PLUM, CHERRY, PEACH, APRICOT, NECTARINE, Etc., Etc., 

liESlfJKS A LA HOE STOCK OF THE GENUINE 

WHITE ADRIATIC FIG, 

Guaranteed, and the NEW LYONS CLING PEACH. We have an immen«e stock of ROOTED 
VINES, comprising 86 varieties. We carry also a full line of CITRUS FRUITS, well grown 
and warranted free from all pests and tiue to label. 

£#"Send for Catalogue and address all correspondence to Fresno, Cal., Box 175. 



PANCHBR CREEK NURSERY, 

OFFERS THIS SEASON FOR SALE A FINE ASSORTMENT OF 

FRUIT cfc On^NT^lVIEIlNrT^lL. TJFLIEJIEJS. 

SPECIALTIES : 

WHITE ADRIATIC FIG. SAN PEDRO FINEST TABLE FIG. JAPANESE FRUITS, 
OLIVES, POMEGRANATES, MULBERRIES, TEXAS UMBRELLA 
TREES, and also a fine collection of PALMS, YUCCAS, 
ROSES, and OLEANDERS. 

Send 10 cents in stamps lor a sample of the dried and cured Adriatic Fig. Fall catalogue now ready. Address 
all letters to P. ROEDINO. Fresno, CaL 



SEEDLESS OONSHIU ORANGE TREES. 

Over 40,000 received this season; from 2 to 5 feet high, showing fine new growth. Pear Stock (100,000 com- 
ing shortly). Every kind of 

Japanese Fruit and Ornamental Trees. Etc., Etc. 

£&*Circulars on application Correspondence invited. All orders and inquiries command prompt attention. 

JAPANESE TREE IMPORTING CO., 120 Suiter St., San Francisco. 



SURP LUS STOCK. 

CHERRIES-5000 Royal Ann and Black Tartarian. 
5000 Bartlett Pears. 

5000 Plums, Coe's Golden Drrp. Kelsey's Japan, 

Washington and other good sorts. 
Also some Apricots, Peaches and Apples. 

lOOO Camellias in pots and open ground". 25,000 Cypress transplanted in boxes. 1000 Cypress, 
2yearsold. 1 0.00O G urns. Blue and Red, in boxes. ^000 Lhuhis TIiiu*. grtOO Palms, 
1 year old in pots. 1500 Pinrs, 2 year old. 2000 Peppers, pot grown. 25,000 
Kuses. AIbo an immense assortment of Pot Plants and Flowering 
Shrubbery at bedrock prices. Address 

GILL'S NURSERIES, 

Twenty eighth Street, near San Pablo Avenue, OAKLAND, CAL. 

Send for Catalogue and Price List. 



GRASS, CLOVER, VEGETABLE, 

TREE AND FLOWER 



FRESH STOCK. LOW PRICES. IN LOTS TO SUIT. 

CATALOGUES ON APPLICATION. 

TRUMBULL & BBEBB, 

419 & 421 Sansome Street, SAN FRANOISOO. 



JAPANESE NURSERIES 

Or the ORIENTAL IMPORTING COMPANY, 409 & 41 1 Wasblnarton Sr., San Francisco. 

UNSHIU AND CANTON HYBRID ORANGE TREES, 

And all other varieties of Japanese Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 



Barren Hill |\|urseries 

NEVADA CITY, CAL. 

SPECIALTIES : 

NUTS, PRUNESJND GRAPES. 

The Finest Collection of "Nut-Bearing' 
Trees to be Found In the United States. 

2 1 Varieties of Walnuts, 

INCLUDING 

CLUSTER WALNUT (Juglans Racemosa). 

The newest, most prolific and valuable variety ever 
introduced into this country. 

PREPARTURIENS, 

Or FERTILE WALNUT, introduced into California in 
1871 by Felix Gillct. 




"Second"' Generation Prceparturiens, 

(California Grown). 

" Second Generation n trees, (frown from nuts 
home on the original tree; so to 90 per cent guaran- 
teed to be " pure," or having tetaiiied the characteristics 
of tl c original Prcopaituricns, chief among them the 
surprising fertility of that type. 

Third Generation Pi (uparturiens or common 
French walnut (Juglaus Kcgia), grown from nuts born* 
on Second Generati n trees, all California grown. Vig- 
orous and fertile varirty, but the nuts .smaller than 
those of the second generation. 

GRAFTED WALNUTS. 

Franquette Parisienne. Mayette, Chaberte, 
Mi \i in. Vonrey an i "Weeping" Walnuts, 

the leading varieties of Europe, highly recommended 
for the size, beauty and quality of the nuts, fertility, and 
above all, "hardiness " of the kinds. 

We offer this season impoi ted trees of the seven above 
sorts, expressly grafted for us, regardless of cost. The 
difficulty in grafting the walnut is su,:h, and grafted 
walnuts ac or'lingly so scarce, that we are compelled to 
decline orders for such trees in quantities over a dozen. 
Only a limited number of trees ol each kind from four to 
six feet. 

" MARRONS." or French Chestnuts. 

(Solely propairated from grafting.) 




MAKRON COMBALE (California grown). 

10 Varieties of the finest kinds of Msrron- 
Chestnuts to be found anywhere; at the head of the 
1 st *'Marron Combale," which we have been fruiting 
ui on our place the last 13 years; very large and sweet 
nut, prolific; one of the very beit for market. 

7 Varie-les of Filberts. 

4 Varieties of Almonds. 

4 Varieties of April Cherries, the earliest and 
most prolific in California. 

245 Varieties of Grapes, from all parts of the 
world, including the earliest Table Varieties known, 
some of them 25 days earlier than Sweet Water. 

61 Varieties of English Gooseberries, all 
phapes and colors, some large as walnuts; all ' true to 
name." 

CORK OAK, 2-year-old Trees, from Spain. 

Prunes! Prunes! 

L,ot D'Ente, or D'Ente "true from the root," one 
of the best and finest types of the "French Prune and 
the kind so extensively cultivated in the prune district 
of France. This type is not propagated from grafting, 
which would do away with its chief qualities of being 
more vigorous, more long-lived than grafted trees, and a 
"gum-resistant" stook. 

Also, the finest grafted types from the home of the 
Prune D'Ente or D'Agen, on Myrobolau, St Julien and 
Almond stock. 

Saint Catherine (true from the root), one of the 
finest dessert Plums, and < ue of the best for preserving 
ami drying. 

Pnymirol D'Ente, Blue and Ked Perdi- 
gron, German and Itallau (>uestche, Alsace 
Ouestche, Knight's Green Drying, etc. 

Apricots, Peaches, Pears. 

Quinces, Plums, Mulberries, 

Figs, Fancy Fruits, Etc. 

FRENCH, ENGLISH, OEKMAN AND AMERICAN 

STRAWBERRIES. 

tVSi-wl for General Descriptive Cata'ogue, illustrated 
with forty-one cuts, representing Walnuts, Chestnuts, 
Filberts, Prunes, Medlar and Sorbus. 

FELIX GILLET, 

NEVADA CITY, CAL. 



Jan. 7, 1888.] 



fACIFie F^URAb fRESS. 



19 



Seeds, Wants, be. 



100,000 

BARRETT PEAR TREES, 

The best kind for Shipping and Canning. 
General assortment of all kinds of 

FRUIT and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Including 

ORANGE and LEMON TREES. 

Also, a large stock of imported Fruit Tree Seedlings, 
Apple Pear, Myrobolan Plum and Mazzard Cherry. 
Send for prices. Address, 

J. T. BOGUE, 

Marysville, Cal. 

Formerly of MartiDez, Cal. 

E. J. BOWEN'S SEEDS. 

ALFALFA, 

ONION SETS, 

GRASS, 

CLOVER, 

VEGETABLE and 

FLOWER SEEDS. 

Large Illustrated Descriptive and Priced Seed Cata- 
logue, containing valuable in'ormation for the Gardener, 
Farmer, and Family, mailed FREE to all applicants. 

Address, E. J. BOWEN, Seed Merchant, 
815-817 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

Established 1858. 

A general assortment of healthy FRUIT TREES, VINES 
and SMALL FRUITS, grown without irrigation, free 
from Scale Bug and warranted true to name. 

Apple Trees in assortment, Crawford's Early, Orange 
Cling, Salway and other kinds; Roval and Blenheim 
Apricots on Myrobolan stocks: Bartlett, Beurre Hardy, 
Beurre Clairgeau, Howell, Winter Nelis and Easter 
Beurre Pears, Coe's Golden Drop or Silver Prune and 
other Plums and Prunes in assortment. Rockport, 
Black Tartarian, Napoleon and Centennial Cherries; 
Nut-bearing Trees; Grapevines, etc. 

Prices furnished on application. Address, 

W. H. PEPPER, 
Petaluma, Cal. 




Alfalfa, Grass, Clover, Vegetable, 
Flower, Fruit, and Seeds of every 
variety. Special low rates for 
quantity. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 
Seeds and Improved Egg Food, 

425 Washington St.. San Francisco 



ROOTS. AND CUTTINGS 



Of the following varieties FOR SALE: 

Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Frank, Teinturier, 
Carignane, (Riparia, for Resistants), Mataro, Grenache, 
Trousseau. 

. Also Trees and Cuttings of the true White Adriatic Fig. 

M. DENICKB, 
Del Monte Vineyard and Orchard, 
Fresno, Cal. 



WINE GRAPE CUTTINGS FOR SALE. 

From Dos Enclnas Vineyard, 

Mission San Jose. 

Cuttings of Palomino, 

Clairette Blanche, Ulnsaut, 

orabb'8 Blacu Hu' gundy, Mondeuse. 
Also. Riparia, Rupestrls and Mataro. 

E M. HILGARD, 
Mission San Jose, Alameda Co., Cal. 




FREE 

Prettiest Illustrated 
SEED-CATALOGUE 

ever printed. Cheapest 

&best SEEDS grown. 
Gardeners trade a spe- 
cialty. Packets only 3c. 
Cheap as dirt by o-/.. tfc lb. 
lOOOOOpkts new extras rree, 
hij;\»*v.\y. Rockford 111. 



NEWCASTLE EARLY APRICOT, 

Earliest in Cultivation. 

HANDSOME AND GOOD FREESTONE. 

Good Shipper and Productive. 

All kind* of Fruit Trees and Small Fruit Plants. Send 
for Catalogue. 

C M. SILVA & SON, Nurserymen, 
Newcastle, Cal, or Lincoln, Cal. 



IBLEY'S TESTED SEED 



ini.ru Fkbb ' Containing 
•11 the latest novelties and stand 
ard varieties ofOarden. Field and 
r flower Seeds Gardeners every 
where *hiiiiM consult it tieOtrc 
pnrchasinc Slocks p-ireim-l r lesli.pricca reasonable. 
Address Hiram Sihley A: Co.. 

Uuclieslur, N. v., or CUicu-uo, Ilia* 



S 



STOCKTON N U RSERY. 'ORANGE TREEb 

Established 1853. 

ADRIATIC and SAN PEDRO FIGS. 



French Walnuts, Home-grown Oranges and Rooted Grapevines. 

Illustrated Catalogue and Price List for the seafon of 1887-88 free to all sending for them All Trees, Vines, 
etc., guaranteed free from scale and other injurious pests. A certificate of inspection furnished to all. 
A full line of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines and Hothouse Plants. 

E. C. CLOWES, Proprietor 

(Successor to W. B. WEST), 

Stockton, Cal. 



DUANE WESTCOTT. 



F. B. WESTCOTT. 



AT HALF PRICE. 



Westcott Brothers, 



"WESTCOTT STANDARD," 

HARDY NORTHERN-GROWN SEEDS, 

PROM MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., 
Will be a Special Brand of Seeds Guaranteed by us as Go r d and Reliable. 

406 and 408 SANSOME STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Correspondence solicited from Merchants, Farmers and others All kinds of Seeds, Lawn Grass, Plants 
and Bulbs always in Stock. 




ELL YEN PACKETS FOR 25 CENTS 

CHOICE FLOWER SEEDS 

FOL in Postage Stamps or money, we will 

£DL, send by mad one pkt. each of the fol- 
Iowingrarc and Valuable Seeds: ASTERS, Dwarf 
French Boquet. mixed. UAXSAHH, Perfection, tine 
double. Pl.t vrill s Double Diadem Pinks, all varie- 
ties. HIANT GGIMIAN P ANSIEs>. I'ETiNu, 
large flowering. PHLOX DRUnXONDII, granditlora, 
very rare. VHHBE1U, all fire shades. NEW ZEltKA 
ZINNIA, bright colors. A Siilemlid E>rrl»IUg Flower. 
The beautiful .tffln'i Flower*themof.telegantchmber 
BtRBADOES DE .n (j (Capp ( Gooseberry) excellent for pies 
fruits 1st year from seed 11 |>ktM. sac. »J codec's for SI 
ions for culture Our h»*at<f»l9>i pp. I'aMasac Memnpnnl 
each order. A<ldre=8 SAMUEL WILSON. Jlecliaiik-Mille, Bucks Co. FiT 




JAPANESE and CHINESE FRUIT TREES, 

Ornamental Plants, Palms, Bamboos, Bulbs and Seeds, 

True to name and free from insects. 

Raised in our own Nurseries at Aynio and Yokohama, Japan, under supervision of an able Horticul- 
turist, well known to the best Nurserymen of the U. S. We offer, free by mail, to any address, three choice new 
divers colored Japanese Chrysanthemums for SI; five choice Japanese Lily Bulbs for jl. one poui.d Japanese 
Chestnuts for 60 cents. Finely illustra' ed catalogue. 

H. H- BERG&R & OO. (Established 1878), 
Proprietors GEO. F. SILVESTER SEED HOUSE, 315 ana 317 Washington Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. p o. Box 1501. 




W. W. RAWSON & CO. 

34 South Market Street, Boston, Mass. 

Iijorteis ana Glowers ol Garden, Fieli and Flower seeds. 

STJCCES60BS TO 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, formerly of New York. 

Our larjfe and profusely illustrate Catalogue lor Isss hu.i 
been nmde still more atlnictive by the addition of a rielily illu- 
minated vavvr, beautifnl colored plates, and numerous HlC-like 
illustrations of rare and beautiful flowers ami choice vegetable!, 
including many novelties of rare merit, will be mailed In. (■» 
Customers of last > t-ir. and to all others, upon receipt of Ten 
Cents, which will be refunded with first order. B. K. Kliss. 
eurviving partner of B. K. Bliss & Sons, is now with us, ami 
N EW BOOKS ON GARDENING- respectfully solicits the patronage of former customers. 

CELERY AND ITS CULTIVATION, by W. W. Rawson, 25 Outs. 

SUCCESS IN MARKET GARDENING and Vegetable Growers' Manual, by W. W. Raws on, Practical Market 
Gardener. The most instructive work of the kind ever published, full of important information to market gardeners, and to all 
growers of vegetables in large or Bmall quantities. 200 pages, fully illustrated, sent post-paid, by mail, upon receipt of $1.00. 




Gr\RDEN,r VflP 

HandBook ^rjjS 

'A for the ^ AND GARDE NS 
^&G^ V REQUISITES 



COMMERCIAL SMYRNA, 

Tlio ONXjY GrENXJIKTE Fig of Commerce. 

S- lected and imported by us direct from Smyrna, it is the finest Fig in the world, and the only so t that should 
be planted for profit. The largest and finest list of NUTS in the country, at prices bklow competition. 

JV »• W ani RIRE FKUITS of all sorts. Plants by mail a specialty. Send 10 one cent stamps for 
Guide to Fig Culture and Catalogue. 

FLORIDA HORTICULTURAL COMPANY, 

Cutler, Dade Co.. Florida. 



Warranted Seed, 



I have founded 

my business on 
tlie belief that 

I public are anxious to get their see( lirectly from the 
grower. Raising a large proportic i ot my seed enables 
me to warrant its freshness and pU: lty, as see my Vege- 
table and Flower Seed Catalogue for 1888, FREE 
for every son and daught.tr of Adam, It is 
liberally illustrated with cngra zings made directly 
'from photographs of vegetables grown on my teed 
'farm*. Besides an immense variety o. 'standard seed, you 
will find in it some valuable new vegetables not found in 
my other catalogue. As the original introducer of the 
Eclipse Beet, Burbank and Early Ohio Potatoes, Hubbard 
r Squash, Deephead Cabbage, Cory Corn, ar d a score of other 
'valuable vegetables. I invite the notronneii of the public. 

JAMES J. U. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass. 



^\ QUICK! HARDY! PRODUCTIVE! 

VK^^C^-^Vv^^ \>EVERY WAY SUPERIOR! For Proof/r.,«, Specials. 

x No. 1—9 Garden Packets. No. 2— 1 1 Flower Packets No. 3— 7 Gar- 
den and 3 Flower P acket s. Either collection, post paid. 30 e ls. 

^ orm " r " only i^ORDER NOWK 



23c. each. 



NO DUMMIES? 

S: IX 1 fVJISTON. IDAHO, I VA „ B mi 



YOUR 



NO PfSA PPOiyTMF.NTt We want 
Seeds known r.t. once thmuphout the 
ke a (rood oflor- -the lient of tlu*Season, or 

MONEY RETURNED. 



Howe's Scales and Crescent Coffee Mills 

D. N. & C. A. HAWLEY, General Agents, 

Cor. Market, Sutter and Sansome Sts , San Francisco. 



FRUIT TREES FOR SALE. 

TOO Tradegv Prunes and other choice varieties. 
5000 Celebrated Early Apricots. For prhc address 
G. W. WA I'SON, 
Turner Hall, Sacramento Co., Cal. 



MYERS' SLIP SHARES 

FOIl SALE BY 
D. N. & O. A HAWLEY, 
£ & 4 Sutter St., cor. Market, San Francisco 



I am now prepired to furnish fine, large, first class 
Orange Trees for the season of 188S, at the following 
prices : 

Per 1C0 trees 

Washington Navels, June buds $ 60 

Washington Navels, 2-j ear-old buds 100 

Mediterranean Sweets, 2-year-old buds 75 

Sour Stock Seedlings, 4 yeais old SO 

Indian River Sweets, 11 " 60 

Unshiu of Japan, 2-year-old buds, smaller trees 50 

And other varieties cheap. Send for circulars. 

ALSO, FIRST-CLASS 

ORANGE AND VINEYARD LANDS, 

From $150 to $300 an Acre, 

Witli First-Class Water Rights. 
Reference, Riverside Banking Company. 

J. H. FOUNTAIN. 

Riverside, Dec, 1S87. 

ORANGE TREES. 

Plant Trees Grown in Your Own Section. 

They do much better than others brought from a 
distance. 

THE ALOHA NURSERIES, 

Penryn, Placer Co., California, 

Off rs a large home grown stock of Ora"ge Trees, Cali- 
fornia Fan Palms and Pepper Tree=, Limes, Dates, etc , 
at prices to suit the times. 

FRED. C. MILES, Manager. 



VITIS CALIFORNIA SEEDS. 

Five pounds and over, §1 per pound; less than five 
pounds, $1.50 per pound. 

Vitis Califomica Seedlings. Phylloxera Proof. 

»10 per 1000. 

C. MOTTIBR, 

P. O. Bnx 8. Middletown, Lake Co., Cal. 



H. P. GREGORY & CO, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR 

WEBBER'S CELEBRATED 




IRRIGATING 

PUMPS. 

Ws also carrt m stock the Largest Line or 

MACHINERY 

In the UNITED STATES, 

Consisting of Wood and Iron Working; 
Machinery. Pumps of every 
description. 

ENGINES AND BOILERS 



A SPECIALTY. 



SPRAY HOSE NOZZLES. 

The Telograph Spray The Eureka Spray- 
Nozzle Nozzle 
Throws a spray or solid Throws a spray or solid 
stream; can be used for stream; tho spray is reduc- 
whitewashing b »rns, rhicken able; it will make a large, 
houses, lences and tree medium, Email, or a spray- 
spr • yinp. 'like mist 

They lit one-half inch hose pipe, and may be adapted 
to any good force pump. They cm also be used for 
watering gardens or washing window*, etc. Sent by 
mail, postage paid, 81 each. Spray Pumps, from $4 up- 
wards. IIosu and Hose Pipes at wholesale prices Agents 
wanted. Address, WM. WA1NWK10HT, 1409 Jackson 
St , San Francisco. 




HORSE POWERS, WINDMILLS TANKS 
and all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order. 
Awarded Diploma for Windmills at me- 
chanics' Fair, 1885. Windmills from $65. Horsa 
Powers from $60. F. W. KROGH & CO., 61 
Beale Street. San Francisco. 



BOOK ° F BEAUTIFUL SAMPLE CARDS. 



20 



P ACIFKB RURAb PRESS, 



[Jan. 7, 1888 



STILL TRIUMPHANT! 



OVER ALL COMPETITORS. 



The "NEW DEAL" Gang Plow. 

Manufactured by JOHN DEERE & CO, MOLINE, ILLS. 

Equipped. 



Two, 



Three, 



Four 



-AND- 



Five 



Furrow. 




-WITH- 



Eight. Ten 



AND- 



Twelve-Inch 
Plows. 



Amongst other improvements, all Four Gang New Deal Plows are so constructed that the OUTER or REAR BEAM can be removed, thus 
making it a THREE GANG for use in first plowing, and READJUSTED to a FOUR GANG for second or cross Plowing. 

FOR LIGHTNESS OF DRAFT, FASE OF MANAGEMENT, STRENGTH, DURABILITY AND QUALITY OF WORK, 

The "l^TETOT DEAL » is TOTittLoxxt ct I^ctretllol- 

Further Description, Testimonials, Prices, Etc., Given on Application to 

HAWLEY BROS. HARDWARE CO. 



SOLE AGENTS FOR THE PACIFIC COAST. 

Also Agents for the JOHN DEERE MOLINE GANG, SULKY and SINGLE PLOWS. SOUTH BEND CHILLED PLOWS, HOOSIER GRAIN DRILLS. SCHUTTLER FARM 
and SPRING WAGONS. KEYSTONE DISC HARROWS, all kinds of Large and Small Farming Implements, HOWE SCALES, Etc. Send for Catalogue. 

ACME PULVERIZING HARROW, CLOD CRUSHER & LEVELER. 

DON'T BE DECEIVED BY WORTHLESS IMITATIONS. 

All genuine bear Trade-Mark, have Steel Clod Crushers. Double FLEXIBLE 
Gang Bars and the Improved Style, also has 

ADJUSTABLE REVERSIBLE COULTERS. 

Which when worn maybe turned end for end, thus giving double the amount of 
wear. Works the entire surface of the ground. No other 
Harrow combines these points. 

Sizes: 3 to 12 Feet. With or without Sulky. 

Illustrated Pamphlet Free. 

DUANE H. NASH. Sole Manufacturer. 

MILLINGTON, MORRIS COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 

SOLD HY : 

BULL & GRANT FARM IMPLEMENT CO., San Francisco and Los Angeles, and 

STAVER & WALKER. Portland, Oregon 




FER TILIZ ERS! 

Feed the Land and it Will Feed You. 



Fertilizers lessen the necessity for irrigation, increase the yield, 
improve the quality of crops, and keep the soil in a 
strong, healthy condition. 

Special Fertilizers for all Crops. 

THE CALIFORNIA BONE FERTILIZERS ARE CHEAPER THAN 
BARN-YARD MANURE. 

Owing to the gratifying oaccess our product has met with durins; the past season, we feel 
greatly encouraged in offering our Fertilizers, and can guarantee our patrons that our formtr 
standard of excellence will be fully iniintained. 

Send for circulars, with price and full information, to 

California Bone Meal and Fertilizer Co., 

116 CAIilFORNIA ST.. S-A-JST FRANCISCO. 




URPEE'S 



FARM ANNUAL F0R1888 



AppnA Nnvwi i.-s in vi:<;etahi 

VLLIIV not I lamed elsewhere. S< 

JCCUJilis:, ;I; W. ATLEE BURPEE & CO. PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Will he Bent I- 1{ BE toall who write for it. It is a 
Handsome Book of 1-28 it k it h hundreds of illus- 
trations. ( olort-d Plate*, and tells all ahout the 
BEST <<AI< IMS. FARM and FLO WEB 
srrrin. Butbft. i'laniN, and Yulunule New 
Hook*, on i > :i rd *■ n Toiiirs. It describe* Burr 
Sand KI.OWKHS of ri al vulllr. which cau- 
ldrons on a postal for the most complete Cata 



CHOICE ALFALFA SEED 

Xxx Xjots to Suit, 

Grangers' Business Association, 

108 DAVIS STREET, SAW FRANCISCO. 



California Inventors 



Should consult 
DEWEY & CO. 
American 

and Foreign Patent Solicitor*, for obtaining Patents 
and Caveats. Established In 1860. Their loug experience as 
journalists and large practice as Patent attorneys enables 
them to olfer Pacific Coant Inventors far better service ' hao 
they can obtain elsewhere Send for free circulars of Infor- 
mation. Office of the Minimi and Scientific Prfj*b and 
Pacific Rural Pkfsh. No. 220 Market St.. San Francisco 
Elevator, 12 ront St 



FINE CARPETINGS, 

RICH FURNITURE, 

ELEGANT UPHOLSTERIES. 

OHAS. M. PLUM & OO., 

UPHOLSTERING COMPANY, 

1301 to 1307 Market St., cor. 9th, S. F. 






TWENTY-PAGE 


EIDITI03ST. 






Vol. XXXV.— No. 2. 


SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, 


JANUARY 14, 1888. 


J S3 a Year, in Advance, 

( Single Copies, 10 Ots. 





DriviDg the]j'Jack-Rabbits. 

We present on this page an ideal sketch of one 
of the rabbit-drives which are becoming so pop- 
ular on the plains of the upper San Joaquin 



By two o'clock in the afternoon a large num 
ber of people had gathered, some on horseback, 
others in light vehicles. They had a command- 
ing officer and a few field-managers. No dogs 
were allowed upon the ground, and but a few 



was found that the drive had been a grand 
success. By actual count after they were killed, 
there were 1126 rabbits in the pen. Another 
march was ordered, and by passing over the 
same territory 796 rabbits were corraled and 



5075 of the nimble nuisances are shown by 
actual count to have been destroyed. This beats 
the Tulare county record. 

Oar picture calls for but little explanation. 
The upper left-hand corner gives a ground plan 





* % 








IDEAL SKETCH OF A RAB BIT-DRIVE AS PRACTICED IN1THE GREAT VALLEY OP CALIFORNIA. 



valley. The plan first put in practice near Pix- 
ley two months ago, and since repeatedly pur- 
sued there with so gratifying results, has been 
adopted in Kern county with even greater 
success. 

The Bakersfield people celebrated New 
Year's Monday with their initial round-up of 
the rabbits, at Henry Borgwardt's ranch, four 
miles from town, westward. There was a cir- 
cular corral at the corner of his a' f alfa-field 
where the sagebrush and pasture lie side by 
side. From this inclosure two wings of lath 
fence were stretched at right angles for a few 
hundred yards. 



guns in the hands of experienced sportsmen. 
The crowd having been so distributed and mar- 
shaled as to form a curving line about a mile in 
length, a signal to move forward was given and 
the drive toward the corral commenced. The 
area inclosed by the drivers must have been less 
than a square mile, but the Echo says that " as 
they drew near the apex of the triangle it 
seemed as if there were aores of rabbits. Of 
course a great many ran back past the people, 
and several hundred were killed with sticks 
while doing so, their fright being so great that 
they would run within a few feet of one's con- 
veyance. When the corral gate was shut it 



killed, besides a large number that fell by the 
way. It was generally believed that 2500 was 
a safe estimate of the total number killed in 
the two drives." 

Of course no firearms whatever can be used 
inside the corral; only clubs are permissible. 
Another observer writes: " It looked like very 
cruel sport, but their destruction is an inexor- 
able necessity. Relentless war must be waged 
against them or they will take entire possession 
of the country." 

The farmers of the neighborhood appear to 
havo been pushing the campaign farther, for a 
dispatch from Bakersfield, 10th inst., reports that 



of the fence. The line of beaters would of course 
be thrown much farther off and more in the 
form of a semi-circle at the beginning of the 
drive, while the persons would be more widely 
scattered. 

This method of dealing with the destructive 
rodents bids fair to become quite general, where 
they abound and the lay of the land favors; and 
as our " rabbits " are all hares, which know not 
the trick of escaping into burrows, the results 
of the process are comparatively certain. The 
conceit of the artist in the lower corner must 
be a melancholy reminiscence of the days be- 
fore drives were introduced. 



22 



fAClFie f^URAb PRESS. 



[Jan. 14, 1888 



QORRESPOJMDENCE. 

Correspondent* are alone responsible for their opinions. 

Meandering the Mokelumne. 

Kditors Press: — One frosty morning in De- 
cember last I " pulled out " from the pleasant 
village of Woodbridge, bound for New Hope, 
another small but ambitious town on the 
Mokelumne river, a few miles below. 

My lirst adventure was to help an old 
friend " corral " a band of hogs, and I was re- 
warded for my trouble by a cordial invitation to 
help myself to as many apples as I wished, of 
which fruit Mr. Axtell has a large and thriving 
orchard, and several hundred barrels of red and 
white beauties, stored for winter use. I be- 
lieve that these river-bottom lands will produce 
as fine apples as Oregon or any other State in 
the Union. 

My next halt was at the finely improved 
farm of Mr. Robert Bivce, whom I secured 
as a subscriber to the Rural. Right here in 
this neighborhood can be found a satisfactory 
answer to the question: Does wheat farming 
pay in California? The Boyce Bros., of 
whom there are several, own quite an exten- 
sive tract in this vicinity, and for the last 20 
years have been almost exclusively engaged in 
raising wheat. 

By thorough cultivation and judicious man- 
agement, these gentlemen have plainly demon- 
strated that wheat can be raised with profit on 
any of the lands bordering on the Mokelumne 
river. Farther west I passed the fertile fields 
of the Da Vries Bros., old subscribers to the 
Rural and Patron. These gentlemen were 
nmong the early settlers of this county, and, 
judging from appearances, they, too, are making 
wheat raising profitable. 

But the greatest surprise of all was still in 
reserve for me after I reached the vicinity of 
New Hope. Twenty-five years ago I sailed a 
boat over the present site of this village, and 
the Sacramento river was making a clean 
sweep directly southward, with such a mighty 
current that the channel of the Mokelumne 
could not be distinguished save by the trees 
tnat outlined its course. That was my last 
visit to this place prior to this, and it seemed 
difficult to realize that a quarter of a century 
could make such a change. Now this region 
is almost entirely one vast wheat-field, and last 
season's crop was simply immense, many farms 
yielding from 60 to 75 bushels per acre. 

The Sargent brothers own a very large tract 
near here, and are extensively engaged in both 
grain and stock-raising. 

At New Hope I found my genial old friend, 
Arthur Thornton, looking as young as ever 
and still taking the lead in every project for 
public improvements in this section. Mr. T. 
is in the merchandise business at this point, 
and largely engaged in general farming besides. 
He is very enthusiastic as to the future of this 
part of the county, and if the levees on the Sac- 
ramento river can he made permanent, I see no 
reason why Mr. T.'s hopes may not be realized. 
Before leaving I convinced Mr. Thornton that 
he needed the Rural to make everything com 
plete, and he kindly gave me his order for a 
year's subscription. 
• - Turning southward from this point, I visited 
the ranches of Jacob Brack, Sargent brothers' 
home place, Tread ways, J. Fowler, Harener, 
Oillinghams, and many others, and so back to 
Woodbridge, where I arrived after dark, cold 
and hungry, but very well satisfied with my 
day's work, and well pleased at the Bigns of 
substantial prosperity to be met with on all 
sides in the region between this town and the 
tules. 

The next day I went to Clements via Lodi 
and Lockford. Lodi, as most of your readers 
are aware, is on the line of the C. P. R. Pl., and 
about one mile south of the Mokelumne river, 
and is somewhat celebrated in modern history 
as being the "watermelon center" of the 
State. It is truly wonderful what an immense 
quantity of melons an acre of this land will pro 
duce without irrigation, and planted, too, after 
all the rain for the season is over. Judging 
from the way melons grow, it seems to me that 
this land ought to raise any kind of fruit if the 
people only knew how. 

Lodi met with a very Berious misfortune laBt 
fall from a fire which almost destroyed the 
business portion of the town; but rebuilding is 
going on with vigor and Lodi will soon present 
a much better apoearance than before the fire. 

Lockford, eight miles east of Lodi, is a thriv- 
ing village on the narrow gauge railroad, and 
also on the Mokelumne river. 

There are a great many prosperous farmers 
in this vicinity. Land is rapidly rising in value, 
and almost everybody seems hopeful of brighter 
times in the future. The bottom-lands on the 
river from here to Clements, seven miles above, 
are among the very best in the county. Ring- 
ing in width from one-fourth to one mile, sel- 
dom overflowed, these river-farms are bound 
to be very valuable in the near future, and 
those who were so lucky as to locate here in 
time have no reason to complain, for this bot 
tom-land will grow anything to perfection they 
see fit to put into the ground. The crops of 
alfalfa, corn, potatoes, hop*, pumpkins, etc., as 
weH as grain and fruit, almost surpass belief. 

I spent the night with Mr. Thos. ClementB, 
from whom the town received its name, and 
found him to be quite enthusiastic on the sub- 



ject of fruit culture, especially of the olive. 
He thinks that the culture of this fruit will 
soon become one of the leading industries of the 
State, and says be will furnish 500 acres of good 
land to any one who understands the business, 
to go in with him in the olive-branch trade. 
Mr. Meyers of Stockton had better correspond 
with Mr. Clements. 

Mr. Jos. Putnam, an old subscriber of the 
Rural, is also quite a successful fruit- grower. 
His ranch is about one mile above this place. 
This town can boast of the handsomest public 
schoolhouse of any town of its size in the county. 
There is a fine bridge acrosB the river at this 
point, and, going over this, I next took in that 
portion of San Joaquin county lying between 
the Mokelumne river and Dry creek, the bound- 
ry line of San Joaquin and Sicrainento coun- 
ties. This tract contains about 75 square miles 
of the very beBt land in the county. It is in 
this section that A. T. Hatch of Solano and 
Senator Buck of Vacaville have been making 
such extensive purchases of late. These gentle- 
men have bought 1200 .acres of the Langford 
tract, and are already hard at work preparing 
the land for the reception of various kinds of 
fruit — apricots, almonds, olives, etc. 

From what I have seen and heard in regard 
to the former efforts of these parties in the 
fruit-growing line at their old homes, I can 
readily believe that they will make a grand suc- 
cess of this venture also. And if they do there 
is no telling to what prices land may jump in 
this locality. There have already been some 
tracts sold at prices ranging from $100 to $110 
per acre, which is prettv good for land that 10 
years ago would have been thought dear at $50. 
and 20 years ago was thought to be almost 
worthless. 

There is quite an excitement on both Bides of 
the river on the irrigation prcject, and the 
Ditch Company are hard at work on their dam 
at Westmorelands bridge, and if the water is 
brought out, it will doubtless give a decided 
boom to this portion of the county. After 
leaving the Langford tract I visited the town 
of Elliott, more widely known as Hawks Cor- 
ners. How it came by the name is one of 
those things that no fellow can find out. In- 
stead of being on the corner of anything, or at 
the crossroads, the village, or what is left of 
it, is right in the middle of a section, and only 
one road passing by it. 

There is but little doing around here in the 
way of fruit culture as yet — nothing but wheat, 
wheat all along the line. Heading again to the 
westward, I passed many neat and substantial 
homesteads, among which may be mentioned 
those of Wm. Carter, Wm. Smithson, Lyman 
Titus, Herman Child", Justus Schomp, J. W. 
Holmes, the Jahant Bros., J. G. Nolans and 
many others, all showing that with industry, 
perseverance and good soil combined any man 
can win a comfortable independence, if not all 
the luxuries of civilization, out of wheat-grow- 
ing in Northern San Joaquin. 

On my return to Woodbridge, I passed 
through Acampo, quite an important ship 
ping point on the C. P. road, two miles north 
of the river. Here is located a fine brick ware- 
house, under the management of Smith & 
Wright of Stockton. The wheat in store at 
this place amounts to about 2000 tons. This 
house is a great convenience for the surround- 
ing district, and I can hardly understand how 
the farmers got along without it. 

From this point I went down into what is 
known as the " Pocket " at the junction of Dry 
creek with the Mokelumne, and then retraced 
my steps to the old town of Woodbridge, which 
still retains a fair proportion of its former 
greatness. Owing to the fine school facilities of 
this place, it has not gone down as bad as some 
of the ancient cities of California. 

During my three days' trip around this part 
of the county, I met with a great many old ac- 
quaintances and made quite a number of new 
ones, besides, all of whom I hope to meet again 
in some of my future rambles in the interests of 
the Rural. My next trip will be to the east 
and south of Stockton, and after that to Stan- 
islaus county, where you may, perhaps, hear 
from me again. W. W. 

Foothills of Calaveras County. 

Editors Pres-s :— Very little has ever been 
written concerning this section. To many, Cala- 
veras is associated with mining and stage- 
robbing, while its agricultural features are 
almost unknown. Scattered throughout the 
entire foothill region are charming little valleys 
dotted over with cozy homes of well-to-do 
ranchers. Up to the present time the principal 
crop has been barley for hay. On almost every 
ranch a small garden spot in the low moist 
lands has been set out to trees, while here and 
there a vineyard and fruit-ranch of consider- 
able size greets the eye. In no portion of the 
State can a finer wine grape be grown than in 
these redlands of Calaveras, grapes raised 
without irrigation commanding $25 a ton the 
past season. As for her fruits, apples, pears 
md prunes, equal to any, excelled by none, 
grow to perfection in every locality. The fruit- 
growers have but to learn what every other 
fruit section has long since proven, that the 
highlands are exempt from frosts and best 
adapted to fruit culture. Once this fact is ad- 
mitted, the old orchards in the bottoms 
dug up and |planted in pears or other 
hardy fruits and the sides and tops of the 
hills set out in Bartlett pears, peaches, prunes, 



the late Mrs coming and exceedingly fertile 
Pioeparturiens, English walnut and Tokay 
grapes, and the prosperity of the county's foot- 
hill section is assured. So far her hill land, in 
most cases, has been deemed of little value and 
is held at very low prices. In time it will be 
proved the most valuable. No section can raise 
a finer Tokay grape than can be grown any- 
where on these hills, which, in most cases, are 
deemed worthless except for pasture. To the 
poor man, seeking a cheap home, Calaveras of- 
fers every inducement — a mild climate, free 
from fogs and malaria, with almost any desir- 
able altitude. That this section will in time 
become one of the great fruit and grape-produc- 
ing counties is evident. That she can and does 
raise unexcelled fruits of the kinds adapted to 
her soils has long since been proven. That the 
people of this foothill section are not aware of 
the great possibilities of their section is evident 
to any one that has traveled over other coun- 
ties in the same altitude. So to the home- 
seeker I would say, take a trip through the 
foothills of Calaveras and locate 160 acres of 
Government land or buy the same improved 
for what three to five acres in some other coun- 
ties WOUld COSt. E. H. SCHAEFFLE. 



jSjHEEf AND QDCOOL. 



The California Wool Product of 1887. 

We have received from George Abbott the 
following statistics in relation to the wool 
trade of the Stite for 18S7. The receipts for 
each month of the year were as follows: 

Bags.' Big*. 

Januiry 53 July 8,016 

February 64|August 4.020 



March 2.200 

April II.71.S 

May 18, 22.) 

June 14, 756 



September 7, 

October 9>9'6 

November 7.963 

December 1,020 



Total bags 85,555 

The following is the description and weight 
of the above total; also the amount carried 
over from 18S6: 

Pounds, 

Spring wool, 56,768 bags, weighing 17,881,920 

Spr ng wool bbt| p-d from interior 1.946,276 



Total spring production 19,828,196 



Fall woo'. 28,787 bags, weighing 9,643.645 

Fall wool shipped irom interior 757,100 



Total fie' ce wool 20,228,941 

Pulled wool shipped fiotn Sin Francisco 
and interior 1,335,290 



Total production of Califorria 31,564,231 



On hind Dcemler 31, 1886 4 500,000 

Recetv. d from Oregon, 24.187 bags .... 7,256.100 
Foreign wool r.ceived, 133 bags 40,406 



Grand total 43o 6j .737 

The exports during the past year have been 
as follows-. 

Pounds. 

Per rail, inclusive of shipments from in- 
terior 22,048.564 

Per sailing vessel 1.855426 

Per steamer 3 557 9 60 



wool by rail 1 cent per pound, by sailing vessel 
cents per pound, and by steamer 60 cents and 
75 cents per 100 pounds. On scoured wools 
freights by rail have been about $1.15 to SI 50 
per 100 pounds, and by steamer 60 cents to 75 
cents per 100 pounds. 

Wool-Growers' Meeting. 

Pursuant to a call the wool-growers and 
wool dealers of Mendocino and Sonoma coun- 
ties met in Cloverdale, Thursday, Dec. 27th, to 
discuss and pass resolutions pertaining to Pres- 
ident Cleveland's message relative to placing 
wool on the free list. The meeting, which is 
reported by the R'.vrilk, was organized by elect- 
ing E. M. Hiatt of Yorkville to the chair, and 
Geo. B. Bier, secretary. Mr. Hiatt on taking 
the chair made some appropriate remarks per- 
tinent to the subject. After which W. P. Ink 
andJ.G. Heald were appointed to act with 
the chairman, E. M. Hiatt, in drafting resolu- 
tions. A recess was then taken, and on again 
convening, the following resolutions were unan- 
imously adopted - 

Whereas, The wool-growing industry is of 
great importance to the financial prosperity of 
the State of California, by increasing her wealth, 
building up manufactories and (urnishing employ- 
ment to thousands of laborers at good and remu- 
nerative wages. But owing to our foreign competi- 
tion of cheap hbor, cheap lands, the reduction of 
the tariff of 1888 and other di-cour.igements, nur 
wool product has greatly decreased. And. further, 
more, the recommendation in President Cleveland's 
late message to Congress to put imprted wool on 
the free list is disastrous, if not entirely fatal to the 
progress and exi-tence of the great wool-growing in- 
dnstiies, not only of California, but of the whole 
United States. Therefore be it 

Resolved, By the wool-growers and wool-dealers 
of Sonoma and Mendocino counties in convention 
assembled, that any reduction in the lariff on wool 
would seriously cripple this industry and greatly de- 
crease if not fatally destroy its production in Ibis 
Stnte, because our wool-growers cannot compete 
with Ihe cheap labor and che-iper ranges of fore'gn 
countries without the protection which the tariff 
affords. 

Resolved, That we are opposed to any reduction 
in the tariff on wool and manufactured woolen 
goods, and furthermore, we protest against reduc- 
ing the tariff on wool and retain ng it on woolen 
fabrics, as such legislation would be an unjust dis- 
cr'mnalion between two great industries without 
affording any relief to Ihe consumer of manufactured 
woolen goods, and we are unalterably opposed to 
promoting the manufacturing interest of the East 
by legislation at the expense of the great consuming 
masses of the nation, and bv the same means dis- 
couraging the production and development of 
the wool industry of the great West. 

Resolved, That we appeal 10 Congress to neither 
repeal nor reduce the tariff on wool, and we hereby 
earnestly request our Senators and Representatives 
in Congress to use their united tfforts to maintain 
our present lanff. 

Resolved, That we heartily indorse Ihe views ex- 
pressed by the National Wool-Growers' Association 
and extend to them our hearty co-operation in their 
endeavors to protect the wool industries. 

Resolved. That a ccpy of the above resolutions be 
forwarded 10 the Senators arid Representatives of 
our district and al'o 10 Senators and Representatives 
of oilier districts, lhal sp» edy and effectual action may 
betaken. E. M. Hiatt, Chaiiman. 

Geo. B. B a er. Secretary. 



Total shipments 27,461,950 



On hand Decern! er 31, 1887 (aooiiti 6 000.000 

Value of exports $5,000,000 

Difference between receipts and exports 
arises from consumption of local mills and wool 
on hand availing shipment in the grease or 
scoured. Foreign wool is chiefly from Australia 
in transit to K intern markets. The weights of 
above are gross. Tare on bags received, three 
pounds each; pressed bales shipped, 14 to 16 
pounds each. 

Quotations on spring clip are as follows: 
Choice northern (Mendocino and Hum- 
boldt) 2I@23^C 

Good northern (Red Bluff, «lc.) 18(0121 c 

Defective northern 15@17 c 

Good to choice San Joaquin i$(giiS c 

Good Sin Joaquin (12 months) t4@'7 r 

Sou. hern coast '3<&'5 c 

Quotations on fall clip areas follows: 
Choice northern (Mendocino and Hum- 
boldt) I4@i6c 

Good northern I2@I4C 

San |oaquin 9@I2C 

Heavy Sati Joaquin and southern t% 9c 

Quotations for Oregon wools are as follows: 

Choxe valley 22@27C 

Choice Eistetn i8@22c 

Good Eastern l6@20C 

The production of wool in this State since 
1S54 waB as follows: 



Year. Pounds. 

1854 17500c 

1855 300,000 

1856 600,000 

1857 1,100.00c 

1858 1,428.001 

18^9 2.378,00c 

1860 3-°55-325 

1861 3.721,99* 

1862 S-99 3 .3 

1863 6,208.480 

1864 7.923 67 

1865 8949.93 



Year. Pourd^. 

1871 22.187,188 

1872 24,255.468 

'873 3 2 -'55.'39 

'874 39 35°.78i 

'875 43.53 2 .«3 

1876 50,550,970 

'877 53 110,742 

1878 .40,862,091 

1879 46 903,360 

1880 46,074.154 

i38i 45,076,639 

1882 40,527.119 



1866 8,532.0471883 40,848.690 

1867 10,286.600 1884 37 4'5-33° 

1868 14.232.657(1885 36 561,390 

1869 15,413 970 1886 38,509,160 

1870 20,072,660, 1887 31,564,231 

Freights during the year have bean on grease 



JI[HE *V*ETEF^INARI/iN. 



Equine Pneumonia. 

Editors Press: — I have read with much in- 
terest the art Me written by Mr. H. Baker of 
Hollister and published in your issue of Dec. 
31, 1887, on the subject of a disease of horses, 
of which several have died in that vicinity re- 
cently. I have lost eight head of horses be- 
tween 1872 and 1881 with what I afterward 
learned was pneumonia or lung fever and con- 
gestion of the lungs, the symptoms of which as 
I have observed them are clearly described by 
Mr. Biker in his article referred to. 

While it is some satisfaction to a man when 
he has lost a fine animal to be able to deter- 
mine the nature of the disease and the cause of 
death, yet that does not enable him to prevent 
further loss from the same cause nnless he has 
a remedy to apply. Mr. Biker may think his 
description of the disease is sufficient (and I 
admit it to be correct according to my experi- 
ence and observation), but if he wishes to do 
the public a favor, why does be not give a 
remedy if he has one! Possibly he thinks to 
give the public the benefit of his knowledge he 
would sustain pecuniary loss. In the latter 
part of his article he says: " It now alone re- 
mains for me, sir, to express my opinion upon 
the cause of death in some of the cases — which 
is, that two out of the three animals lest by 
Mr. McDonald died from congestion of the 
lunes. " 

While we regret to hear of onr friends losing 
valuable stock or of a disease spreading through 
our country, it matters little to the public, nor 
is the public greatly benefited by a man's opin- 
ion regarding diseases, unless they are inform- 
ed of a remedy that they can apply in case they 
have an animal affected as he describes. His 
article reminds me very forcibly of one written 
by a gentleman from S»n Diego county, I 
think in 1S75, if I remember rightlv, giving a 
description of the rliseaae called fistula and 
poll evil in horses, assuring the public that he 
was in receipt of a specific remedy, but he was 



Jan. 14, 1888.] 



f ACIF16 l^URAb press. 



careful not to let the public know what that 
remedy was. I immediately forwarded to you 
a tried remedy, which you published and some 
of your subscribers preserved it and made some 
tents with it since. 

Now, I have been a constant reader of the 
Press for 16 years, save a part of one year, 
and I hardly know how I could dispense with 
it, as many of the articles contributed by your 
able correspondents and subscribers are worth 
the year's subscription. As I have been bene- 
fited by the experience of others, I feel like 
giving to the many readers a recipe for the 
treatment of pneumonia in horses, which I ob- 
tained free from a veterinary surgeon of the U. 
8. Army, and with which I have treated six of 
my horseB successfully during severe attacks of 
pneumonia. I feel that I have given it a fair 
test; besides, I have personal knowledge of five 
horses that were treated at the same time in 
this community with the same remedy and 
every one was saved. Now for the remedy: 

When it is a settled fact that the horse has 
the pneumonia (and that may be determined by 
Mr. Biker's description of the disease), place 
him in a warm house or stall, taking care to 
avoid any circulation of air, and proceed to 
sweat him by wrapping him from ears toftail in 
cotton cloths or barley sacks (three thicknesses), 
dipped in a tub of hot water. Over this place 
dry blankets or a carpet, wrap closely and tie 
with a rope to keep the cloths close to the 
body and effectually exclude the air. At the 
same time inject a 25-cent plug of tobacco pre- 
viously soaked in warm water as far up as the 
arm can reach. Keep him sweating two to 
three hours; then remove the wraps and rub 
vigorously till dry. Now take a teasooonful of 
gum camphor, drop on it 15 to 20 drops of 
tincture of aconite; add one teaspoonful each of 
capsicum and pulverized ginger; wet with 
water, or, better still, alcohol. Mix to a mass, 
roll out into a large pill or pills, roll in flour, 
pull the horse's tongue out, lay the pills well 
back on the back part of the tongue and let 
loose the tongue, when he will immediately 
swallow. Repeat the pills twice a day for 
three days, and sweat once a day for three 
days, taking care that he is not exposed 
to cold wind. Give all the cold water he will 
drink. I have not known a single horse lost 
where this remedy was employed. 

W. G. Pennebaker. 

Farmersville, Tulire. Co. 



Retention of Plaoenta. 

Editors Press : — If Mr. John H. Eden and 
neighbors, who are troubled by their cows re- 
taining the placenta, will feed them liberal 
rations of roots and house them warmly, I 
think they will have no trouble with their 
cows in calving. It is customary to put the 
cow up the day before calving in a roomy, 
warm, quiet place. In the evening give her, 
in the teed of bran, one pound of ground flax- 
seed — not cake meal — after calving another 
pound, and for the next three days a half- 
pound. Nothing more, as a rule, is necessary. 
Should this fail, however, inject a warm two- 
per-cent solution of co.-rosive sublimate, due 
care being exercised to have the proper strength 
and no more. E. H. Schaeffle. 

Murphys, Cal. 

Mistletoe for Cows. 

Editors Press : — A correspondent from 
Nevada City wants to know what to give cows 
to make them clean. Allow me to make known 
through your valuable columns what is a sure 
remedy here. Take an armful of green mistle- 
toe from an oak tree and give the cow. They 
will generally eat it without much trouble. If 
not, allow them to get hungry and they will 
eat it. If one batch does not do it, give an- 
other. I never knew it to fail. 

Big Bend, Bulte Co. Wm. H. Mullen. 



Swine Pest. 

Editors Press:— A year or more ago it was 
stated that a hog disease had made its appear, 
anoe near Woodland. Since then I have not 
seen a word in regard to it through the papers 
— not even here, where we are pecuniarily inter- 
ested, but about the same time it was the neigh- 
borhood talk that the same or another disease 
had shown itself in the lower part of Colusa 
county and just across the river in Sutter. 
The destroyer has continued on its slow but 
sure and fatal march north along both sides of 
the Sacramento, until now it is within six or 
seven miles of Colusa town, having traveled a 
distance of 15 or 20 miles in a direct line during 
the past summer and is still traveling. It has 
not kept up on the Sutter side, so far as I have 
heard. 

Not having made personal examination of af- 
fected herds, I can only state what I have 
heard. The affected swine refuses to eat, 
coughs, vomits, runs off at the bowels, becomes 
very much emaciated, and then it lingers and 
usually dies in from one to four or five days. 
Many herds have been almost exterminated. A 
neighbor told me this morning that he had lost 
40, and they were still dying, he having 18 left. 
Ue had killed his winter's pork about a week 
before the first were taken. Another whose 
drove was affected eavlier in the season risked 
butchering, after a lapse of about a month from 
the last death. 

Sulphur and bluestone water have been tried, 



but with what results, beneficial or otherwise, 
I have not heard. 

The spread seems to be from one ranch to 
another, but one man was at a loss to know 
how it crossed the river. In one case a man 
bought about 60 head from one who had suf- 
fered losses, and after removing them several 
miles north they nearly all died. 

I have waited long before writing these lines, 
but think others should be warned, and am in 
hopes some cure may be found. Hundreds of 
thousands of hogs are raised along the Sacra- 
mento river and throughout Colusa county, 
and anything affecting this interest would be a 
severe blow to our farmers. 

It the disease is contagious, and indications 
point that way, then it would seem as though 
some kind of a quarantine should be effected 
before the whole State becomes infected and 
hog-raising becomes a thing of the past, or 
very uncertain at the least-. 

E. 6. Morton, Jr. 

Sycamore, Dec. 31, 1887. 

P. S. Since writing I saw, by reference to 
your index, that this disease was spoken of as 
existing in Sutter, page 287, ana remedies, 
etc., given, page 401, but as to the application 
of these remedies to this disease, I know noth- 
ing. E.G. M. 

[The subject is of great importance, and we 
should like to hear from our readers who have 
experience with it, both as to the character 
and effects of the disease and any remedies 
they may have tried.— Eds. Press.] 



Ramie Culture. 

Editors Press: — I note in the last issue of 
the Visalia Delta an article on ramie culture, 
copied from the Florida Horticulturist, and 
signed by Dr. Gustav Eisen, which is calculated 
to create an unfounded prejudice against what, 
in my view, is one of the most promising cult- 
ures for California. As one who has for 15 
years past followed closely every phase of this 
subject, and has personally witnessed the cult- 
ure of the plant both in Louisiana and in Cali- 
fornia, I may feel justified in setting up my 
judgment in opposition to the derogatory state- 
ments and opinions set forth by Dr. Eisen, some 
of which seem hardly to do justice to that gen- 
tleman's practical and scientific knowledge, as 
heretofore known to me. 

After stating that "as to the growing of 
ramie little difficulty need be experienced," Dr. 
Eisen proceeds to demolish that assertion in de- 
tail, by averring that the plant requires the 
richest soils, and that even in these it caunot 
be depended upon for more than three years, 
being one of the most exhaustive culture plants 
known. 

The latter statement is simply and absolutely 
incorrect, except upon the assumption of the 
most irrational practice of culture, viz., that the 
trash and leaves are continuously wasted, in- 
stead of being returned to the field. When the 
latter is done, ramie is one of the least exhaust- 
ive crops; just as it is the case with cotton when 
all but the lint is returned. 

It is true that ramie appreciates a good soil, 
but three-quarters of the lands of the great val- 
ley of California, and of the larger Coast Range 
valleys, have soils amply adequate to its de- 
mands, and a good many (< . g., alkali lands) on 
which ramie will do better than anything else 
now known. 

In reply to the allegation that ramie will 
yield only three paying crops even on the best 
lands, I simply state that the ramie plantation 
on the University grounds at Berkeley, made 
with roots in 1881, has just yielded its fifth 
crop, at the rate of five tons of dried stalks per 
acre; in two cuts, which is all the cool olimate 
permits to grow. This without a particle of 
manure, in a soil filled with the roots of a row 
of trees adjacent, without the return of any 
waste and without any use of water save once, 
in order to promote the second growth for a 
special purpose. That with the use of irriga- 
tion, at least three cuts can be made in the San 
Joaquin valley," as in Asia, has been abundant- 
ly shown by experience; and this at the rate 
ascertained at Berkeley, would come nearer 
seven tons per acre than the 4J upon which Dr. 
Eisen makes his calculations. His further as- 
sertion that the soil needs to be kept " con- 
stantly wet," is conclusively disproved by our 
experience, Any soil moist enough to grow 
field corn will grow two cuts of ramie without 
irrigation. But it is doubtless desirable to irri- 
gate once after each cut, in order to promote 
growth; just as is done with alfalfa and Egyp- 
tian corn. 

The further count in Dr. Eisen's indictment, 
that " ramie once in the ground cannot be dis- 
placed for years," would weigh even more heav- 
ily against alfalfa. But we have yet to learn 
that the culture of this, our great stand-by, is 
under a cloud for that reason. A year's dili- 
gent cultivation under some hoed crop will dis- 
pose of ramie as well as of alfalfa roots. 

As regards the last count, viz., that referring 
to the expensiveness and laboriousness of the 
cleaning of the fiber, the allegation that the 
best machines at present known, or in this 
State, cannot produce over 200 pounds of fiber 
per day, would have been reasonable some 



years ago. While I have not had an oppor- 
tunity to gauge accurately the output of the 
machine now at San Francisco, what I have 
seen of its work under unfavorable conditions 
has led me to set down its efficiency at fully 
four to five times'200 pounds per day. If Dr. 
Eisen has reason to make a lower estimate, it is 
easy enough to set the question at rest by an 
actual trial. But it is true that a machine of 
which the work is based on the brittleness of 
the stalk may not work well in Florida and 
Eastern India, but may nevertheless do excel- 
lent work in the dry summers of California and 
Arizona, in which both stalk and rind break 
away from the flexible fiber like so much glass. 

As no one pretends that ramie should be 
grown in this country except upon the basis of 
cultivation by our usual methods, and extrac- 
tion of fiber by machinery, I fail to see the rel- 
evancy of Dr. Eisen's reference to the pauper 
or coolie labor of other countries as a condition 
of this culture. His question, why the Hin- 
doos and coolies do not become rich by ramie 
culture, is answered very simply by the consid- 
eration that even they cannot afford to spend 
their labor upon the hand stripping and scrap- 
ing of the stalk and bark, except in spare 
time; hence the smallness of the production and 
the scarcity of the fiber in commerce. 

It is well and necessary to be cautious in 
making heavy investments in new and untried 
industries. But ramie has been grown in Cali- 
fornia for 18 or 20 years past, and its success as 
a culture plant is a well-established fact. The 
only unsettled question about it has been the 
economical extraction of the fiber, for the mar- 
ket demand is practically unlimited. If, as 
the rapid development of ramie culture in 
France and Algeria and my own observation 
lead me to believe, this problem has been 
solved, the importance of this industry for 
California cannot easily be overestimated. It 
deals with a product capable of long transporta- 
tion, being of high value and indefinite conser- 
vation — qualities of especial importance in our 
remote location. It requires less manual labor 
than cotton, and will flourish wherever cotton 
will, and in many regions where cotton will 
not. It is too promising to be lightly dis- 
carded, and it assuredly should not be upon 
any such grounds as those set forth in Dr. 
Eisen's article. E. W. HlLGARD. 

Berkeley, Jan. 5, 1888. 



Culture of the Sugar Beet in Austria. 

Editors Press: — The proposition to intro- 
duce the culture of the sugar beet in this State 
makes it appear opportune to publish some- 
thing about the culture of this plant in a coun- 
try where this industry has become a leading 
branch of farming, supports thousands of fam- 
ilies, and supplies, by its taxation, a very good 
revenue for the Goverument. Of course it 
would be a great fault simply to transfer the 
methods of cultivation from that country to 
this State, because here are quite different con- 
ditions in climate, soil, and, what is the princi- 
pal thing, in human labor; although it may be 
that the practical farmer might use something 
from this essay. 

The sugar beet (beta vulgaris L.) has be- 
come biennial by cultivation and has several 
varieties. For culture such are to be selected 
as answer the following conditions required by 
the sugar manufacturer: 

1. Rxh in sugar; 9 to 16 per cent. 

2. Regular form like a cone, pear, or olive; 
many side roots or prongs (anastomosis) are dis- 
advantageous because they make the cleaning 
difficult and cause more waste. 

3. A medium size, one to two pounds, as 
small beets give a small crop and large beets 
have usually little sugar. 

4. A white, compact, brittle flesh. Such 
beets are more resistant against destruction 
while in storage. 

5. A small head standing only a little if any 
out of the ground. The reason is that the head 
must be cut off because it contains only very 
little sugar. 

The varieties which answer the above de- 
mands are: The white beet of Silesia, the Qued- 
linburger, the Imperial, the sugar beet of Mora- 
via and the famous Vilmorin. 

Conditions Required for Production. 

The sugar beet requires a warm location be- 
cause it is very sensitive to early frost, and ex- 
perience shows that the sugar capacity increases 
and diminishes with the amount of heat of the 
locality. The sugar beet needs very much water 
and requires, therefore, in a dry climate, a fresh, 
deep, rich soil. The best soils are deep humus 
clay (loam) and marl. The roots of the beet go 
very often to 4 feet in the ground, and take 
nourishment out of the deeper soil, where fer- 
tilizing is impossible. It is, therefore, economi- 
cal not to raise more than one crop of beets in 
three or four years on the same ground. How- 
ever, a rich soil will produce a good crop for 
several successive years (we have examples of 
raising beets on the same ground 10 successive 
years without any fertilizer, and yet a good 
crop), but in the same time the vegetable and 
animal enemies of the beet will be increased 
enormously. 

Preparation of the Soil. 

The beet follows usuallv wheat or rye and is 
frllowed by barley. A direct application of 
manure to the beet increases the crop, but also, 
at the same time, the amount of nitrogen and 



ashes; it is best, therefore, to raise beets the 
second year after manuring. The best fertilizers 
are, guano, ashes, potassic salts, superphos- 
phates, bone dust and compost. If beets are 
raised year after year, and the leaves are not 
needed to feed cattle with, it is very good to 
spread the leaves all over the ground and then 
to plow 12 to 15 inches deep. If it is the in- 
tention to raise beets after grain, it is good ta 
plow shallow as soon as possible and to plow 
deep after several weeks. Care has to be taken 
that no " dead soil " comes to the surface, as 
it would tend to stop the growth of the beets, 
at least for the season. During winter-time the 
land remains in " rough furrow," and in spring 
the harrow is used and the roller for pulverizing 
and leveling the land. If there are many weeds 
on the land it is necessary to cultivate or to 
plow. The principal thing is to keep the moist- 
ure in the ground, and the beet-raiser has to pay 
his first attention to this point. 

Different Methods of Sowing. 

Of course it is necessary to select for sowing 
only seeds from beets with above-named condi- 
tions. In Austria, sowing commences the last 
week of March and continues till the end of 
April. Occasionally, if the time is unfavorable, 
or if the first sowing is destroyed by insects, 
seed can be sown till the middle of May. The 
sowing is performed in four different manners: 

1. Drill, distance 1-1 J feet; amount of seed, 
13-17f pounds per acre. 

2. Beet-planter (Dippel machine G.) distance, 
the same as by drill. The machine is so con- 
structed that 4 to 5 seeds are planted every 
6 to 12 inches in the row; amount of seed 8 to 
9 pounds an acre. 

3. By marking the field with the marker, 
making a hole on the crossing point, and put- 
ting 3 or 4 seeds in the hole; amount of seed, 
8 to 9 pounds an acre. 

4. For a moist country it is customary to form 
small ridges and to put the seed in them; the 
beet gains by this method a somewhat drier 
stand and is more capable to suppress the 
weeds. For this last method a machine has 
been invented by Director Bartel, general 
superintendent of the imperial estate in 
Bohemia. 

It is not recommended to transplant beets 
which are raised in a seed bed; the transplanted 
beets produce many prongs, and are, therefore, 
unsuitable for the sugar factory. 

The use of the corn-planter with the check- 
rower for planting beets would be worth an at- 
tempt. The seed must not be laid deeper than 
one inch in a moist country and two inches in a 
dry country. 

Cultivation. 

The beet has to be cultivated as soon as pos- 
sible, as otherwise it is overgrown by weeds. 
The first hoeing will be given as soon as the 
rows are visible. Where human labor is cheap 
it is preferable; if not so, the cultivator has 
to be used. After this work is done comes 
the thinning. The seed of the beet presents 
a glomerate containing five to six seeds; of those 
two or three are capable of germination and 
produce plants; but as every plant wants a cer- 
tain space for its development, it is necessary 
to take out so many plants that only one re- 
mains every 6 to 12 inches. By planting with 
the drill a great deal of work will be saved by 
cultivating across the rows; the distance of the 
shares is usually six inches. An old rule 
among the farmers is that beets ought to be 
thinned if they have three leaves, because it 
doesn't take so much time as when they are 
smaller. 

During the season a second or third cultiva- 
tion is given, according to the weeds, and at 
last the beets will be ridged up to cover the 
heads. 

Harvesting 

Is done in two methods: First, by hand with 
a fork or a spade, and second, by the beet plow. 
Care has to be taken that the beets are not in- 
jured, as it would cause rotting if the beets are 
to be stored. 

As a rule, harvesting commences if the leaves 
of the beets are discoloring. In Austria, this is 
from September to November. The beets are 
cleaned from the earth with a knife, and the 
green head with the leaves cut off. 

The beets are either carried immediately to 
the factory or piled up on the field covered with 
the leaves or with earth. 

Profits and Contracts. 
The crop per acre is from 10 to 20 tons. The 
price per ton in 18S5 and 1886 was $3.85 to 
$4.50. 

The small farmer does all the work on the 
beet-field alone with his family. On large 
ranches there are different ways to have the 
work done. 

1. By contract. In fall usually the contracts 
are made with the following conditions: The 
proprietor puts his seed in the ground; the con- 
tractor cultivates and harvests. Price per acre, 
$7 to $8 30. 

2. Only the harvesting is given to contract- 
ors. The price per acre is $2.60 to $3 50, or 
per ton, 32 to 48 cents. 

The work is done by laborers, men, women, 
children, hired from the next village. Price 
for day work (12 hours) is from 16 to 30 cents, 
without any board. 

A laborer can in one day cultivate one-tenth 
to three tenths of an acre, or he can thin out 
one-tenth to one-eighth of an acre, or he can 
ridge up one-tenth to three-tenths of an aore, 
or he can harvest an eighth to a aix*h of an 
acre. Anton J. Veith. 

Eisen Vineyard, Fresno. 



24 



fACIFIG RURAId f ress. 



[Jan. 14, 1888 



J^ATF^ONS OF JlfcUSB^NBRY. 



Correspondence on Grange principles and work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Granges arc respect- 
fully solicited for this department. 



Anti-Debris Gains. 

On the authority of a gentleman just re- 
turned from the mountains, the Marysville Ap- 
peal of Gth inst. states that the Eureka Lake 
Hydraulic Mining Company has abandoned its 
unlawful operations. No hydraulioking is going 
on in the mine, and a portion of the pipe is be- 
ing removed. This company had been a per- 
sistent offender, and had an elaborately organ- 
ized system of law-breaking. The workings 
were guarded by sentinels, and the telephone 
was used to warn the men in the mine of the 
approach of agents of the Anti- Debris Associa- 
tion. Operations were carried on from the bot- 
tom of a deep cut, in such a way that the miners 
were invisible from above. 

It is noticed, also, that since the recent freshet 
the Yuba river has subsided to the four-foot 
mark, and the water is almost clear. Such 
water has not been seen in the Yuba for 25 
years. It is evidence of the stoppage of hy- 
draulic mining, and also shows that the river 
has scoured its channel, to a greater extent, of 
accumulated slickens. Water dipped from the 
Yuba is now good for drinking purposes. 

The Appeal concludes that there are no 
longer any large companies systematically en- 
gaged in violating anti-debris injunctions on the 
Yuba. There are still numerous offenders 
against the law, but these are mostly Chinese, 
who work in a small way. Most of them desist 
when warned of the punishment there is in store 
for them should they continue their unlawful 
work. While it remains necessary to maintain 
a thorough watch in the hydraulic mining re- 
gion, to prevent any resumption of serious mis- 
chief, it is not likely that any very formidable 
violation of injunction will be attempted this 
winter. 

At the same time, in view of Mr. Biggs in- 
troducing in the U. S. House of Representa- 
tives his threatened bill "to investigate the 
mining debris question in California," the 
Record-Union remarks: " The bill ought to be 
knocked in the head, just as the courts have 
brained the debris question itself. What do 
the friends of the measure want investigated ? 
Facts that have been established and put on 
record in State and Federal Courts, and that 
admit no longer of any manner of dispute ? Do 
they want the law investigated, which the 
courts have unanimously agreed upon and de- 
clared ? Do they wish the decision of the War 
Department reversed, that hydraulic mining is 
so destructive of river navigation that the Gov- 
ernment ought to make no attempt to improve 
it upon rivers on or near which hydraulic min- 
ing is prosecuted until the process has wholly 
ceased ? Do they wish a commission appointed 
to ascertain that which every one knows, that 
low lands have been destroyed by reason of hy- 
draulic mining, agricultural development check- 
ed, homesteads buried beneath slickens, and 
rivers absolutely lifted up and carried over into 
ftrange rtlaces t« flow in aimless courses ? 
******* 

" Mr. Biggs could far better labor to push 
through Congress a bill to improve our river 
navigation, to clear the channels of some of 
the deposits of 20 years and more, placed in the 
streams under the eye and by the silent con- 
sent of the Government. 

" We do not question Mr. Biggs' motive, he 
is too sincere a man to justify that; he probably 
hopes that engineering science may find a way 
to compass the impossible; he is probably nrged 
by his mining constituents to present this bill 
in the hope that something can be done to save 
hydraulic mining from its fate. But we believe 
it is an ill-advised bill, and it should not pass. 
Unfortunately it is in danger of becoming a 
law, because it is a bill of inquiry, and the plea 
will be made that it can only serve to throw 
light upon the question. But if it passes it 
means postponement of the question of river 
improvement for another series of years." 



A Mistake Corrected. 

In the list of officers of State Granges, ap- 
pended to the Journal of Proceedings of the 
21st Session of the National Grange, I', of H., 
page 231, the address of the Secretary of the 
State Grange of California is erroneously given 
"Sacramento." It should read "A. T. Dewey, 
220 Market St., San Francisco." 

Dr. John Trimble, Worthy Secretary Na- 
tional Grange, in a personal letter says: "I 
deeply regret the grave error in your address, 
and do not understand how it occurred. My 
clerk took the Directory to each and every 
Master, and every one was examined by them 
and pronounced correct. I follow that rule 
every year." 

Every person having a copy of the proceed- 
ings, and all Grange papers publishing the list, 
are requested to note this correction. 



Sacramento Pomona Grange, at its meeting 
for election of officers the last day of '87, en- 
joyed some fine remarks by W. P. M., Johnston 
on the working and outlook of the Order, and 
W. S. L., Flint's account of his recent tour in 
Southern California, besides a forcible Grange 
address from Bro. G. W. Hack. 



Grange Work and Progress. 

| Prepared Weekly byM. WnirsnsAD, National Lecturer.] 
The National Grange, at its annual session in 
Lansing, Michigan, in November last, unani- 
mously placed itself on record against a repeal 
of the Oleomargarine law, or any amendment of 
the same that would 'in anywise curtail its 
usefulness to the producers and consumers of 
dairy products in the Northern States. The 
State Granges that have held their annual 
meetings since that time, 22 in all, have in- 
dorsed and emphasized the actiou of the Na- 
tional Grange. It is well known that interest- 
ed t arties have for several months past been 
organizing and perfecting their plans for a com- 
bined eSort before Congress this winter t] 
have the law either entirely repealed or so 
amended as to make it inoperative. Now it 
becomes the plain duty of all members of the 
Orange, and of farmers not members, but who 
are equally interested in sustaining this law, to 
write personal letters at once to their members 
of Congress and their U. S. Senators, asking 
them to sustain the present law. Let each 
( J range at its next meeting prepare its memo- 
rial, have]it signed by the Master and Secretary, 
and send it, with the seal of the Grange attach- 
ed, to the Member of Congress who represents 
that district, and also send duplicate copies to 
both the U. S. Senators for that State. It is 
organization that has given us this and other 
good laws. Let organized work be done to 
save the law, and the sooner the better. 

The dairy interests of the United States rep- 
resent an investment of more than $3,000,000,- 
000, nearly five times as much as the entire 
bank capital of the country, which is $071,- 
000.000. The number of milch cows is esti- 
mated at 21,000,000. This is the great indus- 
try that is again threatened by the repeal of 
the Oleomargarine law, to say nothing about 
the interest of millions of consumers in being 
protected from a fraud. 

The Committee on Agriculture of the Ken- 
tucky State Grange, at its annual session in 
December, presented the following, which was 
adopted : 

Your committee is fully persuaded that the chief 
causes of the great depression of the agricultural in- 
terests of the country are due — 

First — To the indifference and utter disregard of 
the National Government to this, the leading indus- 
try of the country. This is evident in the absence 
of any effort to open, on equal terms, the markets 
of the world to our constantly increasing surplus. 

In Great Britain our cattle are slaughtered in 
quarantine on the seaboard, depreciating their value 
one per cent per pound gross on the flimsy pretext 
of pleuro-pneumonia. Our pork products are en- 
tirely excluded from the markets of Germany and 
France on the equally fallacious charge of trichina - , 
while the same products are admitted when shipped 
from Great Britain. Our wheat is met in the same 
countries by an import duty, yet no effort has been 
made to remedy these evils. On the other hand, the 
Government has made or attempted ireaiies with 
every South and Central American country in trying 
to build up a market for our manufactories, sacrific- 
ing as much as $40,000,000 of duty 011 sugar from 
(he Hawaiian Islands for the poor privilege o( selling 
$40,000 worth of manufactures. The only remedy 
for thi« evil would seem to be the conslant demand 
of the farmers for recognition, emphasized by their 
votes and the agitation of the question by the press 
in the West and South. 

Some 20 yeirs ago an Order was devised and sys- 
tematized for the purpose of aiding the farmer to aid 
himself. It was to do this by educating him in business 
and general information, by promoting his social wel- 
fare and assisting him in the necessary purchases 
and sales incidental to his condition. Its projectors 
named it the Grange, or, in other words, the farm. 
In the short period of its history it has proved itself 
to be the most practical of the beneficial Orders in 
existence. — Dr. George A. limoen, Connecticut. 

Progress. — John Trimble, Secretary of the Na- 
tional Grange, reports the organization of forty- 
seven new Granges in the United Slates from Octo- 
ber 1st to December 15th. 



The Grangers' Bank,— The annual meeting 
of the Grangers' bank of California was held 
Tuesday, the 10th inst., and the usual cash 
dividend of $1 per share, equal to seven per 
cent free from tar, was declared. The balance 
of the earnings, amounting to $9000 above 
the dividend for the year, was carried to 
the reserve fund. Next April the bank will 
have been in existence 14 years. Its 
capital paid up now is 8(100,000, and during 
that time it has paid over half a million dollars 
in dividends to its stockholders. This result 
ought to be satisfactory to the many stock- 
holders, and shows good management and a 
most prosperous and healthy condition of the 
institution. The old Board of Directors was 
unanimously re-elected to serve for the ensuing 
year, viz.: A. D. Logan, I. C. Steele, C. J. 
Cressey, Seneca Ewer, Uriah Wood, Thomas 
McConnell, J. H. Gardiner, Daniel Meyer, H. 
M. Larue, H. J. Le welling and T. E. Tynan; 
President, A. D. Loean; vice-president, I. C. 
Steele; secretary, Frank McMullen; cashier 
and manager, A. Montpellier. 



The Farmers' Union of San Jose. 

In a communication to the Patron on Grange 
influence in San Jose, Bro. I. C. Steele speaks 
of the Farmers' Union of that city as follows : 

It owes its existence to the Grange move- 
ment, and its success to the practice of Grange 
principles. It has a paid-np capital of $150,- 
000, a reserve fund of $14,000, and a surplus 
of $10,728. Its offioers are : C. T. Settle, 
president; W. C. Andrews, manager. Direct- 
ors — L. F. Chipman, Horace Little, Thos. E. 
Snell, C. T. Settle, J. Q. A. Ballou, W. L. 
Manly, J. A. Buck. J. M. Battee, C. W. Brey 
fogle. Its business, importers, wholesale and 
retail dealers in groceries, hardware, crockery, 
agricultural implements, etc. The company 
own the land and building they occupy, cen- 
trally located in the city of San Jose. The 
main building is a substantial brick structure 
150x60 feet, with a cellar nnder the whole. 
Agricultural implement department, 16x40 ; 
mill and storage, 60x70; oil-house, 20x30; 
stables and stairs, 36x40; storage capacity of 
warehouse, 5000 bags of grain; oil-house, 3 car- 
loads; capacity of mill, 300 bags per day, be- 
sides running elevator, coffee-mill and heating 
store. They have a large yard for hitching 
teams of patrons. Net profits of business, 8 
per cent per annum. The stock of company, 
$100 per share, worth $135, with none for sale. 

When this institution started in business 
the merchants of San Jose gave it just six 
months to close up its affairs, but it has gained 
and retains public confidence, with a steady 
increase of business. It now employs 22 men, 
and its saleB amount to $400,000 per annum. 
That it has done much to secure a fair propor- 
tion of the proceeds derived from the fruits of 
the soil to the producers there can be no doubt. 

Grange Elections. 

Rosevili.e.— Dec 17.— Walter Fiddvment, M.; 
J. Harris, O.; S.J. Crois, L.: Ed. Bedell. S.; 
Willie Murry, A. S.; E. .'. Atkinson, C; Geo. 
Williams. T.; Mattie F. Leavell, Sec; Lee D. 
Thomas, G. K.; Jennie Harris, L. A. S. 

Sacramento. — Dec. 10. — Joseph Hnlmes, M ; 
Joseph Sims, O.; Sister Slauson, L.; Harrv Fos- 
ter, S ; Robert E. Greer, A. S.; John Refill, T.; 
Bro. Davenport, O.; Win. Sims, Sec; L. R. Davis, 
(i. K.; Sister L. R. Davis, P.; Flattie M. Sims, 

F. ; Kuth Merwin, Geres; Lizzie B. Aiken, L. A. 
S.; Frankie M. Greer, Organist. 

Sacramento County Pomona. — Joseph Sims, 
M.; Morris Tooniey, O.; Win. Johnston, L.; A. 
M. Plurnmer, S.; L. H. Fassett, A. S.; E. M. 
Johnston, C ; W. C. Smith, T.; W. W. Greer, 
Sec: Sister Krull, P.; Sister C. Hack, Ceres; Sis- 
ter Frankie Greer, F.; Sister Crestwell, L. A. S. 

Santa Cruz.— G.C.Ward well. M.; F:.B.Cahoon. 
O. ; John Morgan, L.; C. T. Kirkpatric. S. ; E. 
Francis, As. S.; V. Humphrey, C. ; J.Francis, 
T. ; B. Pilkington, Sec; Thos. Crooks, G. K.; 
Sister Ward well, Ceres ; Sister Gaboon, Flora; 
Sister Humphrey, P.; Sister Stikiuan, L. A.S. 

Watsonvili.e. — N. A. Uren, M.; Mrs. E. Z. 
Roache. O.; Mrs. M. E. Tuttle, L.; A. Cox, S.; 
I). Tuttle, A. 8.; Mrs. P. Haver, C; G. W. Kid- 
der, T.; Mrs. S. J. Kidder, Sec; Mrs. R. W. Cox, 

G. K.; Miss Josie Roache, P ; Mrs. J. M. 
Rodgers, F.; Mrs. N. A. TTren, Ceres; Mrs. G. D. 
Rodgers, L. A. S.; J. M. Rodgers, Trustee. 

Yuba City. — [Corrected List.] — M. J. Hardy, 
M.; Geo. Ohleyer, Jr.. O.; Pauline Newkom, L.; 
Louis Woodworth, S.; W. E. Sammis. A. S.; 
Mrs. C. Woodworth, C; F. Cooper, T.; Mrs E. 
Wilkie. Sec; C. E. Williams, G. K ; Sadie Wal- 
ton, P.; Leila Walton, F.; Adella Fortna, Ceres; 
Mrs. Z. Sam mis, L. A. S. 

Note.— The Secretaries of Granges are re^iies'el to for- 
ward reiiorts of all election ami other mutters of iulerest 
relating to their Grange and the Order. 



JJgf^icultu^al J^otes. 



Bro. J. W. Mackif. of Tulare was thrown 
from a buggy, Dec. 20th, and had two of his 
ribs broken; but we are glad to learn that he 
was able to be out again in a fortnight, and 
hope to hear of his rapid progress in recovery. 
By the way. he has an original article on Social- 
ism in the Patron for Jan. lltb, which sets the 
subject in a light new to many readers and will 
well repay perusal. 



Grange Installations. 

Eden— January 14. 
Florin— January 14. 
North Butte — January 14. 
Santa Rosa— January 14. 
Sacramento Pomona — January 11. 
Sacramento — January 14. 
Lodl — January 21. 
Watsonville— January 21. 
South Sutter— January 28. 
Yalley — January 28. 

Sister M. B. Lander, Secretary of Alham- 
bra Grange, Martinez, has been threatened 
with a severe attack of typhoid fever. We are 
happy to say she was decidedly" better at last 
accounts. 

Sister Hetty Demino of Yallejo has recent- 
ly been seriously ill with pneumonia. Her 
many friends will be pleased to learn that she 
is now recovering. 



An Outspoken Admirer. 

A surveyor in Sin Luis Obispo county, in- 
closing a postal order to pay for the Rural 
Press another twelvemonth, adds : 

" I have now been taking your paper for 
four years. Not being an agriculturist, strictly 
speaking, I at first subscribed for six months, 
merely to get rid of the importunities of your 
traveling agent ; but, after glancing through a 
few numbers, 1 gradually became interested in 
its contents, until now I look forward to the 
weekly arrival of the Press with as much in- 
terest as to that of my daily." 

Such words of sincere approval are always 
gratifying to editors and publishers, and we 
thank our friend for his kindly message. 



CALIFORNIA. 
Alameda. 

Meat-Packino. — Oakland Enquirer, Jan. 5: 
The Chicago Packing Co., incorporated some 
months ago with $500,000 capital, in which 
Wm. S ■lover, G >v. Salomon, J. S. Emery and 
other large capitalists are interested, has pur- 
chased 10 acres of land from Geo. W. Grayson 
near the station of Posen, between the stock- 
yards and West Berkeley, for a site for the es- 
tablishment. The land purchased lies along 
both sides of the S. P. R. R., and is at an 
elevation of 25 feet above the bay, affording 
excellent dra nage. The company will proceed 
at once to erect a building 60 by 275 feet and 
four stories high, to cost, with the plant, $100,- 
000. A large quantity of the most approved 
machinery will be brought from the Ent. It 
is expected that the establishment will be in 
operation in about three months, when over 
100 men will be employed. 

Butte. 

Near Nelson.— Oroville RegUler, Jan. 5: 
W. A. Shippee, whose home is near Nelson, 
tells U9 that from one-half to three-fourths of 
the grain is sown in that locality. Of this 
nearly all is wheat, as but little barley is grown. 
Most of the land-owners have become interested 
in fruit-raising, and this year a large number of 
peach, apple, pear, plum and cherry trees and 
grapevines will be planted. Several will also 
test the orange and lemon. 

An Uncommon Fruit, known as the Florida 
grape-fruit, grows here. It is rather larger 
than a lemon, which it resembles in general ap- 
pearance and flivor, but it lacks the keeping 
qualities of the lemon, though while fresh it 
can be used for all the purposes that a lemon 
can. There is but one tree in the county and 
that stands in the yard of Mrs. K ill ins in Oro- 
ville. 

Fresno. 

Editors Press s — It has come at last — a good 
hard rain — just what every one has been wish- 
ing for. We now have the beat assurances for 
a good season and heavy crops. A great deal 
of farming will be done around Madera and in 
the foothills near by this year. There is water 
in the Fresno Dam and Irrigation Company's 
canal, and irrigation will soon begin. There 
is a much heavier fall of snow in the mount- 
ains than is usual for this time of the 
year. The snow is quite low down in the hills 
and gives promise of abundance of water for 
irrigation this season. It was quite cold here 
before the storm, with heavy frosts. Th» ther- 
mometer at 7 a. m. Dec. 24th marked 26°, and 

at 7 a. m. Deo. 29th 52° The Shepherds' 

Home, owned by Mr. H. C. Daulton, was sold 
not long ago for $175,000, Divid S. Terry be- 
ing one of the purchasers. This is the second 
large ranch in this vicinity that has been sold 
to outside parties. Chri-tmas was celebrated 
here, horse-racing, balls and parties beine the 
principal features. — Junior, Madera, Jan. 3, 
1SSS. 

Italian Mulberry Trees. — Fresno Repub- 
lican, Jan. 6: G. W. T. Carter, a member of 
the State Board of Silk Culture, has been fur- 
nished by that board with a number of well- 
rooted Italian mulberry trees, which are known 
as the best trees for the silkworm that grow. 
These trees will be distributed by Mr. Carter 
among our farmers, and any one desiring to 
plant them will be furnished with a limited 
number free of charge upon application to 
him. The trees were imported direct from 
Italy, and are in fine condition; they make a 
heavy shade and bear delicious fruit, in addi- 
tion to furnishing food for the silkworm. ' 

Humboldt. 
A Prosperous Sheepman. — Block°burg Cor. 
Standard: Six years ago L. C. Tuttle was 
several thousand dollars in debt. To-day he 
does not owe anything, and has money at inter- 
est. But himself and family have worked hard, 
and by giving the business their personal atten- 
tion and improving their stock they are now 

the t prosperous family in this section. Mr. 

Tuttle has several head of thoroughbred Durham 
cattle, besides several thoroughbred horses. He 
says that it is just as easy to raise fine stock as 
poor, and that they pay double in the end. He 
always has something to sell in the way of 
stock, and does not depend on wool alone for his 
income. He has sold over $3000 worth of cattle 
and $700 worth of horses, mules and mutton 
sheep this year. I noticed that his ranch was 
all inclosed, and then divided into five or six 
different pastures by good substantial fences, so 
that it is comparatively easy for him to control 
his stock. He intends to build a fine barn and 
woolhouse the coming spring. . . .Scab is about 
the only thing that bothers sheep here, and 
stockmen have got so they can manage that with 
comparative ease. I saw Mr. Tuttle's band of 
sheep. They had just been separating the ewes 
from the rest of the band, and ont of over 2000 
he had in the corrals the day I was there, there 
were not more than a dozen that were affected, 
and that bnt slightly. Bat he caught and 
handled every one, and when he found the 
slightest indication of rnbbing, he doctored it. 
If all sheepmen would be as careful, they would 
soon have that drawback entirely obliterated. 

Mono. 

Result ofthe Sheep-License Ordinance. — 
Bodie Miner: Sheriff Wat Morgan, ex officio 
tax-collector, has collected to date, under the 
Mono oounty sheep-license ordinance, the sum 



Jan. 14, 1888.] 



PACIFIC I^URAId press, 



25 



PACIFIC COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

[Furnished for publication In this paper by Nelson Gorom, 8ergeant Signal Serrice Corps. U. S. A ] 





Portland. 


Red Bluff. 


Sacramento. 


8. Francisco. 


Loa Angeles. 


San Diego. 


DATE. 


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34 


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34 


N 


Cy. 


.71 


43 


Nw 


Cy 


1.12 


46 


Nw 


Ry 


.22 


54 


W 


Fr. 




.00 


24 


E 


CI. 


.00 


38 


N 


CI. 


.08 


34 


Nw 


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43 


N 


CI. 


.20 


50 


S 


Fr. 


.42 


48 


N 


Ry. 




.00 


22 


NE 


Fr. 


.00 


34 


N 


CI. 


.00 


36 


Cm 


CI. 


.00 


42 


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CI 


.00 


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E 


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W 


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36 


N 


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31 


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42 


NE 


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46 


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50 


NE 


Fr. 




.00 


20 


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CI. 


.00 


42 


N 


CI. 


.00 


34 


N 


CI. 


.00 


46 


NE 


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52 


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W 


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24 


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46 


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26 








.58 








.71 








1 32 








.65 

















































Explanation. — CI. for clear; Cy., cloudy; Fr , fair; Fy., foggy; — indicates too small to measure. Temperature. 
Wind and weather at 12:00 M. (Pacific Standard time], with amount of rainfall In the preceding 24 hours. T indicates 
trace of rainfall. 



of $4275, and to this may be added $750 in pen- 
alties, aggregating $5025. The cost of these 
collections will be about $300, thus leaving 
the county a clear gainer by about $4725 of 
taxes on a class of property which has hereto- 
fore paid no tribute into the county for benefits 
received and liberties enjoyed. While we do 
not believe that $5000 a year will repay the 
damage done to Mono county pastures, it shows 
the wisdom of our Board of Supervisors in pass- 
ing the sheep-license ordinance. 

Placer. 

New Year's Strawberries. — Auburn Re- 
publican, Jan. 4: W. M. Crutcher brought up 
from Newcastle Saturday a box of large, ripe 
strawberries just picked from a ranch below 
that town on the Penryn road. Ripe straw- 
berries, grown in the open air for New Year's, 
are a very good testimonial for Placer county 
climate. 

Sacramento. 

Reclamation. — Dixon Tribune, Jan. 7: We 
paid a visit last Saturday to the new dredger, 
Ajax, now at work on the lower end of Andrus 
island. It is a powerful machine, strongly and 
ingeniously constructed, and works like a 
charm. In size, convenience of structure and 
strength, it seems to be a great improvement 
on the one lately in use there. It is in the 
hands of the same engineers, Joe Miller and 
Jack Dennis, with about the same crew 
— only six men in all. They think they throw 
up, under favorable conditions, in the 20 hours' 
run about 1000 cubic yards of sediment. 
When in operation it seems to possess the 
strength of a regiment of giants, and it is 
handled with the precision of the simplest 
machine. We were informed that it cost the 
district $17,500. The work of reclamation is 
progressing satisfactorily. Mr. Poage is doing 
effective work, with a small force of Chinamen, 
in strengthening the weak parts of the levee, 
to prevent its being carried away by wind and 
tide. He will be needed through the winter 
for this work, or a good deal of work may be 
lost by a break in the new, unsettled dikes. 
More than half of the land is now out of water, 
and we may reasonably hope that all of it will 
be ready for the plow next season. 

San Benito. 

Monthly Horse Fair. — Free Lance: A 
horse market has long been needed in Hollis- 
ter. Horse-buyers come here and then know 
not where to look for what they want. Horse- 
raisers drive droves of from 5 to 25 horses into 
town, and then are obliged to wait perhaps a 
week or more before they are disposed of. To 
obviate this difficulty and to bring buyers and 
sellers together, the Hollister Board of Trade 
on Monday last resolved to establish a horse 
market in Hollister. The first Saturday in 
February was appointed as the day when the 
first mart was to be held. Circulars are to be 
sent to all prominent horse-dealers of Califor- 
nia notifying them of the establishmenUof the 
horse market. All those having horses to sell 
should bring them in on that day. In three 
months' time, and after three markets have 
been held, the plan will have become well 
established, and the day of the horse mart will 
be regarded in Hollister as one of the liveliest 
of the month. 

San Bernardino. 

Bees and Honey. — Southern [Californian, 
Dec. 24: F. H. Hunt, who has about 600 
colonies of bees, gives us some interesting items 
about bee-culture. The ordinary life of worker- 
bees is from 30 to 60 days. Queen-bees hatch 
in 16 days, workers in 21 and drones in 24. 
Queen-bees live four or five years, but their 
usefulness does not generally extend to a period 
of over three years. Queen-bees raised in 
America coat $2.50; Italian queens, from $15 
to $20. The bees have guards at the entrance 
to the hives, which promptly exclude intruders. 
Q leen-bees lay from 1000 to 2000 eggs per day. 
While sage makes the best honey, and the bees 
in this vicinity feed on that, Yerba Santa, wild 
buckwheat, alfilaria and eucalyptus. The 
honey is removed once a week, from May 15th 
to the first of September. The usual amount 
obtained from each hive in the East is about 
60 pounds. About 150 pounds is a good aver- 
age in California, while as much as 307 pounds 
has been secured. The price for extracted 
honey ranges from 3| to 5$ cents per pound. 

Importing Jerseys. — Sin Bernardino Index, 
Jan. 7: Last week a carload of very fine r Jersey 
cows arrived in this city from the East, con- 
signed to R. N. C. Wilson, of the Ivanhoe farm, 
about 12 miles northeast of this city. The 
cattle are all thoroughbreds and will be used 
for dairy purposes' on that gentleman's place. 
Santa Cruz. 

Fair Association Directors. — Pajaronian, 
Jan. 5: The Pajaro Valley Agricultural and 
Horticultural Fair Association met in the Town 
hall on Tuesday last, as per call of the secre- 
tary, and elected, by ballot, the following per- 
sons as a Board of Directors to serve for one 
year: James Waters, A. P. Roache, A. N. 
Judd, N. A. Uren, H. S. Stipp, Mesdames M. 
E. Tuttle, G. B. Card, J. L. Libbey, B. A. 
Osborn and C. W. Stipp. 

January Grapes. — Courier-Item, Jan. 7: 
Twenty-seven boxes of grapes fresh from Buena 
Vista vineyard were brought to town Thurs- 
day, looking just as if they did not know the 
difference between January and October. These 
midwinter grapes sell for $4 50 per box in San 
Francisco. Who says there isn't profit in 
fruit-growing in the Santa Cruz mountains ? 

More Strawberries. — Pajaronian: Many 
of the berry-growers are preparing to increase 



their acreage of strawberries next season. R. 
W. Eaton will have all of hia place in straw- 
berries, the Lake farm will set out another 
field, Waters & Brewington will increase the 
size of their strawberry tracts, and the smaller 
growers will follow in the same direction. The 
past season was a prosperous one for the straw- 
berry-growers, and as the S. F. market is main- 
ly dependent upon the Pajaro valley crop of 
berries — and the demand is increasing each 
year — the berry farmers propose to keep up 
with the times. 

Santa Clara. 

Citrus Successes. — Los Gatos News, Jan. 6: 
A two-year-old orange tree in the yard of W. 
A. Stidston is certainly a sight to behold, es- 
pecially to the visitor coming here from the 
frozen climes of the East. The tree has borne 
32 oranges this winter. They are of the Navel 

variety, and exceedingly large and fine Mr. 

J. J. Groom brought to this office this week 
some very fine Navel oranges and Eureka lem- 
ons. They were finely flavored, large, and 
thin-skinned. They were grown on his fine 
place on the hill, on trees set two years ago last 
April, and from the lemon tree that these were 
picked from he gathered nearly three dozen 
ripe lemons in one day, and the tree contains 
hundreds of others all the way from the bloom 
to full-grown fruit. His trees are all healthy 
and clean. 

Solano. 

Editors Press: — We have had some unusual- 
ly cold weather. The mercury stood this morn- 
ing at 29° and the ground has been frozen all 
day on the north hillside. We had quite a 
snow-storm Wednesday ; the snow did not lie 
long in the valley, but it still shows on the 
hills. Four inches of rain fell in the last 
storm, and ten inches for the season. Robins 
are very plentiful; orchards and vineyards are 
alive with them, and all seem to be very busy 
hunting something. . . .Fruit trees are very hard 
to get, especially peaches. D. B. Derby, agent 
for the Niles nursery, will not take any more 
orders for trees; says they have about sold out. 
— G., Vacaville, Jan. 8th. 

Sutter. 

Warring on the Bugs.— Sutter Farmer, 
Jan. 6: The fruit-growers in and near Yuba 
City are now busy spraying their trees for the 
purpose of killing the San Jose scale. The 
remedy that is being generally used is the 
whale oil and sal-soda remedy, recommended by 
W. G. Klee, State Inspector of Fruit Pests. 
Mr. Klee was here a week ago, and expressed 
himself as well pleased with the activity of the 
fruit-growers in their fight with this pest. 

Tulare. 

The Casaba Melon. — Visalia Timet: On 
the 17th day of last October, W. R. McQuiddy 
bought at Boice Bros', store, Hanford, a musk- 
melon of the Casaba variety. It was at that 
time a little streaked with yellow, but not ripe 
enough to eat. Taking it home, he laid it 
away in a cool place, expecting that it would 
be fit to eat in a week or more. Being where 
it could be seen every day, it was watched to 
see that it did not spoil, and left to see how 
long it would keep. Although no attempt was 
made to protect it from freezing during the 
cold weather in December, it was sound at 
Christmas. Two days before New Year's it 
was cut and found to be sound and sweet, and, 
although it stood on one end all the time, it 
was as good at one end as at the other. A 
part of it was set away for New Year's day. 
Being forgotten that day, it was eaten on Mon- 
day, and was sweeter and better than most 
muskmelons when first from the vine. 

Feeding Better Than Selling. — A farmer 
residing near this city was heard to remark 
yesterday that he would raise no more alfalfa 
hay to sell at $5 and $6 per ton, as he had 
found it paid better to feed it to stock at that 
price. The gentleman's judgment is sound on 
that matter; there is not near as much to be 
made in raising either alfalfa or corn for market 
as there is in feeding it to cattle and hogs. Fat 
cattle are scarce all over the State during the 
months of January, February and March, and 
at that time command the top figure, but the 
farmer converts his hay into money and takes 
his chances with his stock until spring grass 
grows, when the price of beef also falls to a 
low figure. Grain-fed hogs are always in de- 
mand at top prices, yet it is safe to say that 
a half-dozen such hogs could not be procured 
in this market, though our ranchers raise 
thousands of tons of good corn. 

Yuba. 

Pavilion Matters. — Appeal, Jan. 6: The 
arjnual meeting of the Marysville Pavilion Co. 
was held at the new pavilion last evening, 
nearly all the stockholders present. W. T. 
Ellis, N. D. Rideout, D. E. Knight, Justice 
Greely and Peter Decker were elected directors 
for the ensuing year. J. C. White and P. C. 
Slattery each made an oral report relative to 
the new Park and Pavilion Co., stating that 
about $10,800 had thus far been subscribed of 
the capital stock. On motion of N. D. Ride- 
out, the directors were authorized to sell the 
pavilion to the new company at such time as 
they may be ready to purchase, at $8500, and 
it was further agreed that the stockholders of 
the present company will subscribe the full 
amount owned in the present Pavilion Company 
to stock of the new company, if the balance is 
taken by other parties to the amount of $16,- 
500. The newly elected directors organized by 
electing D. E. Knight, Pres.; W. T. Ellis, V. 
P.; T. J. Sherwood, Sec, and P. Decker, 
Treas. 



Overland Freight Rates. 

It will interest many of our readers to know 
that the Transcontinental Association, which 
includes all the overland lines, has issued a new 
tariff sheet on overland freights which will go 
into effect on Monday next, January 16th. It 
does not make any great changes, perhaps, in 
rates, but is in the line of an advance. The 
following items are of especial importance to 
our readers: 

The rate on cattle by carloads to Missouri 
river points from Pacific Coast common points 
will be $1.50 per 100 pounds; to Mississippi 
river points, Dubuque, New Orleans, etc , $1.70 
per 100 pounds; to Chicago, etc., $1,774 P er 100 
pounds. The rate on horses or horses and cat- 
tle will be greater, and on hogs less than the 
cattle rate. Live-stock, per passenger train, 
not to exceed 12 head per car, will go as fol- 
lows: To Missouri river common points, $525; 
to Mississippi river points, $575; to Chicago 
and common points, $600. 

Following are some of the charges on special 
commodities: Baled wool for New York from 
this coast will be charged $1.50, as against $1 
at present; scoured wool, $2. Canned goods 
for the same destination will be $1 per 100 
pounds, and 75 cents to Missouri river points. 
Brandy or cherry juice to New York, $1.25. 
Oranges and lemons for Missouri river points, 
St. Louis and Chicago, per passenger tram, will 
be rated $1.90, $2.05 and $2 15 respectively; 
per freight train, $1, $1.10and $1. ^respective- 
ly. Potatoes, straight, by carload to above 
three points, each 80 cents. It is to be noted 
that Chicago rates will apply on oranges and 
lemons to St. Paul and Minneapolis, otherwise 
Missouri river points will govern to St. Paul 
and Minneapolis. 



Central California Citrns Fair. 

Editors Press : — We wish to aay to 
all that are intending to make exhibits at 
the " Central California Citrus Fair," to be 
held at San Jose, to be sure and have their 
citrus and other fruits on hand in San Jose 
by the 20th inst., in order that it may be 
placed in proper shape on the opening day, 
Jan. 24, the time that the American Horti- 
cultural Society meets, and it will save much 
confusion. We have every encouragement 
that there will be a very large exhibit of 
citrus fruit, and also a very large number of 
people present from all sections of the 
country. Therefore, we wish to have no 
delay in our preparations in making this the 
grandest Fair ever held in the State. 

Cyrus Jones, Pres. 

Frank Dunn, Sec. 

San Jose, Jan. 7, 1888. 



Ageing Wines. — A dispatch from Washing- 
ton states that a decision was rendered Jan. 
9th in the Supreme Court in the patent case 
of Benjamin Dreyfus vs. Sophia S. Earle, ex- 
ecutrix, on appeal from the U. S. Circuit 
Court for the district of California. This was 
a suit for an alleged infringement of a patent 
granted on July 11, 1865, to John S. Earle for 
an improved process of imparting age to wines 
by means of steam-heating. This court holds 
that the application of artifio ; al heat for the 
purpose of imparting age to wines is old, and 
that there was no novelty in the process. The 
decree of the Circuit Court is reversed, and the 
case remanded with directions to dismiss the 
bill. _ 

Fruit Union Meeting. — The annual meet- 
ing of the stockholders of the California Fruit 
Union for the election of a board of nine trus- 
tees for the ensuing year, and for the transac- 
tion of such other business as may come before 
the meeting, will be held on Wednesday, Jan- 
uary 18, 1888, at 1 p. M., in Irving hall, Post 
St., S. F. Every stockholder is urgently re- 
quested to attend the meeting in person, as 
questions of importance will be brought before 
the meeting, and the policy for another year's 
business outlined. 



The public debt decreased $14,583,650 dur- 
ing December. 



The Visiting Horticulturists. 

As we go to press on Wednesday the excur- 
sion of the American Horticultural Society may 
be pictured as starting westward from St. 
Louis, for such is their intention according to 
program. They will come by the Southern 
route, and are expected to come through direct 
to San Jose or San Francisco. On Tuesday, 
January 24th, the formal reception and the 
opening of the three days' session will occur at 
San Jose. Preparations therefor are proceed- 
ing promisingly. 

Riverside has begun active work for the cit- 
rus fair and meeting to be held in that city be- 
ginning Feb. 7th. A meeting of the Board of 
Trade was held last week; the management of 
the affair was intrusted to L. M. Holt, and he, 
with O. J. Gill, M. Gage, W. N. Mann and H. 
J. Rudisill, were appointed Executive Com- 
mittee. P. D. Cover, E. Rosenthal and W. 
A. Hayt were appointed Finance Committee. 
A. S. White was chosen as chairman of the Re- 
ception Committee, with power to select hia 
associates. Since the affair was finally begun 
there seems to be much interest and enthusi- 
asm, and there will be no lack of welcome at 
Riverside, and a magnificent display of products 
is the sure result of an effort on the part of the 
Riverside people. 

There seems to have been some little feeling, 
it is true, that Riverside was slighted by having 
an official announcement of the meeting made 
at their place and then the program changed to 
give another place priority, but it should be re- 
membered that the plans were drawn 2000 
miles away, and probably it was owing to some 
necessity appearing there that the northern 
part of the State was visited first. We cannot 
see what real ground there was for dissatisfac- 
tion, and the Riverside Press in its issue of 
Jan. 7th shows the right spirit when, speaking 
of the excursionists, it says : 

They will have spent three weeks in Califor- 
nia viewing its horticultural productions before 
reaching Riverside. After a careful considera- 
tion of this question, it is safe to conclude 
that this program is much better for Riverside 
than for them to come here first and then go 
elsewhere. The members of that excursion will 
have pretty much made up their minds about 
California before reaching Riverside, and when 
they get here and view our exhibit of citrus 
fruits, test the quality of the same and exam- 
ine the appearance of the finest oranges grown 
in the world, and then take a drive down the 
valley that cannot be duplicated on the Ameii- 
can continent, their enthusiasm will know no 
bounds, and they will declare Riverside to be 
the great citrus country of the world." 

That is all right, of course. The last place 
on the floor in debate is the point of vantage, 
and when we used to play marbles the lingo 
was: " First, the worst; second, the same; 
last, the best of all the game." We are glad 
our Riverside friends have come to this conclu- 
sion, for it insures success on both ends of the 
line. San Jose is ready to eclipse all her for- 
mer deeds in display in hospitality and other- 
wise. Let the people now come forward and 
aid in the environment of the meetings, and 
the work will be an honor to the State. 

The air is full of these events. The State 
Board of Horticulture has issued a circular re- 
producing the program for the meetings and 
otherwise calling attention to them, and the 
officers of the State Horticultural Society also 
issue a special to their membership to partici- 
pate in the fairs and in the cordial greeting to 
the coming hundreds who are linked with them 
in the sympathy engendered of pursuit of the 
same noble occupation. The whole affair looks 
very well, and we look forward to the meetings 
with much pleasure. 



A General Citrus Fair. — The results of 
holding the Placer county exhibit at Los An- 
geles seem to have been so satisfactory that 
now J. Parker Whitney of Rocklin writes to 
the Record- Union recommending a united Cen- 
tral California citrus exhibit for 1888, to be 
made by the united efforts of the principal Cen- 
tral California counties; the display to be made 
at Los Angeles in preference to any other place. 

The population of Los Angeles and its ratio 
of increase are thus stated : 1861, 6500; 1870, 
8000; 1880, 11,183; 1885, 35,000; 1887, 60,000. 
The last two numbers are estimates, 



26 



fACIFie RURAlo PRESS. 



Jan. 14, 1888 




The River Time. 

Oh ! a wonderful stream is the river Time, 

As it runs through the realm of tears, 
With a faultless rhythm and a musical rhyme 
And a broader sweep and a surge sublime, 
As it blends in the ocean of years ! 

How the winters are drifting like flakes of snow, 

And the summers like birds between, 
And the years in the sheaf, how they come and 
they go 

On the river's breast with its ebb and its flow, 
As it glides in the shadow and sheen ! 

There's a magical isle up the river Time, 
Where the softest of airs are playing, 

There's a cloudless sky and a tropical clime, 

And a song as sweet as a vesper chime, 
And the Junes with the roses are straying. 

And the name of this isle is the "Long Ago," 

And we bury our treasures there; 
There are brows of beauty and bosoms of snow, 
There are heaps of dust — oh ! we loved them so — 

There are trinkets and tresses of hair. 

There are fragments of songs that nobody sings, 

There are parts of an infant's prayer, 
There's a lute unswept and a harp without strings, 
There are broken vows and pieces of rings, 
And the garments our loved used to wear. 

There are hands that are waved when the fairy 
shore 

By the fitful mirage is lifted in air, 
And we sometimes hear through the turbulent roar 
Sweet voices we heard in the days gone before, 

When the wind down the river was fair. 

Oh ! remembered for aye be that blessed isle, 

All the day of our life until night, 
And when evening glows with its beautiful smile, 
And our eyes are closing in slumhers awhile. 

May the greenwood of soul be in sight. 

— Ben J. 1<\ Taylor, 

Submission. 

[Written for the Rural Prks8 by Aunt Susie ] 

Father I I know thy ways are just 

And full of kindness now; 
Forever to Thy will I must 

Id meek submission bow. 

And gladly I my cro?s must bear, 

Breathing no bitter word; 
O Father I Thou my heart prepar-e, 

And let my prayer be heard I 

And I with eagerness must press 
Forever on my way. 

Father ! heal Thy child's distress, 
Oh, bless me through this day I 

1 long the path of peace to find 
And lay my burden down; 

The cross I bear, O Father kind ! 
When wilt Thou give the crown ? 

Home Education. 

[Written for the Rural Press bj Mary P. Ames 1 
Herbert Spencer hag wisely said, "Always 
remember that to educate rightly is not a sim- 
ple and easy thing, but a complex and ex- 
tremely difficult thing; the hardest task which 
devolves upon adult life." That so much neg- 
lect exists in the home education of the young 
is a subject for serious consideration. Many 
parents, it is true, are anxious to secure for 
their children the advantages of the best 
schools within their reach, and having done 
this look well to their advancement. There 
are to be found young people all over our land 
being taught in those principles which shall 
make them grow up into Christian manhood 
and womanhood, while others, not religious- 
ly trained, are instructed in those things which 
go to make uprightness and integrity of char- 
acter. 

Many parents, too, give careful attention to 
the home education of their children in all the 
little courtesies of life. But while all theBe 
things ought we to do, are we not leaving 
many others undone ? 

Take the subject of the unequal distribution 
of wealth, for example. Though without char- 
ity for the idle and dissolute habits which keep 
so many in a state of poverty, and utterly con- 
demning the spirit of communism which would 
give to the profligate and the vicious a share of 
the hard-earned proceeds of others' labor, yet, 
is it not a subject we may look well to that the 
wealth of the land is so unequally distributed 
among good men ? 

When we look at the Leland Stanford Uoi- 
versity, the Lick Observatory, Dr. Lane's gen- 
erous gift of the Cooper Institute, and the 
magnificent donations of Dr. Cogswell, Mrs. 
Margaret Crocker and a host of others, which 
stand up like monuments in many places— not 
of the benefactions of men and women who, 
having done with life, can no longer use their 
wealth, but as the generous expression of living 
hearts beating with kindly human sympathy — 
we are glad that great fortunes have come to 



these large-hearted people. But there are men 
of good intellects and educations, with just 
ideas and right views of things, who make 
most mortifying failures in earning a livelihood, 
always hampered with debt, and having their 
self-respect well-nigh crushed out of them un- 
der a weight of mortgages, promissory notes, 
etc. 

Christian men having themselves a com- 
petence, sometimes give their sons fine educa- 
tions and train them well in the broad princi- 
ples of the Christian religion, as well as in the 
narrower lines of sect, but fail utterly to teach 
them the rules which govern business successes. 
A fear of producing worldliness sometimes 
causes fathers to fail to instruct their sons in 
the art of getting and spending money, and 
when such sons go out into the world, their 
lives repeat the same sad story of the neglect 
of home education in a matter we have no right 
to think lightly of, for the experiences of our 
lives do not teach us to agree with the poet 
that "Man wants but little here below." 
Should these young men, untaught in a matter 
of so much importance, blundering come into a 
position for acquiring rapid wealth, they often 
spend it so lavishly as they would not had 
their home education taught them its value, 
and, having spent their all, find themselves 
troubled, and that continually with questions 
of ways and means; and the problem of the 
bread and butter of life seems entirely beyond 
their solution. 

The large development in the organ of de 
structiveuess with which we often meet, shows 
serious lack of home education. Occasionally 
we see whole families in whose minds there 
seems to be no distinguishing line between 
using and abusing. Where everything is de- 
stroyed from the new toy of the baby, bought 
with the self-denial of some older member of the 
family, to the large armchair of the father, 
worn by children's feet, or, if that father be a 
farmer, the destructiveness extends to his mow- 
ing machine and farm wagon for which provi- 
dent care has failed to provide shelter against 
summer's sun and winter's storms. The wear 
and tear of clothing which takes place in fam- 
ilies of this character is something alarming to 
one of economic habits. We can easily look 
back beyond such homes to the ones in which 
that father and mother were little children, and 
understand that their toys were not " laid over 
their heads on the shelf, till the room should 
be stiller from noise, and the children more lit 
for such joys." In the matter of constructive- 
ness, a great lack of home education manifests 
itself. The sons of parents in moderate circum- 
stances are so brought up that when they be- 
come the heads of families, how often are they 
unable to mend a broken chair, put in a pane 
of window glass properly, fix a refractory door- 
knob, or, in short, take any of the "stitches 
in time to save the nine," in the wear and tear 
of house and furnishings. How often wives 
with many needs have never been taught in 
the home of their parents all those little arts 
of constructiveness which shall make lit- 
tle serve the purpose of much, and which 
shall mend and make over in wise ways. 
I once knew a lady whose circumstances 
did not remove the question of bread- 
winning from her, but who was entirely igno- 
rant in the art of dressmaking. " Just think," 
she said, " of the amount of good reading I 
could do while making a dress." I did think, 
and have thought at times ever since, but it 
eeems to me plain she might have gained more 
than she lost by an occasional experience dress- 
making, though she found herself confused by 
a labyrinth of ruilles and pleatings and 
drapery. What she would have gained in con- 
structiveness and in overcoming a difficult task 
might have taught her things more beautiful 
than those learned from books. The capable 
wife of a successful business man once remarked 
she had no patience with the busy women who 
would piece quilts. Being one of the number, I 
have thought much of the matter. Though 
quilt-piecing may not find a proper place in the 
full days of the housewife, it seems to contain 
lessons which extend somewhat to the root of 
the matter in home education. That a young 
child may construct something should increase 
her self-respect. That the small pieces remain- 
ing from her dresses and aprons may be made 
into something both pretty and useful carries 
with it a lesson in utility and respect.for small 
things. 

While the knowledge of sewing, the exact- 
ness required, the proper blending of colors, and 
the bit of kindergarten instruction which may 
so aptly fit in, as regards shapes and angles, 
all contain valuable lessons. Of all the neglects 
in home education none is more observable than 
in farmers failing to instruct their eons in the 
principles of agriculture. There is much wise 
talk in these days in regard to allowing boys to 
follow their natural bent in regard to their avo- 
cation in life. But what if the farmers' son shows 
no leaning toward anything ? Why fail to teach 
him all those rules which govern successful 
farming for fear he will conclude to be a mer- 
chant or a mechanic ? 

Should he ever choose some very different 
calling from his father's, the lessons inculcated 
on the farm, teaching the boys to pick up a 
hammer or a hoe, a shovel or a saw, and put 
them in their proper places; teaching the best 
depth for plowing, and the number of pounds 
of grain which should be sowed per acre; the 
number of pounds of butter a good dairy cow 
should give, and the necessary feeding to pro- 
duce such a yield; the weight to which a well- 
fed calf should attain in one year, and all the 
rules which govern successful farming, the con- 



tinual looking out for farm leakage, and finding 
ways and means to stop it. All this knowledge 
given to the farmers' sons will not detract from 
the business man's success. A nephew of the 
writer, a successful book-keeper in Beaton, was 
learning stenography, although he had no ap- 
parent need of the same, but gave, as a reason, 
that it was one more thing to know. So let us 
who are raising cons on the farm attend well to 
their home education, and when they go out into 
the busy world of workers, they may find most 
useful these home lessons we have taught them. 
Beckworth, Plumas Co., Cal. 

Horses Versus Hogs. 

Von Oxgoad, the Duncan's Mills correspond- 
ent of the Petalnma Argus, is responsible for 
the yarn ensuing, which he offers as pertinent 
to the controversy whether the actions of the 
lower order of animals are controlled by instinct 
or reason: 

Once upon a time a Sonoma county farmer 
had a number of horses of various ages, which 
he kept in a pasture near his barn. As the 
grass in the pasture was a trifle short, the 
farmer was in the habit of throwing some hay 
over the fence every day for the horses. 

The farmer had also a great many hogs. A 
large number of the hogs had found their way 
into the pasture where the horses were, and, hog- 
like, were always on hand rooting and tramp- 
ing around in the hay while the horses were 
eating, greatly to the annoyance of the horses. 
This thing continuing as it did, from day to 
day, was becoming monotonous. The horses 
as yet knew no way to get rid of the hogs and 
their everlasting rooting and tramping in the 
hay, and they were sorely vexed. They would 
bite the hogs and paw them and kick them, but 
it was of no use. The hogs would grunt and 
squeal and stay right there. Hogs in general 
are stayers from " way back," and these, being 
of the self-sharpener variety, were no ex- 
ception. The horses were discouraged and 
tired. They could devise no means of dispos- 
ing of the hogs. One silly young horse went 
away and wouldn't eat. Some of the older 
horses reasoned (yes, reasoned) with him, tell- 
ing him that to give up now and sneak off was 
to acknowledge defeat, and furthermore, it 
would have a tendency to embolden the hogs 
and cause them to outhog any hoggishness they 
had yet attempted. This eloquent appeal (yes, 
horses can be eloquent) convinced the young 
horse and he came back. 

One day, while the horses were eating their 
hay, the hogs, as usual, being there in full 
force, an idea struck one of the horses and he 
grabbed a hog in his teeth and hurled it up into 
apace. The hog described a curve in the form 
of a parabola, clawing the air and squealing 
meantime, and struck the earth— with a sick- 
ening thud— on the other Bide of the fence. 
When the hog picked itself up and looked 
around, it was astonished upon beholding a 
great multitude of hogs in the air, curving and 
squealing gracefully (ye*, squealing gracefully) 
beneath the cerulean vault and landing, invari- 
ably, outside the pasture. The other horses 
had "caught on," you know, and were making 
it exceedingly torrid for the hogs. 

The hog that had just "picked himself up" 
(right here, by the way, a change in the per- 
sonal pronoun seems imperative) wasn't a large 
hog nor a very old hog, but in the last few sec- 
onds he had lived years, and the spectacle 
upon which he now gazed completely unhogged 
him. The horses made a clean sweep, and the 
hogs, in a more or less damaged condition, 
marched off in a body to seek pastures new and 
company more congenial. 

A Sensible Movement. 

The Funeral Reform Association, just or- 
ganized in N. Y. by leading Episcopalians, lay 
and olerical, aims to abolish ostentatious dis 
play and secure a simple and impressive ob- 
servance of funeral rites. To this end the fol- 
lowing reforms are advocated: The adoption 
of perishable coffins and plain hearses; the dis- 
use of crape, scarfs, feathers and other conven- 
tional trapping; the avoiding of all Christian 
and heathen emblems, and the use of any floral 
decoration beyond a few cut flowers. The cus- 
tom of following the body to the grave is also 
condemned, except in case of immediate rela- 
tives, as necessitating a great outlay on car- 
riages. 

The object of the organization is also sani- 
tary. It aeeks the abolition of burial plots in 
cities and the abandonment of family vaults. 
We do not know, aa yet, whether it has ex- 
pressed itself in favor of cremation. 

The reforms proposed are certainly much 
needed, and the movement is likely to meet 
with warm approval and find strong support 
outside the limits of the Empire State and the 
Episcopal denomination. 

A Pointer for Lottery- Followers. — One 
of Beauregard's old soldiers sent him a dollar 
and requested him to send him a lottery ticket 
which would win a big prize. He Baid: "I 
was always at my post and obeyed orders. I 
came out of the war without clothes enough to 
wad a shotgun." The general answered: " My 
dear comrade, I send you a ticket that I hope 
will draw a prize. I beg leave to give the fol- 
lowing pointer: If you stick to the Louisiana 
lottery for four years as faithfully as you did 
to the Southern Confederacy, you will not have 
clothes enough to wad a popgun." — Ex. 



Hobbs' Experiences. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Mrs. J. Hilton.] 
Nearly every town has some one who is con- 
sidered an oddity. While visiting at a neigh- 
boring town, a little old man came into the 
housa where I was stopping, whose appearance 
made one smile. He opened the conversation 
by saying: 

" My mule is dead." 

"Why, how is that? I thought he was out 
to pasture." 

" Yea, so he was; but Jones brought me word 
that my mule had got down and his feet were 
under the fence so that he could not get up, and 
he was starving. So I got a horse and went 
down there. Sure enough there lay the old 
fellow, and as I went up to him he rolled his 
head over on his side and looked at me, aa 
much as to say, ' Come, old comrade, can't 
you get me out of this!' Of course I told him 
I would if possible. So I tore down the fence 
and tried to help him up, but it was no go; the 
poor old fellow was too weak. I got him some 
food, but he could not eat. And so I felt that he 
must be put out of his misery. As 1 never 
could kill anything, I went to a neighbor's and 
tried to get some one to do it for me, but the 
men folks were not at home. Well, I thought 
I would dig his grave ready. While I was 
there I borrowed a spade aud went to work 
close to the mule's back. 1 had got it about six 
feet deep when I looked up and there was 
Mr. Mule kicking and trying to get up. Well, 
Hobbs, says I to myself, if you don't get out of 
this hole pretty quick, there will be two mules 
down here." 

" How did you dispose of him ?" 

"Oh, I went back to the man's house, and 
as be was at home he came and — " 

The old man looked kind of solemn, and 
then with a sigh he remarked: 

" I don't see how it is every horse or mule 
folks gives me goes and dies. Now that old 
black mare Mr. W. gave me I fed her the best 
in the land, but one night she got down, and 
when I tried to help her up she kicked me on 
top of the head. It didn't hurt me a bit, but 
it made her lame, aud the next day she couldn't 
walk, and then she died." 

The truth wa9 that the old man was so soft- 
hearted that every one who had an old or 
worthless animal gave it to Hobbs, knowing it 
would have good tieatment. He is a good 
mimic, and tells a story pretty well. We were 
talking of slow horses. One said that if he had 
to go to the tribunal on the day of judgment 
behind a horse, he would like to go behind our 
old Polly. That reminded him of the livery- 
stable-man who always cautioned people who 
hired a horse of him not to drive fast. One 
day a man came along who hired a horse and 
carriage. As usual, he was cautioned not to 
drive fast. " Wa'll, stranger," he drawled out, 
" I am going to a funeral, and I shall keep with 
the procession if it kills the horse." 

Los Alamos. 



Fancy Work. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Pollv Prixole.) 
A very pretty and convenient addition to 
the work-basket of those who are old-fashioned 
enough to save the basting long threads taken 
out of finished work is a thread-holder. This is 
made by cutting six pieces of very stiff paper or 
thin pasteboard, like the following: 

Cover three for the inside with bright-colored 
silk or woolen, the other three for the outside 
being of a darker or contrasting color. Lay 
each of the three lining pieces on those in- 
tended for the outside, matching, and evenly 
whipping the edges. Now having the three 
sides ready, sew them together with neat 
stitches over and over, leaving the third side 
open to admit of putting in the threads. You 
now have a three-sided little receptacle which 
will open by a slight pressure of the fingers and 
keeps your threads alwayB handy and un- 
tangled. Finish the two ends by bows of 
ribbon. 

To Make a Pretty Emery. 

Another useful little thing and invaluable 
when sewing on goods with much dressing in 
them is an emery. 

Take a little piece of strong, soft cotton cloth; 
fold it over or cut into the shape of a slightly 
elongated triangle. Sew up the side corre- 
sponding to the creased side (when the cloth 
was folded); fill with fine emery and gather up 
and fasten the top securely. If the pattern is 
rightly cut it should be a perfect strawberry in 
shape. 

Now take some scarlet flannel or cloth of 
any kind and cover it by cutting the same 
shape as at first. For the hull use a tiny piece 
of green velvet or cloth (velvet is prettiest) 
round in shape and deeply cut into points. 

Having made a strong loop one half inch 
long for the stem, of double twisted green silk 
twist and attached it to the top of the berry, 
punch a hole in the center of the velvet hull, 
drawing the loop through and fastening every 
point of the velvet securely to the strawberry. 
After all else is done take a needleful of yellow 
sewing silk and, going over the whole berry, 
put in tiny, loose atitchea at irregular distances 
to represent seeds. If still greater perfection 
is desired, pale, yellowish green silk may be 
used around the point of the berry and the 
stitches may be made closer together to repre- 
sent the unripe seeds. 



Jan. 14, 1888.] 



fACIFIG I^URAId p>RESS. 



*"Y*oung Holks' QobUMj^. 



Spreading Fruit to Dry. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Adah Batelle.] 
Upon a ramb ing farmhouse roof, 

One day, as I rode by, 
I saw a little barefoot maid 

Spreading some fruit to dry 

Within a sun-bonnet half hid, 

But slill I could descry 
A smiling face, and sweet she sang 

As she spread fruit to dry. 
App'aud milkmaid or shepherdess, 

Yet neither can come nigh 
In rustic grace to the blithe lass 

Who spreads the fruit to dry. 
Marysville. 



A Story for Boys. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Aunt Susie.) 
Long, long ago Janet, the grown up sister of 
a family of boys, called out one morning : 
" Walter, Walter, come right in to breakfast." 
She listened, but no answering call came back 
to her. 

The family breakfast was waiting on the table 
in the neat kitchen of a comfortable farm- 
house, and as she had left the cornbread in the 
oven when she went to the gate, she could not 
wait long, so hastened back, and as the rest of 
the family sat down to the table she put on a 
plate of steaming cornbread "browned to a 
turn." It smelled so good and looked so nice, 
one of the boys exclaimed : 

" I declare, Janet, nobody can make such 
oornbread as you do. 1 don't know what will 
become of us when Mr. Smith carries you off." 

Janet was pleased with the b y's praise, but 
her cheeks got red nevertheless. 

" What makesyou blush so, Janet?" called out 
another brother. " I know one thing certain — 
Mr. Smith will always have awful good corn 
bread, and I mean to tell him so next time he 
comes." 

And so the good natured conversation went 
on, and Janet forgot about Walter till the meal 
was nearly over. When all were finished she 
cleared off the table, then went to the "best 
room," as the parlor was called in the good old 
days of the past, and began setting a small table 
with a fresh cloth, best china, etc. 

" Janet, what in the world are you doing?" 
called out her mother. 

" Wait a few moments, mother, and you will 
see. I'm going to play a joke on Walter'that I 
think will make him more punctual to his 
me Us." 

Sj she finished setting the table, then re- 
turned to the kitchen, and with great care pre- 
pared an extra nice breakfast. 

At last she heard Walter go into the shed 
where the boys washed and brushed up before 
going to their meals. She hurried the break- 
fast on to the table in the " best room," and was 
bank in the kitchen when Walter came in. He 
looked around and saw the breakfast-table all 
cleared away and was very much surprised and 
said : 

"Janet, can't I have some breakfast? I 
didn't mean to be so late." 

" Oh, yes; come right here." 

He followed her, too much surprised to ask 
any questions, and when he saw the neat little 
table and dainty breakfast waiting for him, he 
felt so ashamed he could only sit down and eat 
in silence. Janet passed him the different 
dishes and served him most carefully. All she 
said was: " When a farm man has to work so 
hard he can't stop to eat when the regular meal 
time comes, when he does stop he needs an 
extra nice breakfast in a cool room this warm 
weather, and is too tired to serve himself." 
Simple words in themselves, but her tone and 
manner made them cut deep into the little boy's 
heart. He knew he had been so busy playing 
down to the creek trying to make a water-wheel 
that he had not heeded her call. She had often 
reproved him when late, but never had he re- 
ceived such a lesson as th^; to eat all alone in 
the best room, and his tall, womanly sister wait- 
ing on him, was rather too much, but he was 
too proud not to eat, and, although he was hun- 
gry enough when he caine in, he had to force 
down the nice food before him, and when he 
couldn't possibly make another mouthful go 
down he meekly asked, "Shall I go now, 
Janet?" v 

"Oh, yes, certainly; a very man must 
never be detained in the house. I'll fill the 
wood-box." 

So out Walter went, but somehow his water- 
wheel had lost its fascination, and the water 
in the creek did not seem to sparkle half so 
much, and the stones in the bottom didn't look 
as pretty as they had when playing before 
breakfast. At last he said to himself: 

" I declare, I wouldn't go through that again 
for all the play in the world. Catch me being 
late again very soon. I can't do anything more 
with this water-wheel. Wish I hadn't begun 
it till after breakfast." Then with a long- 
drawn sigh he ran back to the house, opened 
the kitchen-door, and called out: 

"Say, Janet, please let me fill the wood- 
box ? I don't want to play any more, and I'm 
sorry I made yon so much trouble. I won't be 
late again if you will be good to me now." 

" Wasn't I good to you ? And didn't I give 
you a nice breakfast?" asked Janet. 

" Oh, ye», you were too good, and gave me 



too nice a breakfast; it made a feller feel awful 
mean." 

Well, you can fill the wood-box, and do 
your other morning duties, if you have time," 
said Janet — she couldn't resist a parting shot, 
as he eagerly ran out for wood. 

Never was a big box filled quicker and yet with 
more care. He felt as if a load had been lifted 
from his shoulders, and ran here and there, 
merrily whistling as he went. His sister's way 
of giving him a lesson had worked like a charm, 
though it was " hard on a feller." And after 
that long-remembered morning he was the first 
one to obey the call to meals. 

One day Walter was going dovrn the road to 
school, when he met one of his playmates cry 
ing most bitterly. 

"Why, Tom, what is the matter?" called 
Walter. 

Tom replied, with much sobbing, "My — my 
— bro — brother is — is- — dead. 

" Oh, I'm so sorry," said Walter, " but don't 
cry any more now." 

" Oh," said Tom, "fa — father — cri — cried and 
mo — mother — cried, and — and — we— all cri — 
cried, but — I — I — I've cried — mor — more'n — 
any--body." 

"Is that so? What makes you cry more 
than the others?" asked Walter. 

" 'Cause — 'cause — 'cause — his — clo — clothes 
— are — too — too — -small— for — for — me, "sobbed 
out poor little Tom. 

Walter wanted to laugh. It did seem so 
funny to cry about such a thine as that, but 
Tom was only a little boy, and Walter knew he 
really did feel bad about his brother's death, so 
he just said : 

"Never mind, Tom, I wouldn't cry about 
that. There are lots of poor boys you can 
give his clothes to." Then, with a few more 
words of ccmfort, Walter went on his way. 
Somehow the thought of his breakfast in the 
" best room " always came before him if he 
dallied on the way to school or when sent on 
any errand. 

When Walter was only nine years old his 
father died, and, although only a child, a good 
many cares and duties fell on him. One day 
his mother paid : 

" Now, Walter, you will have to take the 
bay horse to Ryegate anri sell him to your un- 
cle. He promised me $50 for him, and I need 
the money now." So he started off on his 
journey. Fifteen miles over a strange road 
seemed rather a long horseback ride for a boy 
of ten, but in those days even children had to 
help with the family work and income. He 
had some lunch, and at noon stopped to rest 
and eat under a big tree, where it was nice and 
shady. Alter about an hour's rest, he mount 
ed his horse and started off again. When he 
reached his uncle's he was a very tired little 
boy, but a good supper and sound night's sleep 
made him all fresh again, and the next morning 
he started to walk back the 15 miles, and he 
found that even harder than going over them 
horseback, but he trudged on, happy in the 
thought that he was " helping mother." 

It took him all day to make the journey, as 
he had to stop a good many times to rest. His 
mother was at the gate watching for him; she 
felt it was a good deal to ask of a boy so 
young, and anxiously waited his return. 
When he reached the gate she said: 

" Well, my brave boy, I am glad to see you 
back. I don't know what I should do without 
you, now the other boys are away from home." 

These words of cheer were very pleasant to 
the tired boy; he followed her in and found a 
nice supper all hot and ready for him. He ate 
a hearty meal and soon went to bed very tired, 
but happy in the thought that he was a help to 
his mother. 

The next morning after doing his " chores " 
about the house, he started off to school, but 
not to a large, handsome, comfortable building 
such as boys go to nowadays. The school- 
house he went to was an old cider-mill and 
corncrib combined, with a lot of corn piled up 
at one end, held in place by slats. The 
children sat on rough benches made of slabs — 
that is, rough pieces of wood not as good as 
boards. These benches had no backs to them 
and no desks in front. You boys who get tired 
in your comfortable seats at school, think of 
these boys and groan for them, instead of for 
yourselves ! 

One day the teacher sent two boys out for 
switches to be whipped with; they returned, 
bringing two heavy posts. 

She said: "You naughty boys, what did 
you bring these for ? Take them right out and 
bring some switches." 

So off they went and returned with the 
"instruments of torture," and they each got 
the well-deserved switching. 

Walter often worked at water-wheels, and 
when a man he made a very fine one that was 
used to run a sawmill, and, although he was 
late to breakfast sometimes then, he never had 
to eat alone in the " best room " again. 



A parrot belonging to a Portuguese gentle- 
man, who had an English wife, would talk 
both Portuguese and E lglish, but would never 
confuse the two. If addressed in either lan- 
guage, it would always reply in the same. To- 
ward dinner-time, it would become very much 
excited, and cry very loud: "Sarah, lay the 
cloth. Want my dinner 1" Its master used 
to punish it for talking so loud. So, when his 
step was heard, Polly would get down on the 
bottom of its cage very humbly, and, laying 
its head to the floor, whisper in its lowest 
tones: " Want my dinner 1 Sarah, make 
haste. Want my dinner 1 " 



For Smallpox or Scarlet Fever. 

One who was connected with the medical 
and surgical departments during the late war 
says: "Between the battles of Scone River and 
Missionary Ridge a smallpox epidemic scared 
more than it killed. A large hospital was es- 
tablished at Bridgeport, Ala., and the average 
number of inmates was represented by more 
than three figures. But the deaths were very 
few and the treatment quite simple. We only 
gave the patients plenty of ventilation by rais- 
ing the sides of the large hospital tents, kept 
their bowels freely open, and gave them good 
rations of English ale, a commodity that was 
generously supplied by the Christian Commis- 
sion of the North and Uncle Sam's Commissary 
Department. 

" I have here also in my pocketbook a distin- 
guished physician's recipe for the smallpox, 
and I know it is good, but I will give it to you 
with his own comments. 

"This recipe has been used to my knowl- 
edge in hundreds of cases, and 1 know it will 
prevent or cure smallpox, though the pit- 
tings are filling. When Jenner discovered the 
cowpox in England, the world of science hurled 
an avalanche of fame upon his head, but when 
the most scientific school of medicine in the 
world — that of Paris — published this recipe as 
a panacea for smallpox, it passed unheeded. 
It is unfailing as fate, and conquers in every 
instance. It is harmless when taken by a well 
person. It will also cure scarlet fever. Here 
is the recipe as I have used it and cured my 
children of scarlet fever; here it is as I have 
used it to oure smallpox: 

" Sulphate of zinc, one grain; foxglove (dig- 
italis), one grain; half a teaspoonful of sugar; 
mix with two teaspoonfuls of water. When 
thoroughly mixed, add four ounces of water. 
Take a spoonful every hour. Either disease 
will disappear in 12 hours. For a child, smaller 
doses, according to age. If counties would 
counsel their physicians to use this, there would 
be no need of pesthouses. If you value advice and 
experience, use this for that terrible disease." 

Infants and Nicotine. 

The Santa Rosa City Council, at its regular 
meeting January 3d, instructed the city attor- 
ney to draft an ordinance making it a misde- 
meanor to sell cigarettes to boys under 16 years 
of age, and also for boys under that age to 
smoke cigarettes. But such an ordinance, to 
be of any practical worth, should include cigars 
aDd tobacco in any form. 

In reference to this matter the S. F. Chron- 
icle observes : It is no uncommon thing now- 
adays to see children scarcely out of dresses 
puffing at a cigarette with all the nonchalance 
imaginable; and such cigarettes, too, as they 
generally are. The babies' means are so limited 
that they can buy nothing but the cheapest 
and vilest kinds of cigarettes, such as no man 
who knows anything about tobacco would look 
at, much less smoke; and with these indescrib- 
ably nasty concoctions these youngsters proceed 
to poison themselves. The example of Santa 
Rosa is one that might be followed to advantage 
by other cities, San Francisco included. We 
make all sorts of health regulations; we enforce 
vaccination and prescribe how much air sleep- 
ing-rooms shall contain; we take care of the 
children's work-time, lest they be stunted and 
crushed before they have grown strong; we get 
up societies with long names to see that tiny 
acrobats do not turn one handspring too many, 
while at the same time we permit those same 
children to buy poison on every corner and to 
kill themselves by inches, and no one inter- 
feres. San Francisco should adopt an ordi- 
nance similar to that of Santa Rosa, and then 
see that it is enforced. 

Little Things that Kill. — At various 
times the newspapers have warned the public 
against swallowing the seeds of grapes, oranges, 
etc.,becauseof the danger of such substances get- 
ting into a small intestinal bag, or cul-de-sac, 
called by doctors the appendix vermijormis 
This is a receptacle formed at the junction of 
the large and small intestines, but its use or 
object no physician knows. It has been thought 
to be a rudimentary or incomplete formation 
— or possibly some meaningless survival of a 
lost anterior type. At any rate, its existence, 
while presenting no apparent " reason for be- 
ing," as the French say, is, on the other hand, 
a positive and constant source of danger, be- 
cause of the liability of its becoming the recep- 
tacle of some undigested seed or other indi- 
gestible substance. In that case it produces a 
state of inflammation, which, in nearly all 
cases, proves fatal. Fortunately, but few seeds 
among the great number so heedlessly swal- 
lowed seem to get into this little death-trap — 
although any one seems likely to lodge there. 
Perhaps more cases of inflammation of the bow- 
els than the doctors suspect may be, in reality, 
due to this obscure and disregarded cause. 
One sad case which to-day produces a feeling 
of deep regret among thousands, and which 
plunges a family into overwhelming grief, oc- 
curred in this city on Saturday evening, in the 
lamented death of J. Robert Dwyer, the much- 
esteemed adjutant of the Governor's foot-guard 
— a man whose place that corps cannot make 
good. His case so baffled the physicians that 
an autopsy was had, and that revealed a piece 
of peanut shell in the appendix vermi/ormis. — 
H&rtford Times, 



DojVIESTI© QeOfJOJVIY. 



Unfermented Wine. 

Pick the grapes from the stems and wash. 
Cook with as little water as for jelly till soft. 
Strain through a flannel bag. To one quart of 
juice add three-fourths of a pound of granulated 
sugar. Let the juice boil, and skim it; then 
put in the sugar and cook till dissolved. Put 
boiling hot in self-sealing jirs or bottles corked 
and sealed. — Union Signal. 

[A good, if not better way is simply to heat 
perfectly sweet wine, and seal in bottles or jars 
at oDce, as you would can fruit. We have tried 
it. — Eds. Press.] 



To Tan Small Skins.— From a recent num- 
ber of the Prairie Farmer we clip the following 
recipe' for tanning : Small skins, such as those 
of the wolf, dog, badger, woodchuck or squir- 
rel, are excellent for strings, whips, patching 
gloves, mittens and even shoes, repairing 
harness, etc., and can easily be tanned as fol- 
lows : Put a layer of wood ashes two or three 
inches thick in some old vessel of convenient 
size, spread the skin out on this, put on two or 
three inches more of ashes; then pour on a little 
more water than the ashes will soak up. Let 
it stand until the hair can be easily scraped 
off with a chip, which will be from 24 to 48 
hours; then scrape off and wash thoroughly in 
several changes of water, or better in running 
water. Hang up, and when the skin begins to 
get dry around the edges take down and pull 
and work until it is thoroughly dry and 
pliable, which will take perhaps two hours. As 
it dries it will turn to a beautiful white kid 
oolor. 

Cream Puffs. — One cup of hot water, one- 
half cup of butter, boil together, stirring in a 
cupful of dry flour while boiling. When cold, 
add three eggs not beaten. Drop by tablespoon- 
fuls on a buttered tin and bake in a quick oven 
25 minutes, being careful not to open the oven- 
door more than is necesBary. This makes 15 
puffs. Take care that they do not touch each 
other. For filling, take a pint of cream, a cup 
of powdered sugar and whites of two fg^s, with 
flavoring of any sort preferred. When the 
puffs are cold, cut a round piece out of the bot- 
tom of each, scrape out the inside; fill the cav- 
ity with whipped cream, fit back the piece 
taken from the bottom, set on a dish and ice. 

Stuffed Potatoes. — Wash and peel eight 
large potatoes; divide them lengthwise through 
the middle; hollow them out neatly with a 
knife or spoon till they are reduced to the thick- 
ness of a dollar piece. Take the iosideB of two 
or three baked potatoes, two shalots chopped 
finely, a piece of butter the size of an egg, a 
small piece of fat bacon cut into dice, a pinch of 
chopped parsley and chives, and beat the whole 
to a paste, with pepperand salt; butter the inside 
of the potatoes and fill them up with this paste, 
except just at the uppe" part; then put the po- 
tatoes upon a buttered tin and bake in the 
oven; in half an hour, if both sides be browned, 
serve. 

Jenny Lind Cake. — Two and one-half cups 
of sugar, one cup ot butter, one cup of sweet 
milk, four cups of flour, four eggs, two tea- 
spoonfuls of baking powder; bake in three 
sheets (two of white). After taking out the 
quantity for the two of white, leaving less than 
a third, add two tablespoonfuls of molasses, one 
teaspoonful of cloves, one teaspoonful of cin- 
namon, one grated nutmeg; add a little more 
flour to the dark; put together with thin frost- 
ing. 

Buttermilk Muffins. — These have but to 
be tried to become a standing breakfast dish. 
Beat hard two eggs into a quart of buttermilk, 
and stir in flour to make a thick batter, about 
a quart when it is mixed, and, lastly, a tea- 
spoonful of salt and the same of soda. Bake in 
a hot oven in well-greased tins. Muffins of all 
kinds should only be cut just around the edge, 
then pulled open with the fingers. 

Fritters. — Put into a stew-pan one pint of 
water, one tablespoonful of butter, one table- 
spoonful of white sugar. When it boils, stir in 
rapidly one pint of flour. Let it cool a little; 
while warm beat into it six eggs, each one brok- 
en by itself and well beaten in before another 
is added. Have boiling lard and drop the 
dough, which will be stiff, in lumps like a 
small hickory nut, into it. Eit with syrup or 
melted butter and sugar, flavored with vanilla 
or nutmeg. 

Oatmeal Porridge. — Take two ounces of 
oatmeal and one and one half pints of water. 
Rub the meal in a basin with the back of a 
spoon in a small quantity of water, pouring 
off the fluid after the coarser particles are set- 
tled, but while the milkiness continues repeat 
the operation until the milkiness disappears. 
Put the washings into a small pan; stir until 
they boil, adding a pinch of salt, and boil until 
a soft, thick mucilage is formed. Sweeten to 
taste. 

Fried Parsnips. — Scrape and leave in cold 
water for an hour, then cook half an hour in 
hot, salted water, wipe, slice lengthwise, dip in 
melted butter, then in flour, seasoned with 
salt and pepper, and fry in boiling dripping. 
Drain free of fat, and dish. 

Small Potatoes. — Take potatoes about the 
size of a marble, put them into a stewpan with 
plenty of butter and a good sprinkling of salt, 
cover, and shake occasionally until they are 
quite done, about an hour. 



28 



fACIFie RURAb PRESS. 



Jan. 14, 1888 




A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 



Office, 220 Market St., N. E. cor. Front St., S.F. 
tr Take the Elevator, No. It Front 



Our Subscription Rates. 

Om Sobscriptiom Ratks arb TiiRKK dollars a year, in 
advance. While this notice appears, all subscribers pay- 
ing $3 in advance will receive 13} months' (one year and 
six weeks) credit. For $1.50 in advance, six months and 
three weeks. All agents and clerks are required to 
adhere to these terms. No new names entered on the 
list without payment in advance, our premium offer- 
ings are subject to these terms. 

Advertising Rates. 

1 Week. 1 Month. S Months. 1 Tear. 

Per Line (agate) $.26 1.80 1 2.20 $6.00 

Half inch (1 square). . . 1.00 3.00 8.00 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 14.00 45.00 



SCIENTIFIC PRESS PATENT AGENCY. 
DEWEY & CO., Patbnt Solicitors. 

A. T. DXWST. W. B. KWKR. Q. H . 8TRONG 



Our latent forms go to jrress Wednesday evening. 



Registered atS. F. Post Office as second-class mail matter. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, Jan. 14, 1S88. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



EDITORIALS.— Driving the Jask Rabbits, 21- The 
Week; Pure Food and Medicine; Silk Culture; Dispos- 
ing of Indian Lands, 28. Fly-Infested Grain; Oilroy 
and Vicinity, 29. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. — Ideal Sket-h of a Rabbit 
Drive, as Practiced in the Great Valley of California, 

21. Fig. 1— Healthy Wheat Plant; Fig. 2— Wheat 
Plant Infested by Hessian Fly; bird s-Eye View of Oil- 
roy, Santa Clara County, 29. 

COKRESPONDENOE. - Meandering the Mokel- 
urone; Foothills of Calaveras County, 2<2. 

SHEEP AND WOOL. —The California Wool Prod 
net of 1*S7; Wool Growers' Meeting, 22 

THE VETERINARIAN. — Equine Pneumonia 

22. Retention of Placenta; Swine Pest, 23. 

THE FIELD.— Ramie Culture; Culture of the Sugar 
Beet in Austria, 23. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY— Anti-Debris 
Gains; A Mistake Corrected; Grange Work and Prog- 
ress; The G angers' Bank; The Farmets' Union of San 
Jose; Grange Elections; Grange Installations, 24. 

AGRICULTURAL. NOTES— From the various 
counties of California, 25. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— The River Time; Submis- 
sion; Home Education; Horses vs. Hogs; A Sensible 
Movement; Hobbs' EX(,eiience: Fancy Work, 26 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN — Spreading Fruit 
to Dry; A Story for Boys, 27. 

GOOD HEALTH. — For Smallpox and Scarlet Fever; 
Infants and Nicotine; Little Things that Kill, 27. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. — Unfermenteu Wine; 
Various Recipes, 27. 

FORESTRY. - Protect the Forests, 30 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS- — Protective Taiiff, 30. 

HORTICULTURE.— The Orange Crop of 18S8, 31. 

Business Announcements. 

Agricultural Implements — Bull & Grant Farm Imp't Co. 

Agricultural Implements— Baker & Hamilton. 

Windmills and Pumps — Woodin & Little. 

Imported Stallions — Killip & Co. 

Carbon Bisulphide— J. H. Wheeler. 

Pacific Business College— T. A. Robinson. 

Whale-Oil Soap— Allyne & White. 

Orchard Plows— J. A. Hilz, Plcasanton, Cal. 

Root Grafts Sidney Tuttle & Co., Bloomiugton, 111. 

Laurel Dale Nurseries— Healdsburg, Cal. 

Nursery— John Bidwell, Chico, Cal. 

Organs— C. H. Hammond. 

Cattle and Horses -Seth Cook. 

Trees— California Nursery Company. 

Roses— Hill * Co., Richmond, Ind.' 

ta~ See Advertising Columns. 



The Week. 

As last week's topic was rain, this week's is 
cold. The thermometer has been given a ohance 
to brush the dust out of its lower chambers and 
people have shivered as only Californians can 
when the temperature plays about the freezing 
point, while the abundant tourist who remem- 
bers blizzards and more degrees below 
zero than we have had above, smiles at the 
California idea of what the term "cold" 
means. But seriously we have had a spell of 
weather of unusual severity and the like of 
which we have not known for years, and our 
lack of effective house- heating devices has 
given occasion for our shivers. Snow has 
nestled here and there on the hills in all parts 
of the State and ice has enfilmed standing 
water over a great area of the State where the 
crystal covering is seldom seen. 

We do not hear as yet of much injury to 
vegetation except to such tender plants as the 
callas, heliotropes and geraniums of our gar- 
dens. Possibly in some places the orange has 
been pruned of part of its newest wood, but 
anything more serious is not yet reported. The 
cold snap seems over, and the indicator is set 
again for rain which is the usual sequence of 
low temperature and north winds at this sea- 
son of the year. 



Pure Jf'cod and Medicine. 

Since the days of the elders when the debas- 
ing of foods consisted chiefly of sanding the 
sugar and watering the vinegar in the back- 
room of the retail grocery, there has been most 
alarming progress made in adulterating and de- 
basing nearly all materials which enter into 
the food of man or minister as medicine to the 
cure of the ills to which flesh is heir. So 
vast has been the extent of this evil work and 
so far-reaching the application of the nefarious 
art, that large volumes are published setting 
forth adulterations as fast as discovered, 
and still ingenuity begotten of greed is con- 
stantly devising new abominations more apt to 
deceive the consumer and more difficult of de- 
tection by the expert. As an indication of 
vastness one need only recall the mines of 
white earth which are worked to supply the 
candy-makers and the mills for grinding soft 
wood and other refuse for the use of the spice- 
makers, and these are only items of the great 
debasing industry. 

The problem of checking this evil has been 
energetically taken up in some States, Massa- 
chusetts perhaps having done most to make 
hard the path of greedy evil-doers. As we re- 
cently stated in the Rural, bo strict is the 
surveillance kept of the retail stores of foods 
and drugs in the old Commonwealth that the 
Yankee skill in adulteration has to expend 
itself on articles for shipment to other States, 
as the danger is too great on home sales. The 
result is that the evil goods are shipped to 
other States where no particular attention is 
paid to the matter, and we have no doubt the 
Pacific < 'jast has its full share of these bad 
things to eat, drink and pay for. 

Judging from the experience of Maesachu- 
setts and some other States, the true way to 
cope with the evil is for each State to equip 
itself not only with good laws on the subject, 
but with effective penalties and rewards and 
other executive machinery which shall carry 
the laws into effect. This each State must do 
for itself to meet the adulteration originating 
within its own borders. This State work 
should be supplemented by effort on the part 
of the General Government, and this will come 
before the present session of Congress, urged 
by organized support which will be rallied at 
a meeting to be held at Washington on Wed- 
nesday of next week. This meeting will call 
the attention of Congress to the great evil, 
and submit for its action a national anti- 
adulteration bill. The bill was drafted by the 
Commission, approved by the National Board 
of Trade, and was introduced in the last Con- 
gress, but owing to departmental jealousies, it 
did hot become a law. Public opinion has 
again become so strong in favor of such a law 
that the convention will again recommend the 
measure, together with whatsoever amend- 
ments may seem judicious, and will urge its 
passage by the Fiftieth Congress. The pro- 
posed Act, entitled " A Bill to Prevent Adul- 
teration of Food and Drugs," is the result of 
much patient research by men of talent, who 
undertook their work for the National Board of 
Trade. Although the national Act has not yet 
become a law, another Act, drafted by the Com- 
mission on the same lines for enactment for the 
several States, has become a law in New York, 
New Jersey, Massachusetts, and substantially in 
Illinois and Michigan. It is evident that an 
Act applying to interstate transactions and com- 
merce with foreign countries is needed. All 
States are, therefore, called upon to assist in 
this matter, and each State, other than the 
above, is petitioned to pass a State law in har- 
mony therewith. 

We have received a copy of the bill which 
will be reported and urged at the Wash- 
ington meeting next week. It provides first 
for the establishment of a Governmental bu- 
reau to be attached to such department of the 
Government as Congress may see fit and to be 
called the " Bureau of Adulteration." It shall 
have a chief o Hi cer and a corps of assistants, 
analysts, etc., to carry out its work, which 
shall be in the main to furnish incontestible 
proof of the quality of articles of food or medi- 
cine which may be submitted to it or which 
it may obtain itself for examination. This 
bureau will thus furnish the evidence upon 
which all measures of prosecution, etc., must 
depend. The work of the United States in 
prosecuting evil-doer? in this line must, of 
course, lie within the constitutional to ope of 



the Government, and the prevention of adulter- 
ation, as proposed by the bill, is a somewhat 
roundabout proceeding. Thus, we find that 
outside the District of Columbia and the Ter- 
ritories, over which, of course, the General 
Government has direct control, the penalties 
are fixed against any person or corporation 
which moves adulterated articles from one 
State to another, because interstate commerce 
is open to Government regulation, or imports 
from foreign ports to any State, because all 
imports are regulated by the General Govern- 
ment. The bill provides that any party con- 
victed of transgression in these ways shall be 
fined not more than $100 for the first offense 
and not more than £500, and be imprisoned not 
more than one year or both, for each subse- 
quent offense. 

Other sections of the bill provide for the ex- 
amination of suspected articles, and arrange 
for re-examination of the material at expense of 
the suspect, providing he is not satisfied with 
the first examination of the article. The selec- 
tion of local analysts whose testimony can be 
accepted, is also provided for. The district 
attorneys of the United States are ordered to 
prosecute offenders of this class, and are 
paid for their services by the United States 
Government. 

The definition of food is held to be anything 
which is eaten or drank, and adulteration 
thereof means (a) reducing its strength, (6), 
debasing it by introducing inferior material, (c), 
debasing it by extracting any valuable part, (<£), 
introducing any unwholesome material, (e), 
coloring, coating or polishing so that a base 
article is made to appear like the genuine. 
These items are all described in detail in the Act. 
In the case of drugs, the offense lies in selling 
an inferior material nnder the name fixed by the 
U. S. Pharmacopeia or any other standard 
work on materia medica, or if, when sold 
under another name, it differs from the stand- 
ard of strength, purity, or quality therein; also, 
if, in these reports, it falls below the profession- 
al standard for such drugs. 

Provision is made for frequent publications 
from the Bureau of Adulteration of the results 
of its examinations, and these will probably be 
quite as useful as the prosecutions in informing 
the people and in making the adulterators' busi- 
ness unprofitable. 

There are a host of ways in which such a law 
will be of immense value to Californians, besides 
protecting us as consumers. It would force 
bogus wine-makers out of their arts, it would 
reach the horde of olive oil adulterators, who, 
even in our own city, we are told, are traitors 
to the prosperity of our State by putting up 
false brands of olive oil, hoping to profit by 
their wretched dishonesty because California is 
becoming known as an olive country. The Act 
would also supplement effectively the arrange- 
ments for pure dairy products and do good in 
ways innumerable. We trust the matter will 
commend itself to immediate action by Con- 
gress. 

Silk Culture. 

The Ladies' Silk Culture Society held a meet- 
ing on the afternoon of January 5th at the 
rooms of the State Board of Horticulture, 220 
Sutter street, S. F. Present: Dr. Gibbons, 
president; Mrs. Pratt, secretary, Mrs. Wash- 
burn, Mrs. Kirk, Mrs. W. B. Ewer, Mrs. T. 
H. Hittell and Mr. Ewer. The society's bills 
for the past year showed expenditures amount- 
ing to $1853. The president stated that as 
no meeting had been held in December, 
the bills for that month had not been 
audited, but as he had had some money 
to go on with, these accounts had been paid. 

The total amount of last month's expendi- 
ture had been $334.50, leaving a balance in the 
Union Bank for Savings of $376.94. These 
accounts were audited and passed. The pro- 
posed appropriation for the coming month was 
estimated by the president at $350; an addi- 
tional $50 standing over from the last month's 
credit was also thrown in. On motion, reso- 
lutions to that effect were passed. 

The next meeting is to be held Thursday, 
January 19th, when the new officers are to be 
chosen. 

The State Board expects to receive during 
the current week the long-looked for invoice of 
Italian mulberry trees for distribution to those 
who are desirous of propagating them with a 
view to silk culture. Applications must be 



forwarded to the State Board of Silk Culture, 
21 Montgomery avenue, stating how much land 
will be devoted to the enterprise, and as full 
particulars as possible with reference to the 
quality of the land, location, and other matters 
of interest, so that a judicious distribution may 
be made. As the number of trees is limited, 
applications should be sent in immediately. 



Disposing of Indian Lands. 

We are glad to see that President Cleveland 
has arrived at a conclusion concerning Indian 
reservations, which has been urged in the 
columns of the Rural. We have protested 
against Indian wrongs which have been too fre- 
quent, but at the same time we have claimed 
that holding bodies of good land in excess of 
needs of Indians and for the purpose of herding 
them upon a large area so that they might fol- 
low a sort of ridiculous condensation of their 
old wild life is a bad thing for the Indians, and, 
at the same time, keeps much good land from 
actual settlement. The Indians are valuable as 
laborers, but to labor to advantage there should 
be considerable cultivated areas near by. We 
would, therefore, give each Indian family a 
decent area of land upon which it could live in 
civilized style, and dispose of all the balance of 
the land to aotual settlers who would improve 
it and make a demand for the labor of the 
Indians. 

Something like this seems to be President 
Cleveland's idea, for it is telegraphed that he 
has transmitted to Congress a special message 
and documents relating to the Round Valley 
reservation in California. The President also 
submitted a bill which he asks Congress to pass, 
to provide for the reduction of the Round Valley 
Indian reservation. The bill provides that the 
President be authorized and directed to cause 
the agricultural lands in the Round Valley 
Indian reservation, in the State of Cali- 
fornia, to be surveyed in ten-acre tracts and to 
allot the same in severalty to the Indians be- 
longing thereon; provided, that he may cause 
such agricultural lands to be allotted in such 
quantities and to such classes as he may deem 
expedient for the best interest of the Indians. 
In addition to the agricultural lands there shall 
be reserved a sufficient amount of grazing and 
timber lands for their use. A commission shall 
appraise the value of the remaining lands, which 
shall be sold. 

Uf course there is another question perhaps 
included in the above which we do not intend 
to pass upon in these remarks. It is possible 
that, owing to representations by the Govern- 
ment, certain parties have acquired settlers' 
rights in the area and that the President's plan 
may mean to dispossess these and divide their 
holdings among the Indians. Of course we do 
not approve a plan which would transgress cer- 
tain equities which may exist, nor do we desire 
to defend any claim that may be based upon 
illegal encroachment. All these matters should 
be investigated by an unbiased commission to 
determine what equities really exist. At the 
same time we approve the general idea of set- 
tling the Indians upon individual pieces of land 
of decent sizo and of breaking up the national 
menageries in which the aborigines are now 
herded and from which they go forth from 
time to time on their destructive errands. We 
have had enough experience of this kind. 

State Board of Agriculture.— Some time 
since President Shippee of the State Board of 
Agriculture appointed J. M. Larue and Arthur 
W. Bell to expert the books of Secretary Edwin 
F. Smith. Having finished their work, the ex- 
perts report the accounts correct and the books 
in excellent condition. In going over the sec- 
retary's work for seven years they found but 
one mistake, which amounted to 40 cents, and 
they compliment him as a model officer. The 
Governor last week appointed the following 
members: H. M. Larue, vice self; C. M. 
Chase, S. F.; Jesse D. Carr, Monterey; John 
Boggs, Colusa; D. Perkins, Rooklin, vice P. A. 
Finigan of S. P., who failed to qualify. 

Nevada Laxds. — Onr sister State seems to 
have done a fair business during the past year 
in disposing of her public lands. According to 
the report of the Surveyor-General, there were 
1306 applications to pnrchase State lands filed, 
covering 428.7S3.03 acres, applied for in the 
several counties of the State. The net cash 
paid into the State Treasury for 1887 was 
$139,184.40. 



Jan. 14, 1888.] 



pAClFie ^URAlo p>RESS. 



29 



Fly-Infested Grain. 

Prof. F. M. Webster of Perdue University, 
La Fayette, Indiana, is special agent of the 
Division of Entomology of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, and has been giv- 
ing much time to a study of insects affecting 
cereal crops. The Hessian fly has, therefore, 
naturally claimed his attention, and he has 
made some observations concerning the effect 
of the fly upon the growth of the plant, which 
is very interesting and may prove of consider- 
able practical advantage to growers. As we 
have a small area in this State badly infested 
with the fly, we thought it would interest our 



As they show early in the fall at the East, and 
get quite a growth before snowfall, they also 
have a visitation of the fly in the fall and badly 
infested grain dies during the winter. In Cali- 
fornia, as we do not get much growth until the 
winter rains come, the period at which the fly 
is at work here is later than at the East. The 
bunchy appearance of the plant, the absence of 
central stems, are, however, just what we have 
noticed here, and the plant holds its green, 
bunchy appearance until well along in the sea- 
son, when, probably, being unhealthy and shal- 
low-rooted, it early succumbs to the surface 
drouth and dies out. 
At the East, if Prof. Webster's position be 



An Expensive Sewage System for San 
Diego. — The rapidly increasing population of 
San Diego calls for a thorough and extensive 
system of sewage. Accordingly a plan has 
been devised, somewhat novel in character and 
which will, cost about $400,000. The contract 
has been awarded to Col. Waring. The main 
sewer runs a quarter of a mile into the harbor 
to an outlet reservoir constructed alongside the 
deep-ship channels. The reservoir will have an 
area of one acre, and cost some $50,000. The 
collected sewage will fill this reservoir not 
more than 1£ foot deep. High tide will add 3J 
feet of sea-water to the mass. The contents 
thus diluted will be discharged into the outgo- 



Gilroy and Vioinity. 

[Written for the Rural Press by F. B. L.] 
The city of Gilroy is situated in the south- 
eastern and most picturesque portion of the 
Santa Clara valley, "the garden valley of the 
Pacific Coast," so famous for its beauty, health, 
wealth, productiveness and varied advantages 
as a place of residence. The engraving on this 
page is a faithful representation of the place. 
It is incorporated, has an excellent city govern- 
ment, about 2000 inhabitants, and all the ap- 
pliances for trade, manufactures, education and 
social life usual to much older towns. It is 
connected with the metropolis of the State by 





Fie. 1. -HEALTHY WHEAT PLANT. 



Fig. 2.— WHEAT PLANT INFESTED BY HESSIAN FLY. 



readers, especially those within that area, to 
be informed of Prof. Webster's observations, 
and, possibly, they can furnish notes from 
their own experionce which may be of value to 
him. 

The point of especial moment is 'the way in 
which the growth of the young plant is affected 
by the insect, and in this matter Prof. Web- 
ster holds different views from earlier writers 
on the Hessian fly, and he desires to test his 
observation by that of others wherever the fly 
works in the grain. The illustrations on this 
page serve to make the point clear. 

Fig. 1 represents a healthy wheat plant. 
The leaves are of natural color, the plant is 
well tillered, and these tillers show 
a decided tendency to spread out 
from the oenter. The young, spin- 
dle-shaped leaf, not yet entirely un- 
folded, is always conspicuous in the 
center of each of the tillers. The 
outer, older leaves may or may not 
have turned yellow. 

Fig. 2 represents a wheat plant 
affected by Hessian fly, the flaxseed 
or pupa being shown at a, where 
the insect is now to be found, just 
under the sheath of the plant. If 
the insect has not advanced to this 
stage of development, they will be 
of the same form, but of a whitish 
color. 

The plant itself has not tillered, 
the leaves are of a darker color 
than those of a healthy plant, and 
proportionally broader. The cen- 
tral spindle-shaped leaf is missing 
and the whole plant is only a bunch 
of rank-growing leaves. If only a 
part of the plant is injured, the 
tiller upon which the insect is located will be 
like the one figured here, and the others will 
be as shown in the preceding illustration. In 
any case, the darker color of the leaf, and 
the ahsenoe of the central leaf, together with 
the bunchy appearance of the part affected, will 
readily distinguish a fly-infected plant from one 
not injured. The yellow color of some leaves 
is seldom observed, at this season of the year, 
on fly-infested plants. 

The appearance described by Prof. Webster 
agrees with that which we have observed on 
fly infested grain plats during the progress of 
the experiments at the State University in 
Berkeley, of which we have given accounts in 
the Rural. The time at which this is seen at 
the East ie different from the California period. 



true, the farmer can tell in the fall whether his 
wheat is going to succumb to the fly as well 
as to wait to see it die in the winter, and can 
therefore earlier arrange for resowing or other 
use for the ground. It is possible that the 
same observation may be of value here as indi- 
cating that the field had better be plowed up 
for a summer crop. It is impossible, however, 
to foresee all the benefits of the observation. 
It is desired first to test the truth of it under 
all conditions. 

We should like to hear from our readers 
who have studied the appearance of infested 
plants, and will transmit any observations our 
readers may give us to Prof. Webster that he 



ing tide by automatio gates opening an hour 
after high tide, and closing an hour before low 
tide. Col. Waring will also be employed to 
construct similar works for Stockton and Sac- 
ramento, where the conditions are nearly iden- 
tical with those at San Diego. Col. Waring 
will make wells in various flat parts of those 
cities, connecting with a deep outlet well by 
large siphons. It is stated that Col. Waring 
has employed this plan for two years success- 
fully at Norfolk, Virginia. 



Crop Reports. — The Statistician of the 
Department of Agriculture estimates the area 
of corn harvested at 72,000,000 acres; the prod- 




BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF GILEOY, SANTA ^CLARA COUNTY. 



may have the benefit of them in his work. 



Venus Not the "Star of Bethlehem." — 
The planet Venus, which is now near its great- 
est western elongation from the sun, shines 
brightly every morning in the southeast for two 
or three hours before sunrise. It is well 
worth getting up in time to look at, but some 
people, at onoe ignorant and sentimental, have 
made themselves ridiculous by rushing into 
print with crude prattle about its being the 
"Star of Bethlehem." The like brilliant phe- 
nomenon may be witnessed regularly at inter- 
vals of between eight and nine months, although 
the longer night-hours near the winter solstice 
favor the observer more than the early dawns of 
the summer-time. 



uct, 1,456,000,000 bushels; value, $646,000,000. 
The area of wheat harvested is estimated at 
37,400,000 acres; product, 456,000,000 bushels; 
value, $309,000,000. The area of oats har- 
vested was 26,000,000 acres; product, 659,000,- 
000 bushels; value, $200,000,000. The reports 
of winter wheat do not show much decrease 
of area. The average decline appears to be 
between one and two per cent. The condition 
is affected somewhat by the dryness of the 
seedbed in the districts that suffered from 
drought, delaying seeding, germination and 
growth. The average condition is .95. The 
condition of winter rye corresponds very close- 
ly to that of wheat. 



Philadelphia fears a coal famine. 



the Southern Pacific railroad, and with the 
world at large by two lines of telegraph. 

The Uvas valley, a few miles northwest of 
Gilroy, is becoming justly famous for its vine- 
yards and orchards. It is well sheltered by 
hills, and otherwise specially adapted to this 
important industry. To the south and east- 
ward adjoining the townsite lies an immense 
tract of the most fertile land in the State 
owned for the most part by Henry Miller, Esq., 
of the well-known firm of Miller & Lux, and 
devoted to stock-raising and dairying pur- 
poses. 

With the varied advantages of location, soil, 
climate and productions which Gilroy may 
justly claim, the stranger is struck with sur- 
prise that a greater development has not been 
wrought, and that more has not been heard 
concerning its claims for the home-seeker. 

The explanation, however, is that until re- 
cently no valid titles could be obtained. The 
Las Animas rancho, a Spanish grant confirmed 
by U. S. patent and covering 21,377 acres, has 
been partitioned as the law provides in such 
cases, and every owner is now secure in his in- 
dividual allotment. Large and email tracts are 
advertised for sale, and good opportunities to 
secure choice tracts are open to purchase. The 
titles of other settled grants, and of the public 
lands, are free from cloud, and buyers can feel 
secure in all their investments. 

The foothills west of the city have been test- 
ed and are proving to be specially adapted to 
fruit culture, and will doubtless in a few years 
be covered with vines, fruit trees and lovely 
homes. 

Ten miles in an easterly direction is situate 
the settlement of San Felipe. It is a veritable 
garden. The farms are usually from 40 to 160 
acres in size and bear unmistakable evidences 
of the thrift and taste of their owners. At this 
place is located J. D. Culp's cigar factory, from 
which millions of cigars have been shipped 
within the past few years, the tobacco having 
been produced in the vicinity. At this place is 
also located the San Felipe cheese factory, 
owned and managed by Mr. C. S. Putnam, who 
has succeeded in placing a superior brand upon 
the market. The yearly produot of this fac- 
tory is 120,000 pounds. 

As to pleasure resets, the country is 
abundantly supplied. Six miles south is Camp 
Sargent, the name by which the clubhouse and 
picnic-grounds connected therewith will be here- 
after known. It is becoming popular as a quiet 
retreat. Twelve miles west are the Gilroy Hot 
Springs, celebrated for the curative properties 



30 



fACIFie FyjRAlo p>RESS. 



[Jan. 14, 1888 



which the waters possess. Within easy distance 
are the MadroDa Soda Springs, which have also 
just claims on the health seekers, while a little 
lurther to the north is the sanitarium known as 
Glenwillis, which is undergoing much improve- 
ment by its energetic proprietor. 

Among those whom the writer was placed 
under special obligations during his short stay 
at Gilroy was F. W. Blake, E-q , editor and 
proprietor of the Gilroy Advocate, a gentleman 
who has labored untiringly to bring to the 
notice of the outside world the vait undevel- 
oped resources of this fertile section of country. 

Echoes From Oroville Fair. 

[Written (or the Rural Prkss by M. C. B.) 

The idea of a canvas tent for a citrus fair in 
the midst of winter tells its own tale in behalf 
of the mild and uniform climate enjoyed by the 
people of Butte county, and no better plan 
could have been adopted to dispel the errone- 
ous notion that Oroville and its people are ex- 
posed to frost and snows. Such belief is incom- 
patible with the products of the county, and 
many Eastern people who had the privilege of 
visiting the fair gave full vent to their agree- 
able disappointment, and, without further 
proofs, immediately made large investments in 
property. The oldest inhabitant of this district 
sees snow only on the mountains in the winter 
season, but he sees all along the foothills the 
finest specimens of oranges and other citrus 
fruits growing in profusion. It is to us an 
agreeable duty to state facts, and we should 
not be discharging that duty if we allowed to 
go uncorrected such erroneous opinions respect- 
ing the climate of Butte county. 

It is too true that the people have for a long 
time neglected their opportunities and trill -d 
with the advantages which nature has so freely 
bestowed on them, and if Mr. E. W. Fogg, the 
popular and energetic manager of the bank in 
Oroville, had not had the pluck and vigor to 
push the Citrus Fair onward, the lethargy in 
which Butte county has for years been lying 
would still have been unbroken. He has 
worked hard to accomplish the first step lead- 
ing to a successful issue, and judging from the 
results accruing from the fair, a great future 
awaits this locality. Mr. Fogg has had the 
untiring efforts of D. K. Perkins, the farmers' 
friend, and with the united efforts of Messrs. 
Ball, Friesiebein, J. C. Gray, Major McLaugh- 
lin, J. M. Green and Major Jones, the indefati- 
gable manager of Thermalito, the Citrus Fair 
has far exceeded the most sanguine expecta- 
tions and won laurels for the soil and climate 
of Butte county. 

[la the list of awards at the Citrus Fair, 
printed in the Press last week, the first para- 
graph came to us defective. We are now en- 
abled to give it corrected, as follows: — Eds. 
Press ] 

Oranges — Best individual exhibits— ist, C. H. 
Wilcox; 2d, Joe Gardella; 3d, T. B. Hutchins, Cen- 
tral house; 4th, H. C. Bell; 5th, H. W. Skinner; 
6th, Hutte County Infirmary, Therma'ito; 7th, Watt 
ft. Pence, Mesilla Valley; 8th, Jas. Wheelt-r, 
Wyman's ravine; o/.h, Mrs. S. S. Boynton; iolh, 
C. F. Lott. 

The Hay-Fork Swindle. 

The Suisun Republican publishes a reminder 
of the " Hay-fork Swindle," the working of 
which was described in the Rural Press of 
Feb. 12, 1SS7. It says: About a year ago 
Coulter ft Jones passed through our State, ap- 
pointing agents to sell some patent hay-forks. 
Part of their plan was to have a farmer take an 
agency and have him sign his name twice upon 
some paper which the farmer supposed was an 
agreement to sell hay forks, but which in a 
short time turns up in a third man's hands in 
the shape of a note for §500. 

Four men in our county were canght in the 
trap so skillfully laid by Coulter ft Co., namely: 
Mr. Blair of Maine Prairie, Mr. Ribert* of El- 
mira, Mr. Eibe of Dixon, and Mr. McDermott 
of Suisun. The note of Blair soon after turned 
up in the hands of one Bidell, whom we are 
told represented himself as an innocent third 
party and cashier of the Colusa bank. By him 
Mr. Blair was induced to take up the original 
document and execute a note in the name of 
Bidell for §450, which he paid this fall. Mr. 
Eibe, we are told, has also settled his, while 
Roberts and McDermott, whose so-called notes 
are held by Bidell, are going to contest their 
payment. Already has McDermott been noti- 
fied to answer to a complaint filed against him 
by the holder of the paper he signed tor Coulter 
& Jones. 

Yolo county was caught the same way, but 
the Woodland people caught Coulter & J >nes 
and made them disgorge to save a trip to State 
prison. They very willingly paid np the court 
expenses, the lawyers' expenses, and settled 
with the holders of their so-called notes, after 
which they skipped by the light of the moon, 
and are now working their hay-fork business in 
Canada, while their paper remains here to be 
collected by third parties. 

We hope our readers will bear in mind the 
injunction: Never sign any piper without 
reading it through and through; and never 
sign any paper whatever for a stranger. 

The Rural. — A Placer county reader writes : 
" We all like the Pacific Rural Press, and 
consider it the best agricultural paper pub- 
lished." 



Protect the Forests! 

Editors Press: — In taking a trip to Like 
Tahoe and wandering day after day over land 
that on account of its altitude is entirely unfit 
for agriculture and will always be devoted to 
forests, the naturalist cannot help feeling 
sad when he sees on one side the boundless 
prolificacy of nature everywhere where a chance 
is left to her, and feels the warm sun and the 
balmy air, and on the other sees that man does 
everything to check nature in her beneficent 
creation. 

On the long road from Rocklin, to Auburn, to 
Summit, to Truckee, and around the whole lake 
with the only exceptions of Tallac and Idlewild, 
is not one single acre of land which would de- 
serve the name of forest; nothing but pasture 
on which a few small pines cover at the utmost 
a third of the ground, and perhaps valueless 
underbrush, chaparral and aagebrut-h. Almost 
everywhere we see that sprouting young trees 
have been killed by destroying fire or voracious 
cattle. Often for miles, as for instance between 
Towle's Station and Emigrant Gap, we rode 
over land where not only all the tender plants 
but even trees 50 feet high had been destroyed 
by a recent fire, and on the whole track not a 
single green leaf was left. When we travel 
further away from the frequented roads, high 
up in the Sierras, where the covetous lumber- 
man has not come yet, we nevertheless will 
distinctly remark man's deetructiveness. Along 
the recently built road from Priest's down into 
Yosemite valley almost every tree is burnt 
out. The men working at the road evidently 
thought it a fine j ike and splendid spectacle to 
have such giant torches in the evening. Not 
seldom we saw the foot of trees five and six 
feet in diameter bereft of the bark, that the 
tree might get dry and rotten, and thus its 
shade not prevent the graBS from growing. 
Trees over '200 feet long were cut down and 
only a very little piece of the top was used for 
a few shakes. 

In the view of such a senseless destruction 
we must call out: Will then never one nation 
learn by the disasters of the others? If this he 
said of nations, what is to be said of single 
men? One will never miss the water until the 
weli goes dry. Shall this most beautiful 
country of the earth--that is, at least, of the four 
parts in which I have traveled — succnmb to the 
same sad fate as the mo t beautiful countries of 
old? Will its quick development only precede 
its quicker ruin ? 

Let us look for a moment on some of those 
ancient countries. The Garden of Eden, the 
cradle of manhood, is by a good many authors 
believed to have been in that most productive 
region between Euphrates and Tigris, where, 
also, the largest cities have been. Babylon and 
Nineveh which according to the Holy Scripture 
(Jonah iii: 3), were 12 miles in diameter, to-day 
there \» one immense desert; nothing as far as 
eye can see but rock and sand, where in former 
times have been the vast forests in which Nim- 
rod used to go hunting and Semiramis gather- 
ed the flowers for her hanging gardens. 

The ancient GreekB thought the island of 
Cyprus the most beautiful country. There 
they located the birthplace of Venn*; to-day a 
great part of the island is entirely barren; the 
women are prominent by their ugliness; the for- 
ests are extirpated except on the tops of the 
mountains. When we heard there that carob and 
olive groves were cut down because the Turkish 
Government laid taxes on these trees, we 
thought the Turks the grandest vandals on 
earth; but seeing the wanton devastation 
near Yosemite, we became doubtful. 

Pa'eBtine was the promised land where milk 
and honey flowed. To day for miles and miles 
there is not a tree, not a green spot, not a 
blade of grass. Quite natural; the cedars of 
Lebanon and the balms of Gilead (a species of 
spruce) have disappeared; both mountain 
ranges are devastated. On the former we found 
only seven big sickly trees which since that 
time, probably, have fallen victims to the desire 
of relics by Anglo-Saxons and others. 

Where in Italy was the voluptuous Capua, 
there are now the Pontinic swamps; where the 
three temples of P-jstum are a proof that a 
dense population wa9 living around them, now 
only a few fever-sick buffalo-herders are to be 
seen. No man can stand there over night 
without getting the malaria, which is by far 
more dangerous than the Californian disease of 
the same name. But the wooded mountains of 
which we read in Livy are to-day bare of every 
vegetation. 

Spain dates her descent from the time 
when Philip II had cut down the vast forests 
of Andalusia and Catalonia to build the grand 
Armada, which other fl;ets followed for the 
discovering ot the new countries. But after 
the forests had gone, all the riches of her Amer 
ican colonies could not stop the decline of 
Spain. 

We could enumerate a hundred other sam- 
ples. There is, indeed, no land in the Old 
World which would not give proof to our 
theory that the prosperity of a country de- 
pends on its forests, and such proofs are not 
missing in America. In Mexico great villages 
are desolated, canals, springs and rivers are 
dried up. The Tarigua lake is receding every 
year. The Croton river does not supply as 
much drinking water for New York as in for- 
mer years, The Hudson is less navigable than 



before the Adirondacks were cut down. The 
freshets of the Ohio and other rivers are in- 
creasing. The droughts in the interior become 
longer. 

That the destruction of forests is the cause 
of this change of climate we will prove now by 
natural laws. An area covered with plants 
will evaporate by far more than a barren area. 
No land is covered more, and therefore will 
evaporate more, than a forest. This evapora- 
tion causes the air to become cold. When now 
a wind from the surrounding air strikes this 
layer of cold air, it cannot hold as much water 
as before, when it was warmer, and rain mast 
fall. These are natural laws which every one 
will understand who has a small idea of natural 
philosophy or meteorology. Thus it is proven 
that forests will attract rain. The rain incom- 
ing down strikes iirst the leaves and limbs and 
drops by and by to the ground; it does not 
come down at once in a rush, and therefore will 
not cause any freshets. The ground itself is 
covered with a layer of leaves, rotten limbs, 
mosses, etc., humus which will detain the water 
like a sponge and gradually let it sink into the 
ground from where it nourishes the springs 
which never will run dry, bat always yield the 
moisture necessary to every growth. 

Where the land to a reasonable degree is cov- 
ered with forests, the conditions necessary to 
every growth, necessary to every life, will be 
fulfilled; while in a country entirely without 
forests no raiu whatever will fall, as this is 
the case in the deserts of Sihara and Gobi, 
and in the interior of Peru, and no living being 
can exist for a long time. In the above-named 
countries, beautiful in olden times, and de- 
serted to-day, rain now seldom falls, and it 
will then pour down to cause freshets, to do 
more harm than good. 

If theCalifornians wish that their country shall 
stay as beautiful as it is, that not only they them 
selves bat their children and children's children 
may enj iy this moat blessed country of the 
earth, they must protect their forests. And so 
very easily this could be done, as we see on the 
few places where neither fire nor cattle have 
tampered in the last years. In Donner Lake 
park is a splendid grove of young pines which 
would delight the eye of every European for- 
ester, and in the Big Trees Grove of Calaveras 
innumerable young trees cover the ground, 
while hardly one tree can be found of the age 
between 20 and 200 years. For about 20 years 
the grove has been a national park. 

With little care and a trifle of knowledge, 
the forests could be managed in such a way 
that when they are cut down there would be 
already by natural way a perfect forest of 
young trees, just as it is done in the Black 
Forests, where besides on account of this man- 
agement, one acre will yield per annum for all 
time to come, more than half as mach ($1.50) 
as here can be realized by the sale of the land. 

There is now a bill for the Protection of For- 
est Lands belonging to the United States, laid 
before Coneress, according to which all Gov- 
ernment landa]not suited to agriculture shall be 
withdrawn from sale and entry. The Forest 
Commiaaioners shall have power to appoint for- 
est police and guardians to mark out such timber 
as should properly be cut, and sell the same, 
and to regulate pasturage. 

This is a very great and important step 
toward the preservation of the forests, toward 
the preservation of California; and every news- 
paper, every intelligent man should do all in 
their power that this bill may become a law. 

Auburn, Cat. F. Closs. 



Protective Tariff. 



Editors Press : — The importance of the 
tariff question, as indicated in your editorial of 
Dec. 31, 1887, has led me to write briefly upon 
the industrial interests of this country as 
affected by the tariff on imports. 

The policy of protection to American indus- 
try has been steadily maintained since 1861, 
and a change in that policy, which is now 
threatened, means a large and permanent re- 
duction in the wages of American labor and loss 
of capital invested in manufacturing. The 
value of a protective policy to this country can 
be clearly demonstrated. 

The census of 1860 Bhowed the value of all 
property in the United States to be $14,000,- 
000,000, the net result of the labor and savings 
of our people since the settlement of the 
country. 

The census of 1880 returned $14,000,000,000 
as the value of all the property of the nation, 
an increase of about 300 per cent in 20 years, 
during which time the business of the country 
was encouraged and protected by a tariff. 

It is charged that the foreign commerce of 
the United States has declined under the in- 
fluence of the tariff. This is not so. Foreign 
commerce, representing the exports and im- 
ports of the country, has since 1800 reached in 
value something like $30,000,000,000. 

The magnitude of our exports is shown by 
the official statement that they amounted to 
$9,000,000,000 op to 1S60, and since that 
date to the present, the sum of $20,000,- 
000,000, as nearly as can be obtained. All 
these exports were the products of American 
labor— evidence that the tariff does not injure 
our export trade. 

The agricultural interests of the country have 



been greatly benefited and enriched by protec- 
tion. The wealth of many of the agricultural 
States has more than doubled Bince 1860, and 
in this respect has surpassed many manufact- 
uring States: instance Iowa and Massachusetts. 

The farmers have realized the benefits of a 
good home market for their products; as they 
have since 1860 sold five bushels of wheat at 
home to one exported, and 100 bushels of oorn 
to one peck exported. This I think they will 
bear me testimony is a fair estimate. 

As the margin of profit in foreign markets 
becomes less and less each year, owing to close 
competition, we value more and more our home 
market, which has grown to such vast propor- 
tions under the inspiration of a fostering gov- 
ernment. 

The growth and consumption of food prod- 
ucts and manufactures at home give us some 
conception of the value and extent of the inter- 
nal commerce of the United States. 

These internal exchanges are estimated by 
the Treasury Department to be annually 20 
times as great in amount as our foreign com- 
merce. 

It is into this vast and rich field of home 
trade, the creation and heritage of the Ameri- 
can people, that foreign nations are making 
every effort to enter. 

Yes ! it is into this domain of internal com- 
merce that the enemies of protection would ad- 
mit without price the countries of Europe and 
Asia with their hoards of impoverished and 
cheap laborers — countries to which we would 
be surrendering every advantage and receiving 
no adequate return. 

What is this but a gigantic communism plac- 
ing the fortunes and lives of our people at the 
mercy of a foreign power, the basis of whose 
system is found in the cheapening of materials 
of manufacture and of labor ? 

The Congress of these United States forbid ! 
Let the great and noble dead speak out their 
living and burning words in our great need of 
counsel and direction, as a people, in this 
emergency. 

What have they said and written on this 
subject of protection ? The following extracts 
made from their writings answer this question 
and form instructive reading at this time: 

" I have always promoted agriculture, industry 
and foreign trade. Though an empire were made 
of adamant, free trade would grind it to powder." — 
Napoleon Bonai-arte. 

" Agriculture without a market, industry without 
j protection, languish and decline." — Alexander 
j 2D, Emperor of Russia. 

" England produces ten times as much as her con- 
sumption and hrr existence depends upon consumers 
which she seeks everywhere without herself embrac- 
ing the world, but vul erable everywhere. France 
has her consumers within herself and is more solid 
than England."— M. Thiers. 

" The operation of free trade in France would ruin 
our fabrics and build up England's. France de- 
clines to adopt the system." — M. de St. Cricq, 
French Minister of Commerce. 

" Laws that prevent the importation of foreign 
luxuries and medless manulactures strengthen a 
nation doubly by increasing its own people and di- 
minishing its neighbors." — Beniamin Franklin. 

" It is the interest of a community, with a view to 
eveniual and permanent economy, to eno urage ihe 
grow th of manufaciures; the temporary enhancement 
of price must always be well compensated by a per- 
manent reduction of it to the minimum of a reason- 
able profit on the capital employed, which does away 
with everything like monopoly." — Alexander 
Hamilton. 

" Congress has repeatedly, and not without suc- 
cess, directed thtir attention to manufactures. The 
object is of too much const quence not to insure a 
continuance of Iheir efforts in every way which shall 
appear eligible. Against the insidious wiles of foreign 
ir Alienee, one of the most baneful foes of Republican 
Government, the jealousy ol a free people ought 10 
be constantly awake.''— George Washington. 

" The present Constitution was dictated by com- 
mercial necessity mo't than any olher cause. The 
want of an efficient Govrrnment to secure Ihe manu- 
facturing interest and to advance our commerce was 
long seen by mm of judgment, and pointed out by 
patriots, solicitous to promote our general welfare. ' 
—Fisher Ames. 

" Congress should make such further alterations 
in the laws as will more especially protect and fos- 
ter the seviral branches of manulaciure which have 
been recently instituted or extended by the I md.ible 
exertions of our citizens. " — James Madison. 

"Our manufactures w II require the systematic 
and lostering care of the Government; possessing as 
we do all the raw material, the fruit of our soil and 
industry, wc ought not 10 depend in the degree we 
have done on supplies from olher counlries. 

" The capital which nourishes our manufactures 
should be domestic, as its influence would be ad- 
vantageously felt on agriculture and every branch of 
industry."— James Monroe. 

" Upon the success of our manufactures as the 
handmaid of agriculiure and commerce depends in 
a great measure the independence of our country, 
and none can feel more sensibly than I do the ne- 
cessity of encouraging them. 

" Providence has filled our mountains and plains 
with minerals, with lead, iron and copper, and given 
us a clinme and soil for the growing of hemp and 
wool; these being the great material of our national 
defense, ought to have extended to them adequate 
and fair protection, that our manufaciures and la- 
borers may be placed in a fair competition with those 
of Europe." — Andrew Jackson. 

" Is the self-protecting energy of this nation so 
helpless and the Congress of the Union 50 impo- 
tent to restore the balance in favor of native indus- 
try, that all our people shall pay tribute to foreign 
industry and be clad in a foreign garb? 

" The tariff of 1842 has wrought wonders for the 
purposes for which it was enacted — the procurement 
of an adequate revenue and of protection for the na- 



Jan. 14, 1888.] 



pACIFie RLJRAId press. 



3' 



tive industry and free labor of the land.'' — John 
Quincy Adams. 

" During the war of 1812 the Government and the 
people hud to pay extravagant prices for manufact- 
ured articles, because our own manufactures had 
not before that period been encouraged by proper 
protecting duties 

"It is a just comment upon the policy of that coun- 
try which will not afford a reasonable protection to 
its own domestic industry and thereby gives to for- 
eigners a decided preference in its markets." — 
James Buchanan. 

" Shall we make our own comforts or go without 
them at the will of a foieign nation ? 

" To be independent for the comforts of life, we 
must fabricate them ourselves. Manufactures are 
now as necessary to our independence as lo our 
comfort.' —Thomas Jefferson. 

" When our manufactures are grown to a certain 
perfection, as soon they will under the fostering care 
of the Government, we will no longer exp-rience 
these evils, resulting from a drain of specie under a 
free-trade system. The farmer will find a ready 
market for his surplus produce, and a certain and 
cheap supply of all his wants.' —John C. Calhoun. 

" The proposition to be maintained by our adver- 
saries is, that manufactures without protection will, 
in due time, spring up in the country, and sustain 
themselves in competition wiih foreign fabrics. Now 
I contend that this proposition is refuted by all ex- 
perience, ancient and modern, in every country.'' — 
Henky Clay. 

" The protection of American labor against the in- 
jurious competition of foreign labor, so far, at least, 
as respects general handicraft productions, is known 
historically to have been one end designed to be ob- 
tained by establishing the Constitution; and this ob- 
ject and the Constitutional power to accomplish it 
ought never to be surrendered or compromised in 
any degree.''— Daniel Webster. 

Without further argument I submit the ques- 
tion, cnfi lent of a j net judgment. 

Wrujhtx, Santa Clara Co. W. H. Aiken. 



Horticulture. 



land was planted some years ago. There are 
occasional new orchards put in where apricots 
or other deciduous fruits are being taken out, 
but the bulk of the increased crop will come 
from the advanced age of the trees planted from 
5 to 10 years ago. Many thousand seedling 
trees were planted in Riverside along in 1879 
and 1880, and these trees are just beginning to 
show some return, and in a few years more will 
yield very heavily. The Washington (River- 
side) Navel crop will not much exceed that of 
last year. The fruit is splitting a little all over 
the valley. The Mediterranean Sweet crop will 
generally be much larger than it was one year 
ago. The shipments from Riverside in 1886 
were a little over 500 carloads, in 1887 about 
350 carloads, and for 1888 the prospect is good 
for about 700 carloads, though conservative men 
place the estimate 100 carloads lower. 

The chief shipping points for oranges from 
Southern California are the San Gabriel valley 
(including the Duarte and Azuea), Riverside, 
and the Santa Ana valley. The orange orchards 
in and around Los Angeles have been mainly 
cut up into town lots, and the white scale is 
making serious inroads upon the orchards not 
yet subdivided. Inside of three years more 
there will also be very heavy shipments from 
Pomona, Ontario, Cucamonga, Redlands and 
other foothill settlements. 



The Orange Crop of 1888. 

The Rural Californian has been looking up 
the orange prospects for the coming year, and 
gives the following as the result of its investiga- 
tions : 

Orange prospects are exceedingly good this 
season in all parts of Southern California, and 
indications now point to a total shipment of 
from 2200 to 2500 carloads, as against 1600 car- 
loads last season. The Mediterranean Sweets 
and Seedlings were both a little "off" last 
winter, but are making up for it in fine shape 
now. The Washington Navel crop will be con- 
siderably heavier than one year ago, the in- 
crease being due almost entirely to the large 
number of young trees just coming into bear- 
ing. Three and four years ago the planting of 
new groves was largely of this variety, and in 
the season of 1885 we planted 80,000 Washing- 
ton Navel orange trees in California out of a 
total planting ot 95,000 trees. In view of this 
heavy planting ot a single variety it is safe to 
estimate that within three years more thin one- 
half the entire crop of California oranges will 
be Washington Nivels. It is a serious question, 
however, whether or not thi3 orange can hold 
its present place at the head of the list. As it 
grows older the Washington Navel shows a de- 
cided shyness in bearing, and, after late irriga- 
tions, the sap flows so freely that the fruit in 
some localities splits quite badly. 

A. J. Twogood of Riverside, oneof the oldest 
and most successful orange-growers in Califor- 
nia, was recently asked by the writer what he 
would plant if he owned 20 acres of improved 
land. His reply was : " If the land was suit- 
able I would plant it solid to oranges. Of va- 
rieties I would plant one-half Seedlings, one- 
fourth Mediterranean Sweets and one-fourth 
Washington Navels. Were I a younger man 
and able to wait for the returns, I would plant 
the entire 20 acres to Seedling oranges." This 
reply is significant, coming from such authority . 
It may be proper to say also that Mr. Two- 
good's partiality for the Seedling orange is 
backed up by the fact that he was until recently 
the owner of six acres of Seedling oranges, 
which last spring yielded fruit worth $7200, an 
average of $1200 an acre. 

Throughout the Santa Ana valley the red 
scale, which one year ago threatened to de- 
stroy all the orange groves, has largely disap- 
peared and the crop will be much better than 
it was one year ago. The recent appearance 
of an unknown disease among the raisin grape- 
vines of that valley will cause increased atten- 
tion to be given to the orange culture. 

In the San Gibriel valley Mr. A. V. Chap- 
man, Col. J. R. Dobbins, Mr. L. H. Titus, 
and other large growers, report very fine pros- 
pects for the orange output of 1888. The 
trees are well loaded and the fruit is large 
and fine looking for this season of the year. 

Ontario, Pomona and Cucamonga, all new 
settlements, are largely planted to budded 
fruit, and will make some shipments of choice 
oranges. The young trees in these settle- 
ments, mainly in the hands of thrifty Eastern 
people, have received especially good care and 
will reward their owners with a handsome 
return this season. 

At Riverside, so far as we can learn from per- 
sonal observations and interviews with leading 
growers, the crop will be the largest yet mar- 
keted. The new planting in this almost exclu- 
sive orange settlement has been very light for 
several years past, as compared with other colo- 
nies, principally because nearly all the available 



PROOFING! 






,00 W» ,oSjyfr «o , 

AJ^"D AJsfY GLIM ATE. O 

M.EHRET Jr.&Co. 

■ XI SOLE MANUFACTURERS. fX} • 

113 N. 8th St., ST. LOUIS, M0, 

W. E. CAMPE, Agent. 




Hall's Pulmonary Balsam, 



A superior remedy for Coughs, Colds, Incipient Con- 
sum Hon and all Throat and Lunir Troubles, Sold by 
all Druggists for 50 cents. J. R G \ TES & CO., Pro- 
prietor-, 417 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



GO TO THE OLDEST ANU THE BEST. 




LIFE SCHOLARSHIPS, $75. 

No Vacations. Day and Eyknino Sbss-ons. 

Ladies admitted into all Departments. 
Address: T. A. ROBINSON, ML A., President. 




PIANOFORTES. 

UNEQUALLED IN 

Tone Tonch Workmanship and Durability. 

WILLI A M KMBE A- CO. 

Baltimore, 22 and 24 East Baltimore Street. 
Nbw York, 112 Fifth ave. Washington, S17 Market space. 



SPRAY PUMPS. 

Now is the time to buy. Do not waste money on poor 
pumps with leather valves, but buy the "CLIMAX 
SPRAY POMPS," the only pump baving all its 
parts made of non-corrosive metal, and the very 
best Spray Pump in the market. 

Send lor circulars and prices. Ilose furnished to 
farmers at wholesale prices. 

CAL. FIRE APPARATUS M'F'G CO.. 

18 California St., S. F 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending December 31, 1887, the Board 
of Directors of the German Savings and Loan Society 
has declared a dividend at the rate of four and one-half 
(4ii per cent per annum on term deposits, and three 
and thrte fourths (3j) per cent per annum on ordinary 
deposits, and payable on and after Tuesday, the 3d day 
of January, 1888, By order 

GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 




Brilliant! 
Durable ! 

Economical! 

33 COLORS. io cents each. 
The PUREST, STRONGEST and FASTEST 

of all Dyes. Warranted to Dye the most goods, and 
give the best colors. One package colors one to four 
pounds of Dress Goods, Carpet Rags. Yarns, etc. 
Unequalled for Feathers, Ribbons, and all Fancy 
Dyeing. Any one can use them. 

The Only Saf- ami Unadulterated Dyes . 

Send postal for Dye Book, SampleCard, directions 
for coloring Photos., making the finest Ink or Bluing 
(io cts. a quart), etc. Sold by Di uggists. Address 

WELLS . RICH ARDSON & CO.. Burling ton, Vt. 

For Gilding or Bronzing Fancy Articles, USE 

DIAMOND PAINTS. 

Gold, Silver, Bronze, Copper. Only IO Cents. 



Gasoline Stoves. 

No smoke, No soot and Absolutely Safe. 

Less Expensive to Operate than Wood or 
Coal Stoves, 

ALBRECHT & SMITH 

Pacific Coast Agents, 

1386 MARKET STREET, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 









SPECTACLES, OPTICALGOODS 
PHOTOGRAPHIC OUTFITS etc 

HIRSCHKAHN&CO. 

333 KEARNlY STREET. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



Microscopes, Telescopes. Field & Opera Glasses, 
Magic Lanterns, Barometers, Thermometers, 
Compasses, Electric Batteries. Drawing, Mining, 
Surveying and other Scientific Instruments. 

(Xr* Send for Illustrated Catalogue and Eye Tests, free. 



The WHITE IS KINb 

FOR FAMILY USE, 

Dressmaking, Tailoring and Gen- 
eral Mannfactoring. 



IN ITS GREAT RANGE OF WORK IT 
STANDS WITHOUT AN EQUAL. 

THE LIGHTEST RUNNING, 

THE MOST DURABLE, 

THE FINEST FINISHED, 

THE BEST SATISFYING. 

WHITE SEWING MACHINE COMPANY, 

108 & 110 POST ST., S. P. 



This space is reserved for the 
NEW HOME SEWING MACHINE 
COMPANY, 725 Market St., Ban- 
croft History Building-, S. P., Cal. 



IT STANDS AT THE HEAD! 




RUNNING 




DO NOT FAIL to SEE THE " DOMESTIC " 

Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 

It is the leader in practical progress. Send for price lis 
o J W. EVANS, 29 Post St., S. P. 




SEND STAMP FOR 
80-PAGE ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

of Buns, Pistols, Cartridges, Powder, Shells, Air Guns, 
Hunting Coats, Lrggings, Loading Implements, Base Ball 
Goo 's, Lawn Tennis, Hoxing, Fencing and Gymnasium 
Goods, Dumb Hells. Hammocks, etc. 
Fine Oun work dune by first-class smiths. 
GEO. W. SHREVE, 
525 Kearny Street, San Francisco. Cal. 

MEMORY 

Wholly unlike artificial systems. 
Anv hook learned in one reaninar. 

Recommended by Mark Twain. Richard PitOCTOlt, 
the Sc ie ntist, ll.ms. W. W. Asron, Judah P. Benja- 
min, Dr Minor, Ac. Class of lull Columbia Law stud- 
ents- two elassi'H ot -.'llll earh at Yale; 4(1(1 at University 
of Perm. Phila. ,4li(l at, Wellesley College and three large 
classes at Chant .'uu|iia University Ac. Prospectus 1-osT 
jTBEHfrom PHOF. LOISETTK 287 Fifth Ave„ N.Y. 



FERTILIZERS! 

Feed the Land and it Will Feed You. 



Fertilizers lessen the necessity for irrigation, increase the yield, 
improve the quality of crops, and keep the soil in a 
strong, healthy condition. 

Special Fertilizers for all Crops. 

THE CALIFORNIA BONE FERTILIZERS ARE CHEAPER THAN 
BARN-YARD MANURE. 

Owirig to the gratifying success our product has met wi'h during the past season, we fee 
greatly encouraged in offciing our Fertilizers, and can guarantee our patrons that our former 
standard of excellence will be fully maintained. 

Send for circulars, with price and full information, to 

California Bone Meal and Fertilizer Co., 



XXG O^VXjIX^OJFUXTIA ST, 



jsyvjsr FRANCISCO. 



32 



f ACIFIG I^URAL> f RESS. 



[Jan. 14, 1888 



THE MUSICAL 1888. H. M. NEWHALL & CO. 



As the musical toV'HR heaves in sight, we creet 
it with the "sound of c.irnet" (or any other musical 
instrument, for all of which Oliver Ditaon & Co. 
provide the very best Instruction Books). 

With the New Year, many new pupils will commence 
to learn the Piano; to them and their teachers we com- 
mend 

RICHARDSON'S NEW METHOD 

FOR THE PIANOFORTE, 

A peerless book, which has held the lead for many ycar9, 
and, unaffecte i by the spfiearance of other undoubtedly 
excellent instructors, Btill sells like a new book. Price $3 

CHILDREN'S DIADEM 

(SO cents, S3 per dozen) is filled with happy and beautiful 
Sunday School Songs, and is one of the beBt of its class. 
The newest book. 

UNITED VOICES 

(50 cents, 34.80 per dozen) furnishes abundance of the 
best School Sokos for a whole year. The newest book. 

Books that Sell Everywhere aid all the Time: 

College .Songs. 50 cents; War Songs, SO cents; 
Jubilee and Plantation Soners, 30 cents; Min- 
strel Songs new and old, £2; Good Old Songs 
we used I o sing, 31. 

KINK I \S COPY ROOK (75 cents), with the Ele- 
ments and Exercises to be written, is a useful book for 
teachers and scholars. 
tW book mailed for the retail price. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., Boston. 

C. H. DITSON & CO., - • 867 Broadway, New York. 
TXTo. 107 $23.00. 




California Inventors 



Should consult 
J DEWEY & CO. 

AM E R I CA N 

AND Forfjon Patent SonciToft.s, for obtaining Patents 
and Caveats. Estal.li.-hed in 1860. Their long experience as 
journalists and large practice as Fateut attorneys enables 
them to offer Pacific Coast Inventors far better service 'bau 
they can obtain elsewhere. Send for free circulars of infor- 
mation. Office of the Mining and Scientific Press and 
Pacific Kuril Press, No. 220 Market St.. San Francisco 
Elevator. VI ront St. 

1M\ AMI FLIKTATION CAKUS A.N I) 
hook of finest Sample Cards ever offered, with Agents 
Outfit for 2 r.U A. R. If inks, Cadiz, Ohio. 



SHIPPING AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

309 and 311 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Agents for Growers and Manufacturers. Charterers of Vessels for all Trades. Agents 
for the Mexican Phosphate and Sulphur Company's Products. 
General Insurance Agents. 

Have correspondents in all the chief cities of the United States, Europe, Australia, India, China and the princi- 
pal islands of the Pacific. Purchase goods and sell California products in those countiies. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast of NATIONAL ASSURANCE CO., of Ireland; 
ATLAS ASSURANCE CO., of London; BOYLSTON INSURANCE CO., of Boston, Mass. 



THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY. 

JUDSON POWDER, 



Lands tor pale and Jo Let. 



Gabilan Rancho, 

Containing 7085 acres, situated Dear Salinas City, 
Monterey County, is offered for sale. For particulars 
address J. C. HOAO, 312 Van Ncsj avenue, or TYLER 
BEACH, San J *se, Cal 



PATENT OWNERS OF 



NOBEL'S DYNAMITE, 
NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE, 
NOBEL'S GELATINE-DYNAMITE, 

Best anil Strongest Explosives in the World. 

As other makers IMITATE our Giant Powder, so do they Judson, by Manufacturing 
a second-grade, inferior to Judson. 
BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO, General Agents, San Francisco. 



The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stump and Bank Rlaeting. From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stump, Tree or Root clear 
out of ground at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 



MONARCH GASOLINE RANGES 

ARE THE BEST. 

Gasoline Stoves, $5 to $35. Gas Stoves. 75 cents to $35. 
Oil Stoves, 75 ceots to $30. 
WOOD AND COAL RA NGES.-Roval, No. 6, 
|1C. No. 7, $20. Pacific No. 6, $18. No. 7, $»5. 
Lamps, Ut. to $10. Hanging Lamps, $2 to $20. 
Agate Ware, Tin Ware, and Kitchen Ware at low prices. 
JOHN P. MYERS & CO., 
Opp. Baldwin Hotel, 863 Market St., S. P. j 

JOHN T. SULLIVAN, 

Manufacturer of CUSTOM MADE 

Boots and Shoes, 

20 Fourth St., Pioneer Building. 

FACTORY. N. E. Cor. Battery & Jackson. 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Full line of Ladies', Misses' and Children's Fine Shoes. 
Aornts F.1R 

Howell's Men's $3,00 Shoes 

In Button, Congress and Balmorals; Opera and French 

Toes. SE D FOR TRIAL PAIR. 
CUSTOM HEAVY WORK A SPECIALTY. 



SANTA YNEZ, 

Santa 33«.x*"fc>a.x*/x County, Calilornia. 
THE SANTA YNEZ LAND AND IMPROVEMENT COMPANY 

Is now offering for ealc at low prices and upon very moderate terms the choicest of 

Agricultural and Horticultural Lands 

l Of the famous College Grant, in the aforementioned beautiful valley. The CLIMATE is perfect, SOIL rich and 
diversified, TOPOGRAPHY' unusually varied and beautiful, a park-like growth of Oaks covering the entire valley. 
WATER SUPPLY more than sufficient for Irrigation of all irrtgable lands, and no alkali either in water or soil. 

TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES superior now, and two trunk lines certain to pass through the valley 
within a year. 

43,000 ACRES OF THESE CHOICE LANDS 

Are for sale at from $25 to $150 per acre; terms of payment being one-third cash, one-third in two, balance in three 
years; six per cent Interest on deferred payments. 

To reach the Santa Ynez valley take any transportation line to San Luis Obispo, thence by Pacific Coast Rail- 
way to Santa Ynez or to Santa Barbara, thence by stage to Santa Ynez. Persons seeking lovely homes or lands for 
o lonies or quickly payiog investments, cannot do better than purchase here. For further information refer to 

E. W. STEELE, Manager, Santa Ynez, Cal. 

E. de la CUESTA, Agent, Santa Ynez. 

McCLUNG & PRAY, Agents, 325 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 
SIDNEY LACEY, Agent, Los Angeles. 

COOPER & DREYFUS, Agents, Santa Barbara. 

McCLUNG & PRAY. Agents, San Diego. 



CODLIN MOTH WASH, 

WHALE-OIL SOAP, Etc. 

By the use of these Washes all insect life reached will be destroyed, and all trees washed will show a marked 
improvement in growth and general appearance. For sale by 

ALLYNE & WHITE, 112 & 114 Front St., San Francisco- 

/ySEND FOR CIRCULAR. 





Well Drills 

for every purpose 
SOLD ON TRIAL. 

Investment 
email, prof- 
its 1 arce. 
Send iMc.for 
mailing 

large Illus- 
trated Cata- 
logue with 

full particulars. 

Manufactured by 

GOULDS & AUSTIN, 

167 4. 169 LAKE ST. 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. 





i A r^jj fnic ----» Xaa.-v-eaa.t5.oaa. 
f You Can Make Money 

WITH TM* 








cftacfop 


Ad indispensable convenience for the kitchen and 
laundry, send for illustrated circulars explaining 
territorial rights In exchange for land. 

W. C. AKIN. St. He>n*. Cal. 





A. D. Siurox. Established 1S49. S. P. Mh.w.m 

MIDDLETON & SHARON, 

Real Estate and General 

LAND AGENTS & AUCTIONEERS, 

22 Montgomery Street, 

Opposite Lick House, San Francesco. 

Santa Rosa Office, 310 B St. 
Large tracts subdivided at auction or private Bale. 



WEST COAST LAND CO. 

TEMPLETON, SAN LUIS OBISPO CO., CAL. 

Home of Wheat, Fruit, Wine and Olive; 15,000 acres 
sold in past S months to 220 settler*, representing a pop- 
ulation of 1100; 49,000 acres— small subdivisions — aver- 
age, $22.50 an acre; ■ cash, balance 6 years, 6 per cent. 
Catalogues and maps free. C. H. PHILLIPS, Manager. 



A NEW COLONY 

On the new extension of Southern Pacific Railroads, 
on the lands belonging to R. T. BUELL, Esq., near Los 
Alamos, Santa Barbara county, Cal. Parties desiring to 
visit the property now, oan go via San Luis Obispo and 
take the cars from thence to Los Alamos, thence by stage 
to the Colony. SO.OUO acres of the best lands in Call, 
fornia, subdivided into 20, 40 and 80-acre farms; 120 to 
$30 per acre. INTERNATIONAL IMMIGRANT 
UNION. 401 California St., San Francisco 



GOOD CROPS EVERY SEASON WITHOUT 
IRRIGATION. 

Free by mail, specimen number of " The California 
Ileal Estate Exchange and Mart," full of reliable infor- 
mation on climate, productions, etc., of 

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 

Address, " EXCHANGE AND MART," Santa Crux. Cal. 




LIGHTNING 
HMKNIFE 

TtiisOTJ> and REUABLE 
IvM !■ r. continnee to gain in 
public estimation, and is 
POSITIVELY THE 

BEST 



IIrv K iiMV known for rutting 
HAT and STK AW from the 
Mow. Stack or Bundle. It is a 
I ■ rapid. eiuijr co tter, the blade of the 
^tiest, quality of rnt.t Steel) spring 
teraiiered. and it is easily sharpened 
_ ^, hy grinding on the corner of a ccm- 
f J rnun grindstone. The invention pat- 
p enied l>r Weymouth is a sword- 
shaped blade provided with operating 
handles, the edge of the sword blade 
being provided with knife-edged serra- 
tions or teeth. We hereby C'Al'TION 
all persons interested against buying or 
Belling knives bearing above description, 
other than the genuine "l.ivlilniiiu '* 
as we shall yroiurulr alt It/HngtWUxE to 

the full extent of our ability and the law. 
For mile by the Hardware trade generally 

THE HIRAM HOLT COMPANY, 

EAST "WILTON, ME.-Oct l, 1887. 



i B 



Sib 



DUST HAKVK-.S. v.orth at retail *.)!: 
'Xainui,' mm return at mil' ,-\ 

Dense, uatalogne free. CMICAUO BUMIKS8 CO., 
Wholesale MflC.. SA Wabutb Ave.. Chicam. I I. 



FINE CARPETINGS, 

RICH FURNITURE, 

ELEGANT UPHOLSTERIES. 

CHAS. M. PLUM & CO., 

UPHOLSTERING COMPANY, 

1301 to 1307 Market St., cor. 9th. S. F. 



AGENTS 



LOOK 
HJ3RE 

• >nd farmers with no experience mak>' Si. 511 nn 
honr during spare tlm . J .V. Kenvon, Glens Falls, 
N. Y.. made SI!* o-i afar. SJO^SO one week. 

So can you. 1'r « nnd rntaloarne free. 

J. J.. Siikmbu A Co., Cincinnati, O. 



MYERS* SLIP SHARES 

FOR SALE BY 
D. N. & O. A. HAWLiEY, 
2 & 4 Sutter St., cor.'Market, San Francisco 



ACME PULVERIZING HARROW, CLOD CRUSHER & LEVELER. 

DON'T BE DECEIVED BY WORTHLESS IMITATIONS. 




All genuine bear Trade-Mark, have Steel Clod Crushers, Double FLEXIBLE 
Gang Bars and the Improved Style, also has 

ADJUSTABLE REVERSIBLE COULTERS. 

Which when worn may be turned end for end, thus giving double the amount of 
wear. Works the entire surface of the ground. No other 
Harrow combines these points. 

Sizes: 3 to 12 Feet. With or without Sulky. 

Illustrated Pampiilet Free. 

DUANE H. NASH, Sole Manufacturer, 

MILLINGT0N, MORRIS COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 

SOLD BY: 

BULL & GRANT FARM IMPLEMENT CO., San Francisco and Los Angeles, and 

STAYER & WALKER, Portland, Oregon. 



Jan. 14, 1888.] 



f AC1F16 RURAlo PRESS, 



33 



List of D. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 
Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey Sc Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 

From the official report of U. S. Patents in Dkwhy & 
Co.'s Patent Office Library, 220 Market St., 8. F. 

FOR WEEK ENDING JANUARY 3, 1888. 

376.022. — Grading Scraper— L. E. Ashley, 
Stockton, Cal, 

375,916.— Crosscut-Saw Handle— M. Bennett, 
Eurekd, Cal. 

375,795.— Device for Obtaining Vertical 
Lines— J. Beyerle, Vallejo, Cal. 

375,800. — Sawmill Set Works— W. A. Camp- 
bell, Portland, Ogn. 

375,801 —Sawmill Stock Roller— W. A. 
Campbell, Portland, Ogn. 

375,802.— Sidehill Plow— Elisha Clark, Felton, 
Cal. 

375,817.— Bed-Lounge— John Hoey. S. F. 
37S.999-— Concrete Pavements— P. H. Jack- 
son, S. F. 

375,822.— Animal Trap— B. P. Jolly, Soledad, 
Cal. 

375,940. — Vehicle Wheel— Walter Knight, 
San Andreas, Cal. 

375,826— Wagon-Spring Brace— F. H. Mason, 
Saucelito, Cal. 

375,829. — Pistol-Holder — R. Newman, S. F. 

375,837. — Pressure Regulator — E. A. Scott, 
S. F. 

37S.899-— Rotary Water Meter— S. L. Shuf- 
fleton, Eureka, Cal. 

375,779. — Fire Truck and Ladder — Smith & 
Mansfield, Oakland, Cal. 

376,044.— Grain Scale and Register — L. 
Reynolds, Yreka, Cal. 

375.844. — Show-Stand— C. Toohey. S. F. 

375. 8 45. — Tanning— Waer, Phillips & Kengla, 
Tucson, A. T. 

375,972. — Dress Chart — Josephine S. Wilson, 
San Jose, Cal. 

Notb. — Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dkwby & Co., in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacific Coast 
Inventors transacted with perfect seourity, at reasonable 
rates and in the shortest possible time. 



Another Dose for Cows. 

Editors Press: — Oae of your correspondents 
wishes to know what to give cows when they 
calve. Whenever I have a cow that seems not 
to clean well, or that I think will not, I give 
half a teacupful of gunpowder in a bucket of 
bran mixed up with warm water. Sometimes 
I have to repeat the dose, but not often. I do 
not know how the gunpowder affects the cow, 
but never have had any trouble with a cow that I 
have given it to. — G., Vacaville, Jan.' 8th. 

Other prescriptions for the same trouble may 
be found on a preceding page of this issue. 

Cleveland Bays. — We have received a copy 
of an interesting catalogue of imported Cleve- 
land Bay horses owned jointly bv Seth Cook of 
Danville and Shericker Bros, of Springlield, 111. 
The list includes eight stallions and colts and one 
mare, and are described to us as a fine lot of this 
breed, which is rather new on this coast, but is 
destined to be popular. The animals now under 
consideration may be seen at the Bay District 
track in this city, and should receive the atten- 
tion of horse fanciers. Information concerning 
them may be had from Killip & Co., 24 Mont- 
gomery street, or Sam Gamble, 1307 Dolores 
street (at the track), or of George A. Wiley, who 
is the superintendent of the famous Cook stock- 
farm at Danville, Contra Costa county, where 
other fine animals, both of the horse and cattle 
persuasion, can be seen. 

We regret to hear of the death of Mr. George 
0. Wallace, a member of the firm of N. W. 
Ayer.& Son of Philadelphia, the largest firm 
of advertising agents in the country. Mr. 
Wallace was noted among his business ac- 
quaintances for his integrity, diligence and 
courtesy, and his sudden death will oe a loss 
to very many friends. 

The Salinas Index, one of our valued ex- 
changes, has issued an extra, which contains a 
very full and elaborate article on Monterey 
county. There is a full description of the Buena 
Vista and Gabilan ranchos which have been 
subdivided into small tracts, and are now offered 
for sale. 

A Considerable Addition. — The railway 
passenger officials are still figuring up the ar- 
rival of passengers by overland lines during 
the last year. The latest footing is a total of 
about 150,000 for the year 1887. Even larger 
figures are promised for the present year. 



Personal. — William Niles, the well-known 
stockman of Los Angeles, has just returned 
from an Eastern visit of five months' duration. 
He writes us that he finds on returning that he 
has a superior lot of young stock on hand, to 
which his advertisement in this issue relates. 



" A Model Nursery " was the fitting title 
of a Butte county note in the Press of Dec. 
10th. Any one who would learn more of the 
fine establishment therein briefly described, can 
find a way to gratify his wish by turning to the 
advertisement of Rmcho Chico nursery. 



Beemen in Council.— The National Bee- 
Cultivators' Association is to hold its annual 
convention in Qtica, N. Y., during the current 
month. New York State makes a large pro- 
portion of the honey product of the Union. 



Correction. 

Editors Press :— Please make the following 
correction in the article, " A Turkey Transac- 
tion," in the Press of Deo. 31st : 

"There is that withholdeth more than is 
meet, but it tendeth to poverty," in place of 
" There is that which holdeth more than is 
sweet," etc. 

_ A word or two of one's own writing matters 
little, but one dislikes to misquote Scripture. 

The Writer. 

Palermo Citrus Tract. 

The latest announcement of citrus-fruit prop- 
erty which comes to our notice lies in the 
famous Oroville district and is named the 
Palermo Citrus Tract. The location is five 
miles south of Oroville, and is on the Northern 
California railroad. There is a town-site — 
Palermo — in the center of the tract. The en- 
terprise is in charge of McAfee Brothers of 10 
Montgomery street and T. B. Ludlum & Co. of 
Oroville. An interesting descriptive circular 
has been issued which gives account of soils, 
water, etc., and price-list of town lots and fruit 
tracts. Those interested in such property 
should send for a circular. 




Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms of sub 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and, 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription 
rate, $3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
cents, if ordered soon enough. If already a 
subscriber, please show the paper to others. 

Our Agents. 

Our Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents In their labors of canvassing, by lending their In- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

F. B. Looan— Santa Clara Co. 

John G. H. Lampadius— San Benito Co. 

G. W. IN9AII.S — Arizona Territory. 
William Pool — Fresno Co. 

Wm. Wilkinson— San Joaquin and Stanislaus Co.'s. 
A. F. Jewrtt — Tulare Co. 

E. H. Sciiaeffle— Placer, Sacrament", EI Dorado Co.'s. 
C. E. Williams— Yuba and Sutter Co.'s. 
R. G. Huston — Montana Territory. 



Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber who 
does not want it, or beyond the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will 
not knowingly send the paper to any one who does not 
wish it, but if it is continued, through the failure of the 
subscriber to notify us to discontinue it, or some Irre- 
sponsible party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
demand paymentfor the time it is sent. Look oakefdlla 

AT TUB LABEL ON YOUR PAFKR. 



Bisulphide for Squirrels. — Mr. Wheeler in- 
forms us that he is again in the market with his 
preparation. The stock prepared for last year's 
'irade proved insufficient to fill the increasing de- 
mand, and the public were deprived of this remedy 
for a good part of the season. The factory is now 
;again running night and day, and it is hoped there 
will be enough to go around. Beit known that this 
preparation is a liquid made expressly for destroying 
rodents and other vermin. It is of unvarying 
strength, and evaporates rapidly when exposed. 
When applied, it fills the burrow with its vapor and 
thereby kills every occupant of the hole without 
injuring anything outside. The animal cannot get 
away, but dies in the hole and never becomes offen- 
sive. It is safe to handle or have about, and simple 
to apply. It has no effect on the operator, and is 
not poisonous nor injurious to the skin or clothes. 
These qualities, together with the improved methods 
of keeping and applying the same, make it par- 
ticularly valuable at this season of the year. 



Cottony Cushion Scale. 

At last the remedy for this pest has been found. 
About five weeks ago the orange orchard of Mr. Frank 
M. Pixley at Corte Madera (badly infested with cottony 
cushion scale) was treated wiih Ongerth's Liquid Tree 
Protector according to direction. The insects and all 
eggs are killed, the trees are now free from this pest and 
also from black smut, and show increased healthy 
growth. As Ongerth's Liquid Tree Protector does not 
contain any poisonous, caustic, or corrosive substance 
it can be handled without any danger.— From A rgonaut, 
Dec. 31, 1887. For sale by Woodin & Little, 609 and 511 
Market street, San Francisco. 

Buena Vista Rancho. 

This fertile tract of land, containing 7725 acres, has 
been platted into 60 farms suitable for mixed farming and 
fiuit growing. It is four miles from Salinas City, Monte- 
rey County, and will be sold at low prices and liberal 
terms. Address, J. C. Hoag, 312 Van Ness avenue, San 
Francisco, or Tyler Beach, San Jose, Cal. 



Consumption Surely Cured. 
To the Editor:— Please inform your readers that I have 
a positive remedy for the above named disease. By its 
timely use, thousands of hopeless cases have been per- 
manently cured. I shall be glad to Bend two bottles of 
my remedy fkkb to any of your readers who have con- 
sumption, If they will send me their Express and P. O. 
address. Respectfully, 

T. A. SLOCUM, M. C, 181 Pearl St., New York. 



$500,000 

On Country Real Estate in large and small amounts 
at lowest rates, by A. Schuller, 106 Leidesdorff St., 

room 3. ** 

Plowing is now in order, and the farmer who 
needs a gang-plow will be interested in what the 
Bull & Grant F. 1. Co. have to say in their adver- 
tisement on another page of this paper. 



Pennsylvania Oil the Best. — Analysis 
and practical use have proven that all the 
American petroleum oils are much superior to 
any that are found in either Europe or Asia. 



BYRON JACKSON, 

625 Sixth St., San Francisco, Cal. 



For quantities of water not less than 100 gallons per 
minute, and for lifts not exceeding: 100 feet, there is no 
better pump than that illustrated in the annexed ei graving 
It is vi ry simple, durable, and economical. I n.ake tnem in 
si/.es from 2-inch, 100 gallons per minute, to 24- inch, with a 
cat acity of 14,000 gallons pc minute, and am prepared to 
build larger sizes to order. They must be set within 20 feet 
of the water; wi 1 ! draw it that far and force it up 90 feet. 
They are very satisfactory in wills not over 100 feet deep. 



Jackson Centrifugal Pumps. 



JACKSON 

Automatic 

Expansion 

SELF-OILING ENGINES. 

Made in ten sizes, from two to sixty-horse 
power, and carried in stock for prompt delivery 




" ECONOMY " 
PORTABLE 4 
BOILERS. 



MOUNTED ON 
SKIDS, 

3j to 20 H. P. 




COMPLETE 




1 



PLANTS 

A SPECIALTY. 



ADDRKSS: 



BYRON JACKSON , San Francisco 



r 

1 


& : 1 


f 

_ 

... 






f/7/}i///777777777///j 
TXTo^^tc- s ±s tlx© Time to A lPlply 

WHEELER'S CARBON BISULPHIDE. 

REDUCED P R ICES COUTIUTJE. 

READ WHAT YOUR NEIGHBOR SAYS ABOUT IT. 



It is thorough in its work and is not dangerous to any- 
lining but the vermin it is intended to destroy, and it 
will do all you claim for it as a rodent poison. 

L. L. KOBINSON, 

Los Medanos, Contra Costa Co. 
Your Carbon Bisulphide has been a perfect success, 
and it is the only poison I have ever used that was. 

GEUKGK WEST, Stockton. 
I have used it with unfailing success, the holes doc 
flored have never since been reopened. 

JOHN T DOYLE, Mcnlo Park. 
It is a dead pure thing, and any one who will give it a 
((rial, will never again fool aw»v his time with common 
preparations o( strychnine, phosphorus, etc. 

II . W. CRABB.Oakville, Napa Co. 
It is the most economical and efficient agent yet 
offered to the public. 

H. G. ELLSWORTH, 

Niles, Alameda Co. 
I used it ami not a squirrel escaped. 

K. T. WALKER. 

Paso Robles, S. L. Obispo Co. 



As a means of kil ing squirrels, gophers, etc , it is un- 
questionably the best now In use, and I believe will bo 
universally adopted. 

J. Be BARTH SHORB, 

San Gabriel, Los Angeles Co. 
I find it certain death and never bad occasion to apply 
it a second time. 

JAMES K. VERNON, 

San Luis Obispo. 
It is the cheapest and most effective agent that I have 
ever used i:i the destruction of squirrels ami gophers, 
W. S. ivl A N LOVni, 

Brighton, Sac'to Co. 

I know of nothing equal to it. 

u. c. tvyogood. Riverside. 

Not one hole has been reopened, and I feel disposed to 
bless Prof. Iliigard anil Mr. Wheeler. 

EWD. BKKWICK. 

in Pacific Rural Pkkss. 

Nothing so cheap ami effective as Bisulphide. 

CHAKLKS S. COUSIN. 

Pinole, Contra Costa Co. 



Sold by the Trade and 
by the manufacturer, 



J. H. WHEELER, 204 Montgomery St., 8. F. 



Headquarters for all Varieties of FANCY CHICKENS, 

DUCKS, TURKEYS, GEESE, PEACOCKS, Etc. 
EGGS rOH. HATCHING 




Publisher of "Niles' Pacific Coast Poultry and Stock Book," 
a new book on subjects connected with successful poultry and stock raising on 
tho Pacific Coast. Price, 60 cents, post-paid. Inclose stamp for information. 

ALSO BRKKDER OT 

Jorsov cfc? Holstoin Cattle, and Hogs. 

Address, WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. 




34 



fACIFie f^URAb PRESS. 



[Jan. 14, 1888 



breeders' directory. 



Six lines or lees in this Directory at 50c per line per month. 

HORSES AND CATTLE. 

SETH CCOK, breeder of Cleveland Bay Horses, De- 
von, Durham, Polled Aberdeen Angus and Galloway 
Cattle. Young stock of above breed* on hand for 
sale. Warranted to be pure bred, re'.'orde I and aver- 
age breeders. Address, Geo. A. Wiley, Couk Farm, 
Contra Costa Co , Ca'. 



SYLVEmTUR S(JOTT, Cloverdale. Cal., importer 
and breeder of Jacks; a choice lot of Jacks for sale. 



W. J. MAKSH Si SON. Dayton, Nevada, 
tered Shorthorns of choicely bred stiains. 



Kegis- 



JEKSEYS— THE BEST HERD— All A. J. C. 
C. registered, is owned bv Henrv Pierce, San Francisco. 



HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN BULLS. 

Not the $50 Kind— We do not breed them. 
NOR CAN BREEDERS AFFORD TO USE THEM 

r3 On animals of High Breeding of great Individual Merit, and 

cLOTwiLDEuoa'i. H.W^ backed by pedigrees based on actual performance of ancestry at 
the pail and churn. We acknowledge no competition. Write for our catalogue or come and 
see and judge for yourself as to the truth of our assertion. Mention the Rural Press. 

SMITHS, POWELL & LAMB, Syracuse, N. Y. 




J. H. WHITE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 

of Registered Holstein Cattle. 



R. J. MERKELEY. Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percheron Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 



HOLSTEINS— New lot Eastern-bred animals, includ- 
ing Netherlands; Aag.'ie's and Case Strains. Punch 
for ringing bulls, $100 postpaid. Re<kshire Swine. 
Catalogues. F. H. Burke, 4ul Montgomery St., S. F. 



M. D HOPKINS, Petaluma, Cal. Eastern Imported 
registered Shorthorn Balls and Heifers for sale. 



SETH COOK. Danville, "Cook Farm," Contra Costa 
Co., breeder of Aberdeen Angus, Galloways and De- 
vons (Registered). Young stock for sale. 



PETER HAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 16 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 



WILLIAM NILE8, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Registered Holstein and Jersey Cattle. Write me. 

BRADLEY RANCH, San Jose, Cal., breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. A choice 
lot of young stock for sale. 

J . R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses 



J. A. BREWER, Centerville, Alameda Co. Short- 
horn Cattle and Grades. Young stock for sale. 



T. E. MILLER, Beecher, 111. Oldest and best herd 
Hereford Cattle in U. S. Cattle delivered in California. 



P. H. MURPHY, (Briihton,) Perkins P. O , breede 
of Recorded short H.->rns and Poland China Hogs. 



COTATE RANCH BREEDING FARM, Page s 
Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. O., Peun's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 



POULTRY. 



W. C. DiMOl, Napa, $2 each for choice Wyandottes, 
Legfforns, Lt. Brahmas, Houdans. Eggs, $i. 



H J. GODFREY, Box 185, San Leandro, Cal. Thor- 
oughbred Plymouth Rocks. Eggs, Ki per 13. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. TuolouBe and Embden 
Oeese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, arid all leading 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 



O. J. ALBBbi, Lawrence, Cal., breeder and importer. 



D. H. EVERETT, 1616 Larkio St.,S. F.. importer and 
breeder of Thoroughhred Langshans and Wyandottes 



CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM, Stockton, 
Cal.; send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 



E. C. OLiAPP, South Pasadena, Cal. Light Brahmas 
(Williams-Foot stock), Plymouth Rocks (Kieffer-Conger 
stock). Fowls and Eggs in season. No circulars; write 
for wants 



R. G. HfcSAD, Napa, <'al., breeder of the choicest va- 
rieties of Poultry. Each variety a specialty. Send for 
pew Catalogue. 



JAS. T. BROWN, 18 Georgia St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeder of Ihoroughbrcd Poultry of the leading va- 
rieties. Send for circular and price list. 

THOS. WAITE, Perkins, Sacramento Co., Importer 
& bleeder o' thorough >red fowls of all leading varieties 

SHEEP AND GOATS. 



KIRKPATRICK & WHITTAKER, Knignfe 
Ferrv, Cal. . breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for sale. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stocktou, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys & Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 

E. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Cal., importers 
& breeders Spauish Merino Sheep; ewes .v. rams for sale. 



F. BULLARD, Woodland, Cal. , importer and breeder 
of Spanisn Merino Sheep. Premium baud of the State 
Choice bucks and ewes for sale. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal., importer and 
breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds cross-bred 
rrferino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale- 



R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer. 
South Down of Long John Aentwortb herd for sale. 



SWINE. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars free 



L L. DICKINSON, Central Point, Merced Co., Cal., 
breeder of thoroughbred Essex Hogs. Pigs now 
ready for sale. Prices reasonable. 



JOHN RIDER, Saoramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal., 
thoroughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 



breeder of 



BADEN FARM HERD 

Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

ROBERT ASH BURNER, 
Bade" Station, - San Mateo Co., Cal. 



CHAMPION GOLD MEDAL STUD 
Qflfl CLEVELAND BAYS AND ENGLISH SHIRES. 

\J <">ur Stalli >ns. mostly imported as Yearlings, are grown on our own farms, and thoroughly acclim- 
ated, luounng the best results in the Stud from the start. 



THE SCIENTIFIC KIT OF TOOLS 

P0R 

Farmers, Dairymen, Stocta & Machinists 




Blacksmith's Drill 
Press, Hand Feed; 
Weight, 66 tba. 

Combination Anvil 
and Vise, hardened 
face, finely polished; 
weight, 50 lbs. 

Farmer's Forge, 
No. 5 B. will heat 
li-inch iron. 



Rl a ck smith's 
Hammer and 
Handle, lbs., 
solid cast teel. 



HOLSTEI V-FRIEST ANS . 



Be'ng crowded for room, we will make 
- HXUEfTIUflALLl' LOW FKICKS 
To REDUCE OUK HERD OP ISO CATTI.K. A grand opportunity to secure foundation Stock at a 

low figure. Send for Illustrated Des;riptive Pamphlet, and mention this piper. 



GEO. E. BROWN & CO., Aurora, Kane Co., III. 




THE HOME and HEADQUARTERS 

FOR ALL KINDS OF 

IQ rL I T I S H HORSES. 

Royal Society Winners In Each Breed. 



aUTHE SE*j«23» 



G-A T i Tt RAITH BROTHERS, 

fj Of Janesville, Wisconsin, have imported during the present season over 200 STALL- 
IONS, including 

Clydesdale, English Shire, Suffolk Punch. Hackney, Cleveland Bay, and Yorkshire 

Coach Horses. 

More prize winning, high-class stock, Imported by us than any three firms In America. Superior horses, fash- 
ionable pedigrees and all guaranteed goud bleeders. Prices and terms to suit everybedy. Visitors cordially invited. 

GALBRAITH BROS., Janesville. Wis. 



PoilLJr\y, EjC. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 



Cor. 17tn & Castro Sts., 



Oakland, Cal. 



Manufactory of the PACI- 
FIC INCUBATOR and 
BivOODKK. Agency of 
the celebrated silver finish 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabhit and Poultry i roof 
fences, the Wils n Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Pacific 
F.gg Food, and Poultry ap- 
pliinces in great variety. 
A'so every varicy of 'and 
- .<*vS^Sefcf2^ and water Fowl, which 
have won first prizes wnerever exhibited Eggs for 
hashing. The Pacitlc Coast Poulterers' Hand-Book and 
Guide, price, 4(lc. Send 2c. stamp for 60 page illustrated 
circular to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR Co., 1317 Castro 
St., Oakland. Cal. 




Percheron Horses, 

SACKRIDER & CHISHOLM, 

OAKLAND, CAL 



Number 370 ) 
Eleventh St. I 




JOHN McPARLING, 

Importer and Breeder of 

Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, 

Browu Leghorns. Pekln Bantams. Light 
Brahmas. Partridge CocMds. Buff Coch- 
ins, Rnulstered Berkshire Bigs. Also one 

pen of Langshans direct from China. 
706 TWELFTH ST., OAKLAND, CAL. 

Large lot of young birds ready for sale: send for circulars. 




THE MODEL. 

\ S£LF-REQULATI//e t 

Reutsie. 

AND SIMPLE. 8 ' 



The Halsted 
Incubator Co. 

1312 Myrtle St., 
Oakland, - - Cal. 

Price from $20 
up. Model Brooder 
from $5 up. 

Thoroughbred 
Poultry and Eggs j 
Send for new Cir- 
culars containing 
much valuable in- 
formation. 




Blacksmitn s Hot and cow chisels; 
1| m<. each; both solid cast steel 




Blacksmith's Tongs, Wrought Iron, 18 in hes. 

rai ■ , ' . X T! 

—■in 

g ■"• " 

8crew Plates, 3 Taps, 3 Set Dies, cut J. and : inch, 
"frj Farrier's Knlfa. 




EVERY TOOL GUARANTEED, 

And we offer this complete 

OUTFIT FOR ONLY $25 00 

Which Is hardly half the regular prices, and none c%n 
afford to be without this set. Orders by mail promptly 
tilled. Address, 

G G. WICKSON Sz CO., 
Nos. 3 and 5 Front St., 8an Francisco 



We have a choice co 
Stallions on hand and fo 
breeding and prices. Call and see ' them, or write for 
further information. 



NEW IMPORTATION 





H. P. GREGORY & CO. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR 

WEBBER'S CELEBRATED 




SQ 



THE IMPROVED EGG POOD. 

Has for more than ten years been the ' Standard Poul- 
try preparation " It cures every disease and makes hens 
lay at all seasons of the ^eir. Everybody hnows it! 
Everybody usee it! Ask for it. B. F WtLLINOTON, 
Proprietor, also Dealer in Seeds of every variety, 426 
Washington St., San Francisco. 



i 



D« ROWELLS w 




FIRE OF LIFE 

A MAGIC CURE 

— -K0R — 

Rheumatism, Neural- 
gia, Pneumonia, Pa- 
ralysis, asthma. Sci- 
atica, Gout, Lumbsgo 
and Deafness. 

Everybudy should have It. 
G. G. BURNETT, Ag't 

327 Montgomery St., s. F. 
Price, 81.00. Sold by all Drug- 
gists. f2TCall and see 

DR. CHAS. ROW ELL. 
Oifics, 426 Kearny St., 
San Francisco. 



OUR IMPORTATION OF 18S7 HAS JUST ARRIVED 
from Europe, where II. Wilsey, assisted by one of 
the firm who resides there, selected the stallions from 
the choicest strains of Europe, comprising 

English Shire, 

Suffolk Punch. 

Normans and 

Percherons, 

All of dark co!ors, from one to four years old, and each 
pedigreed in thtir own country. 

We will sell i-ur stallions cheaper than the s*me class 
can be bought anywhere else in the U. S. We import 
to sell. Call and examine our stock. 

Send f<jr Catalogue. 



H. 



WILSEY & CO., 

PETALUMA, CAL. 



ythotGuns 



Revolvers, 
Rifles, 

-JEtc. 



Addrt. 

^ntnd fwwp^w^s'Great Welter? _ 
tor Prict LiU. BvaWorka.ritt.burgliTr!! 1 



IMPORTANT! 

To Breeders of All-work Horses, 

FOR SALE! 

A twenty-months-oH Stallion Colt; weighs 1300 pounds; 
color, beauti'ul steel gray; perfectly sound; broken to 
drive single and douMe, and for s'yle, considering 
weight, >in and age, perhaps cannot be <xcelled In the 
Stite. Is three-f urtns Norman and oue-fourth Bel- 
mont. For further particulars apply to 

G. J. VANDERVOORT, 

Sunol, Cal. 



IRRIGATING 

PUMPS. 

Wl ALSO CARRY in STOCK TUT LARQKST LlKI OF 

MACHINERY 

In the UNITED STATES, 

Consisting- of Wood and Iron Working 
Machinery. Pumps of every 
description. 

ENGINES AND BOILERS 



A SPECIALTY. 



Champion - §avYin8 



I Hundred* In ou . ureatly In 



Machine. 

Enabfesonc no* 



ed tw 



irk that heretofore requir 
I welicfat of the operator dor* two-thlrd»of the work. 
\ Ol'AKAKTfcKD tote the liiffalfHt rtinnlng,ebeape«t and \ 
1 only practical Sawing Machine made, or money t 
\ refunded. Saws the tree down. Saw •ford an hour. 
\ Weighs but 35 lbs. Prire complete only *18. y,, 
introduce where we have no agent will prepay, 
t charges on one machine on receipt of price. 
1 Order at once direct from 4 ~ 
1 this advt. and secure— 
1 agency for your sec f 
1 tion. Kxclutlteaftenf" I 
1 tO Brut person nnlrr L_ 
1 log. Circulars free. H 
1 Address, M 

CHAMPION Mr Or. i^TQumcy. Ill* 



"Walnut Grove" 

KKSB&S POLAND-CHINA HERD 

My herd consists of the best strains that can be found. 
StocK all recorded in A. P. C K. I have a fine lot of 
spring, summer and fall pigs, also a few choice yearling 
sows, for sa'e. Price* to suit >he times 

J. MELVIN. Davlavllle, CaL 

TUC nflG 1,1 nealth > habits ami disease. All breeds 
1 r,fc "° and treatment; 60 outs; 260. This office. 



Jan. 14, 1888.] 



f AClFie 1^URAL> PRESS, 



35 



GRANGERS' BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA. 
SAN FRANGI8CO, OAL. 

Authorized Capital, - - $1,000,000 

In 10,000 Shares of $1 00 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $624,160. 

Reserved Fund, $26,500. 
OFFICERS 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELL [ER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretory 

DIRECTORS: 

A. D. LOGAN, President Colusa County 

H. J. LEWELLING Napa County 

J. H. GARDINER Rio Vista, Cal 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus County 

URIAH WOOD. Santa Clara County 

DANIEL MEYER San Francisco 

H. M. LARUE Yolo County 

[. C. STEELE San Mateo County 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento County 

C. J. CRESSEY Merced County 

SENECA EWER Napa County 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 

usual way, bank books balanced up, and statements ot 

accounts rendered every month. 
LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 
COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made. 

promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 
DEPOSITS received. 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on demand. 
BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 

and sold. ALBERT MONTPELLIER, 

Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, July 1, l!>87. 

HORTON & KENNEDY'S 

FAMOUS 

ENTERPRISE 

Self-Regulatng 

WINDMILL 

Is recognized as the 
BEsT. 




A lways gives satisfaction . PIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wrought iron Crank Shaft 
with doublr bearings for the Crank 
to work in, all turned and run in ad- 
justable babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating, 

With no coil springs, or springs of any kind. No little 
rods, Joints, levers, or anything of the kind to get out of 
order, as such things do. Mills in use 6 to 12 years in 
good order now, that have never cost one cent for repairs. 
All genuine Enterprise Mills for the Pacific Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, arc genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterpiise Co." stamp. Look out for this, as 
inferior mills are being offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept in stock. Addrtss, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before), 
L1VEKMORE, ALAMEDA CO., CAL. 

San Francisco Agency. JAMES LINFORTH 
120 Front St., San Francisco. 



I.M. II I M N 4. Wi;i,L SINK 
I ><» M U II V. Our Ar- 

tesian Well Kncyclopetlia con- 
tains uear 700 engraving*, illustrating 
and describing all the practical tools 
and appliances used in the art of well 
nking; diamond prospecting ma- 
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tesian engines, pumps, 
etc. Edited by the 
"American Well 
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manufacturers in the 
world of this class of 
machinery. We will 
send this book to any 
party on receipt of 25 cents for mailing. Expert well drill- 
ers and agents wanted. Address, The American 
Well Works, Aurora. IIU.. U. S. A. 




J. L. HEALD'S 

AGRICULTURAL WORKS, 

Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers. 

Portable Straw-Burning Boilers & Engines. 

IRON AND BRASS CASTINGS. 

Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

Including Qrape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, Wine 
Presses and Pumps, and all appliances u„.iin Wine 
Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Fneine Governor. Etc. 




TTOKSE POWERS, WINDMILLS, TANKS 

Xl and all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order. 
Awarded Diploma for Windmills at Me- 
chanics' Fair, 1885. Windmills from $65. Horse 
Powers from $50. P. W. KROGH & CO.. 61 
Bnalo Street. Ran Francisco. 



MISSION ROCK DOCK 
GRAIN WAREHOUSE, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

7^ nnr> tons capacity. <7p^ nnn 

I <J t \J\J\J storage at LoweBt Rates. • <->,WKJ 

CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt. 
Cal. Dry Dock Co., props. Office, 318 Cal. St room S. 



Farmers and Fruit-Growers, Attention! 

To grow large and profitable crops and at the same time to make the farm 
better each year, is the problem for the farmer. 

FERTIL IZE! FERTILIZ E I 

NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATE. 

University of California, Nov. 3, 1886. fertilizer. It is especially well adapted to use In 

Dr. J. Koebio— Dear Sir: I have analyzed your sample California, on account of the predominance in 

of "Nitrogenous Superphosphate," with the 16 of Phosphoric Acid, which is generally in small 

following remit: supply in our soils. Yet it is desirable that "com- 

o i ui ni u • . .j .„ » . plete" fertilizers be used in our orchards and vinei ards, 

Soluble Phosphoric Acid 12.90 per cent an<1 yours l8 of that character in furnishinK 

Reverted Phosphoric Ac,d 95 Potash and Nitrogen as well. Very respectfully, 

Insoluble Phosphoric Acid 2.83 " E W HILGARD 

Potash 2.23 •• 

Ammonia 1.87 " The value of this Fertilizer consists in the large per- 

NitricAcid 2 95 " centage it contains of Phosphoric Acid— the chief 

The above amount of Nitric' Acid "is ' equal to 0.85 eIemfDt of all plant food-m combination with the 

per cent Ammonia, therefore, total of Nitrogen calcu- n 1 eces8ar y qyantit.es of Potash and Ammon.a, and 

lated as Am monia, 2.72 per cent. K th . e ease ,. a,ld cheapness with wh.ch ,t can be applud 

tv>; ;„ „ xr~i \* t«* _ * In ordinary f-oils the fo lowing uuaudtiea will be found 

lni3 f 1 er ti lizer is a Valuable Manure for vine- ffi . . ^ .... . „ , , r . . ««« * n cn 

,..„,]. .,, n . ri i rrt _,. , a *• *J T zj *, , r sufficient: For Wheat, Bailey, Corn and Oat8, 300 to 350 

varus, orchards, gardens, farms, and I recommend its . n ^, a » a- - j 

bnC e e£X° f ^ ^TSKSoSa 11 - tarel^^toTo ST STviSit IZi 

torn. a. Yours truly, UK. t,. A. SCHNEIDER. Trees, from J pound to 5 pounds each. For Flower Oar- 

n . .. > _ ... . n ■■ t m • dens, Lawns, House Plants, etc., a light top dressing, 

University 0I tailtOrnia, College Of Agri- applied at any time, will be found very beneficial. 

culture - FOR SALE IN LOTS TO SUIT, 

Berkeley, Nov. 20, 1886. 

Dr. J. Kofbio, San Francisco— Dear Sir: I take pleas- ° n board car3 at Sobranto, Station of the C. P. R. R., 20 
ure in adding my testimony to that of Dr. Schneider as miles north of San Francisco, at $30 per ton, by the 

^h^JlS J. Ua P U ^-r'» th6 '. Nit /K S K" OU8 f Su P er " MEXICAN PHOSPHATE & SULPHUR 

phosphate" Fertilizer, analyzed by him at your re- „ „ . , _, „ „ 

quest. It is a high.grade article, and as such re- CO . H. DUTARD, President, room 7, Safe 

turns the user a better money value than a low-grade Deposit Building, or 

H. M. NEWHALL & CO., Agents, 309 and 31 1 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 

SHIPPING 1 COMMISSION HOUSE. 



OFFICE, 108 DAVIS STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Warehouse and Wharf at Port Costa. 



CONSIGNMENTS OF GRAIN, WOOL, AND ALL KINDS OF PRODUCE SOLICITED. 

Money advanced on Grain In Store at lowest possible rales of Interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

E. VAN EVERY. Manager. A. M. BELT. Assistant Manasrer 



Booth's Sure Death Squirrel Poison 




For Squirrels, Gophers, Birds, Mice, Etc. 

I^Endorsed by the Grange and Farmers wherever used.jg? 
The Cheapest and Best. 

Put up in 1-pound, 5-pound, and 5-gallon Tins. 
Every Can Warranted. 
This Poison has been on the market less than two years, yet in 
this short time it has gained a reputation of "Sure Dtath,' 
equaled by none. Bv its merits alone, with very little advertis- 
ing, tt is now ustd extensively all over the Pacific Coast, as well 
as in Australia and New Zealand. 

SEND FOB TESTIMONIALS. 



MANUFACTURED BT 



Patented Jan. 23d. 1883. 

For Sale by all Wholesale and Retail Dealers. 



BOOTH & LATIMER, San Luis Obispo, Cal. 

Special Terms on Quantities in Bulk. 



GALVANIZED FLAT RIBBON FENCING. BARBED. 



PRICE, 41 cents F. O. B. CARS. 




ONE 



PACK M.y I U ITobm Card*. Dm PmV T.-ert. C.rdv On. Pack 
Flirtation Itrda, On. P.«k Dold-to . thr-Llfl-t U»rd»,TU Mt«J. Owl* 
•lib whltb JDU.4H ulUnTptms'i and Urf. iimpl* book of BiJ- 



GALVANIZED OR PAINTED. 

2 or 4 POINT CACTUS BARB WIRE. TWISTED RIBBON FENCING. 

Special prices quoted on application for lots for delivery at interior points. 

A. J. ROBINSON, Manufacturers' Agent, 

26 Beale St., San Francisco, Cal. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 
rFree Oo.oh to and from the Houee. J. W. BECKER, Proprietor. 



Commission fflercliapts. 



DALTON BROS., 

Commission Merchants 



-AND DKALKRS IN — 



CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE, 

Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 
308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

(P. O. Box 1930.] 
£3TConsi{rnments Solicited. 



ALLISON, GRAY & CO. 



SUCCESSORS TO 



LITTLEF1ELD, ALLISON Ss CO.. 

501, 503, 505, 507 and 509 Front Street 
and 300 Washington St., S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 

GREEN and DRIED FRUITS. 

Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 
Wool. 



MOORE, FERGUSON & CO., 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOOR 

— AND — 

General Commission Merchants, 

310 California St., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

tSTPersonal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad- 
vances made on Consignments at low rates of interest. 



Qso. Morrow. [Established 1854.] Geo. P. Morrow 

GEORGE MORROW & CO., 

HAY and GRAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

30 Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street 
San Franoisoo, Cal. 
tr SHIPPING ORDERS A SPECIALTY. "» 

0. L. BENTON & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 
Poultry and Wild Game, 65, 66,67 California 
Market, S. F. OTA11 orders attended to at the 
shortest notice. Goods delivered Free of Charge to 
any part of the city. 



WETMORE BROTHERS, 

Commission Merchants, 

Green an'l Dried Fruit, Produce. Eggs, Etc. 
Consignments solicited. 413. 415 & 417 Washington St., 
San Francisco. 



EVELETH & NASH, 
COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Eggs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221,228 
■225 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 



RALPH BROWN. 



WOLF, BROWN & CO., 
General Commission Merchants 

And dealers in California and Oregon Produce, 

321 Davis Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



P. STEIN HAGEN & CO., 
Fruit and General Commission Merchants 

brick storks: 
408 & 410 Davis St., San Francisco 



WITTLAND & FREDRICKSON, 

Commission Merchants. 

AH Kinds of Green and Dried Fruits. 
consignments solicitbd. 324 Davis St.. S. F. 



AMERICAN EXCHANGE 

HOTEL, 
319 & 321 Sansome St., San Francisco 

One door from Bantc of California. 

The above well-known hotel offers superior 
commodationB to parties visiting the city. 
The table is kept at top grade and 
the prices are within the 
reach of all. 

RATES-$1.00, $1.25 and $1.50 per day. 

Free Coach to and from the Hotel. 
OHAS. & WM. MONTGOMERY. Prop'rs 



Itallnu Shoop "\A7"«,»l3 , 

EXTRACT OF TOBACCO. 

Free from Poison. 

» Cures thnrouuhlvthr-wCAB 
I at OF THE NHEKP. Th» 
.!u BUST remedy known. Ousts 
JJJ l.eil than 1 rent per head 
K for dipping. Reliable testl- 
L. munlala at our '.flice. For 
" particulars apply to 
CHAN. DTJMENBERCl .V CO.. Mole Agents, 
No. 314 Sacramento St., Man Franelaco, 




36, 



fACIFie I^URAId press. 



[Jan. 14, 1888 



.8 ♦ H ♦ ffi AF^K ET JtEfO^T 
Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, Jan. n, 1888. 

The past week has witnessed very few changes in 
farm products, with trading generally reported light. 
The long-continued cold weather, with freezing at 
night and thawing during the day, it is feared has 
done considerable damage to young orchards, 
strawberry plants, and to young grain plants not 
well rooted. Stock not housed or well fed have 
suffered in some of the counties. The Eastern and 
European wheat markets fell off some, but the 
former recovered to some extent, closing strong, 
while the latter is reported firmer, with holders not 
offering freely. To-day's cable is as follows: 

Liverpool, Jan. 11.— Wheat, holders offer mod- 
erately;. new No. 2 winter, 6s 9d and steady; do, 
spring. 6s od and steady. Flour, supply good at 9s 
4 d and firm. Corn, holders offer spot moderately 
and futures sparingly; spot and Jan., 4s io^d and 
steady; Feb., 4s njid and steady; March, 5s and 
steady. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 

Chicago, Jan. n— 1 p. m.— Wheat, lower; cash, 
76%c; Feb., 76HC; May, 83KC Corn, stronger; 
cash, 48^; Feb., 48 3-8C; Mav, 53 n-i6c. Oats, 
easier; May, 34c. Barley, nothing doing. 

Visible Stock of Grain. 

New York, Jan. 9 —The Produce Exchange re- 
ports the visible supply of grain on January 7th as 
follows: Wheat 43.857,000 bushels; corn, 6,184,000 
bushels; oats, 5.890,000 bushels; rye, 300,000 bush- 
els; barley, 3,328,000 bushels. 

Raisins. 

New York, Ian. 9.— There is a speculative raisin 
trade, and 65,000 boxes of California changed hands 
at $2 'for crown, $1.50(0)3 for layers. The stock of 
Spanish is small here and abroad. The Pacific sup- 
ply has the strongest hold here it has ever gained. 
Evaporated peaches are of dull sale at from 25@26, 
Apricots, I7@i8. 

New York, Jan. 7.— The Commercial Bulletin 
reports, that negotiations for the concentration 
of a stock of better quality California raisins 
in this market have been concluded, and in conse- 
quence a block of 30,000 boxes, three crown, Lion 
brand, loose have taken place at a price not far from 
$(.70. The Bulletin says: This now places the 
control of the finer slock in the hands of a leading 
jobbing house, and the belief is confidently expressed 
that they will be able to force an advance in the 
m uket tor that grade of fruit. This belief is encour- 
aged by reports that very little stock of a decent 
quality remains upon the Pacific Coast, while in the 
various markets east shid west the supplies are at a 
low point and favorable for the successful result of 
the present operation. The siatislical position of 
Malaga and Valencia goods has been fully shown 
up by us, and it is also up in this ground that specu- 
lators count upon coming out successful in the deal 
just completed. 

Foreign Market for Oranges. 

Nr.w York, Ian. 7. — The shipment of Florida 
oranges to Europe, which was attempted for the 
first nme this winter, is reported to have been sat- 
isfactory to shippers. About 1800 boxes were ship- 
pid ear.y in the season, and the net profits are said 
10 hive exceeded those rccfivrd for the same class of 
goods at home. They reached England before ihe 
Spinish and Italian fruit was marketed. To a 
Mail and Express reporter the commission dealer 
who handled Hie Florida fruit said that much larger 
shipments will be made another season. This will 
make a foreign market and steady prices in the 
home markets, he claimed. 

Wool. 

New York, Jan. 9 — Wool is not in an encourag- 
ing position. The sales of late have been unsatis- 
factory and the overhauling of stock left *rom pre- 
vious business leaves few long lines of high grade to 
help firm holding. Boston and Philadelphia seem to 
have a more cheerful situation. The sales include 
10,000 Its one-quarter blood combing at 37c; 5000 
lbs three-quarters unwashed at 29@30c; New York 
and Michigan at 28@2oKc; 20,000 lbs X Ohio at 
3t@32^c; 25,000 lbs Oregon at i8@24c; 50,000 
lbs at from 17(0)230. Terri'ory 212.000 lbs, domestic 
125,000 lbs, and 50 bales foreign were all sold on 
private terms. 

Local Markets. 

BAGS— The market is slow for Calcuttas, at j@ 
7Jic lor future delivery. 

BARLEY— It is claimed that several sound par- 
cels of brewing grades changed hands the past week 
lor shipping and home use. The market has a 
strong lone at the lower prices. In options, trading 
on Call has been only fair, wilh prices showing a 
decline under Iree hammering by the bears. To- 
day's sales are as follows: 

Morning Session: Bjyer season— 100 tons, 93!<c; 
200, 93 He ctl. Afternoon Session: Buyer sea- 
son— 100 tons, 93c; 20p, 92KC t# ctl. 

BUTTER— The market holds very strong at full 
prices for Iresh rolls. • There is no California solid 
or pickled in the market. The East sends us some 
solid, which sells at from 22 ^®37> 2 'c per lb., ac- 
cording to quality. Receipts ol California are light, 
and consequently the market is kept cleaned up. 

CHEESE— New California is wanted, but old is 
slow, as is Eastern. 

EGGS— Under continued free receipts from the 
East, the market is easy. The receipts of Califor- 
nia are growing less. 

FLOUR— The market is easier at quotations. 

WHEAT— More vessels were taken the past week 
thin any one week this season, and at raw- show- 
ing a lower range. Buyers combining have (He ad- 
vantage of holders lorced to sell. At the close, 
holders are firmer. Liverpool quotations were low- 
er on Monday and yesterday, but the decline in 
price was not equal to the decline in charters for ves- 
sels; however, buyers used it so as to get holders to 



sell wheat for less money. In options, trading on Call 
has been only fair, and that at a slightly lower 
range. To-day's sales are reported as follows: 

Morning Session: Buyer season — 200 tons, $1.- 
47>6c; 200, $1.47 £f ctl. Alternoon Session: Buyer 
season — 100 tons, $1.47; 200, $1.47^ $ ctl. 



(COMMUNICATED.] 

Market Information. 

Cereals. 

The stocks of wheat in the importihg ports of the 
United Kingdom December 31 and on passage 

December 31 : 

On passage, 

Stock Stock Total wheat aiid 
wheat, flour, acock, flonr. Total, 
bushels, bushels, bushels, bushels, bushels. 
1S8G. 10,093 72S 6,768,669 1 6,862,297 10,552,000 32,414,297 
1885.19,343,204 6,339,394 25,682,658 14,296,000 39,978,668 
1881.. 2,i9l, 104 4,625 608 16,919,712 16,288,000 83.207,712 
1*83. 25,476.592 5,200,000 3u,676,692 16,752,000 47,248,592 
1882.13,376,040 4,277,808 17,653,848 19,0o6,000 36,705,843 

The slock of wheat and flour in the importing 
ports of the United Kingdom December 31, 1887, 
will probably be about 22,000,000 bushels. The 
flour will, it is estimated, be less in wheat than the 
5,768,569 bushels on December 31, 1886. The 
quantity on passage (wheat and flour) DeDember 24, 
1887, w as 11,640,000 bushels, and will be about that 
quantity on December 31, which will make the 
stock in the ports plus (he quantity on passage about 
33.640,000 bushels, against 32,414,297 bushels 
December 31, 1886. 

The Austro-Hungarian wheat crop of 1887 is esti- 
mated at 177,000,000 bushels, which is larger than 
any crop of wheat in the previous ten years except- 
ing the 181,521,357 bushels crop in 1882; but the 
exports during August and September, 1887, as 
compared with the same months in 1886, do not 
indicate so much larger supplies, but, the rather, 
diminished demand. The exports in two months 
in 1887 have been equal, in flour and wheat, to 2.- 
882,821 bushels of wheat, against 2,786,679 bushels 
in 1886. 

In France the prospects for the growing creal 
crops have so far been exceedingly favorable. There 
were heavy rainfalls the second week in December. 
Thr^ farmers, however, are now desirous of having 
colder, snowy weather, in order to destroy or arrest 
the growing of noxious weeds; besides, the wheat 
plant has been too rank in growth from the effects 
of high temperature and persistent rainfalls, caus- 
ing the fields to assume a yellowish tinge, which 
is not considered a good omen. The grain offerings 
of farmers have not been so large as had been 
expected, while demand has been continuously more 
urgent. The stocks are being diminished. It may 
be a question of prices or a paucity of supply. The 
offerings are nowhere in France in excess of the re- 
quirements. Millers could not lay in large storks 
wilhout establishing an advance in values. '1 he pro- 
ducers do not seem inclined to lower their demands. 
The French country markels have nearly every day, 
for several weeks, been quoted firm or strong. The 
imports of wheat into France from August 1 to 
November 15, 1887, have been 9,037.672 bushels 
against 11,742,327 bushels the corresponding period 
in 1886. 

The Australasian wheat crop of 1886-87 was 25,- 
208,828 bushels, which was very little more than the 
home use requirements of about 3,500,000 popula- 
tion, including seed. Theearly estimates of thecropol 
1887-88 (always excessive) are for a crop of about 
38,000,000 to 40,000,000 bushels. It is estimated 
South Australia will have 17, 173,333 bushels avail- 
able for export and Victoria 7,560,000, which, if ap- 
proximately correct, indicate a crop of more than 
40,000,000 bushels in 1887-88, as home consumption 
is 22,000,000 and intercoloaiil exchange about 3,- 
500,000 bushels. 

Eastern mail advices do not report any material 
change in winter wheat. There is a prevailing 
opinion, though, that the prospects on January 1st 
were not equal to the outlook at the like date last 
year. The demand for flour at the South and 
Southwest is telling on the slock of wheat, the 
short corn and potato crops causing a larger con- 
sumption of wheat flour. The visible supply of 
wheat at the East shows a gradual increase, yet it is 
nearly one-third less than at this date in 1887. 

On this coast, Oregon advices report extreme cold 
weather, causing in some localities, where seeded 
wheat had germinated and not dei-ply rooted, some 
damage; but as a whole the cold weather is bene- 
ficial. The market for wheat is quiet, owing to ex- 
port buyers and sellers being apirt. California buy- 
ers are still in the market for Valley, chiefly for mill- 
ing, paying as reported from $1. 23^4(0)$!. 25}^ , ac- 
cording to quality. 

1 n this State a very large acreage seeded to wheat is 
reported, quite an increase over the acreage seeded to 
Jan. io, 1887. Some localities report alternate freezing 
and thawing, and in consequence, damage to the 
plant not well rooted. If the present continued 
extreme cold spell is followed by warm rains and 
then warm, clear days, no serious injury will result, 
but if followed by a succession of clear, warm or hot 
days, many fields will have to be reseeded. 

Tne local wheat market has been successfully 
hammered down by bears, notwithstanding a large 
increase in the tonnage on berth to load for Europe. 
The carrying capacity of the vessels loading and to 
load is nearly 60,000 short tons, which will very ma- 
terially reduce the slock in the warehouses. It is 
claimed that straight lots of No. 1 white shipping 
can be bought at $1.37!^, but so far as an extended 
inquiry goes among sellers not connected with ex- 
porters, the writer fails to hear of any sound parcels 
obtainable below Si 40, while the large bulk is held 
lor more money. Millers, as a rule, are supplying 
their wants with choice Oregon Valley wheat. 

Although the stock of barley is reporled to be 
larger than ever before known, still the large short 
interest has not succeeded in their systematic at- 
tempt in breaking values for futures as much as it 
was claimed they could. The large bulk of that in 
the cily warehouses is held against short sales, and 
consequently is only sold when more to arrive is as- 
sured. The consumption continues very large, with 
an increase since the cold weather set in. There 
has been more selling on shipping account, due to 
the short crop at the Eist and a general impression 
that choice will rule higher soon. In this market 
brewers are said to be sampling more Ireely, but 
they do not bid up. 

Corn is very strong, with choice grades stronger, 
under a fair demand and limited offerings. The 



shortage in the great corn-growing States at the 
West is fully confirmed, as is the poor general 
quality. It is claimed that owing to the high price 
of fuel, very large quantities of corn on the cob are 
being burnt in many sections. 

Oats show a weaker tone, but holders are not dis- 
posed to accept lower bids, except for parcels on 
wharf, so as to save expenses. 1 he market taken at 
its best does not give any encouragement to the 
holding interest, unless the surplus supply in Ore- 
gon and on Puget Sound is less than generally 
claimed. 

Rye holds strong, as does buckwheat. Both are 
in light stock, wilh the supply to draw from less 
than usual at this season of the year. 

Feedstuff. 

Bran and middlings are firmer at the lower prices. 
The consumptive demand enlarged with the colder 
weather; but then the same can be reporled for 
rolled and ground barley and oilcake meal. Ground 
barley can be bought less than quoted. 

Hay continues a luxury, panicularlv choice quali- 
ties. The supply in the State is less than known for 
years. Owing to the light supply and high prices, 
as liltlc is fed out to stock as possible. Unless warm 
rains and warm, growing wealherare had soon, there 
will be a hay famine in some localities before long. 

Fruits. 

Fears are entertained that in several localities 
strawberry plants have been killed by the cold 
weather, but so far as the writer's information ex- 
tends no such injury has been done. Many fruit 
trees are also said to be destroyed, but this also is 
untrue. It is quite likely that young trees newly set 
out may suffer, but not be killed. 

The fears entertained for the orange crop, owing 
to cold weather, were groundless, for so far as can 
be ascertained no loss will be met unless a much 
harder spell of cold weather sets in. 

Oranges continue to come in sparingly, but the 
quality as a rule is not up to the average, which, 
combined with cold weather, is against a quick 
demand. 

Limes are in light supply and command high 
prices. 

Lemons are in good supply, with a steady market 
reported. 

Apples are in liberal receipt. Choice Oregon con- 
tinue to find ready buyers at full prices. Defective 
and poor apples are slow. Eastern apples continue 
to have a wide range, selling at from $2.50 to $6 per 
barrel, according to quality. 

Considerable dried fruits it is said are being 
shipped East before the advance in freights. The 
stock of choice grades is light for the season, caus- 
ing holders to be firm in their views. Even the 
poorer grades are in light stock. 

Raisins are held with great confidence, owing to 
the light stock on this coast. It is claimed that the 
supply here is not more than one-third what it was 
in January, 1887, while the demand promises to be 
la'ger this year. 

Live-Stock. 

Choice, well-conditioned bullocks are in light sup- 
p'y, causing full prices to be paid by those wishing 
to obtain choice meat. Fair to good bullocks are 
offering fair. Considerable poor cattle are on the 
market, but they find ready buyers at the current low 
quotations. Mutton sheep are higher, particularly 
the more choice conditioned. Lambs and calves are 
scarce and command good prices. Hogs are com- 
ing in slowly, and as there is strong competition, bids 
have been advanced. Sales are reported at an ad- 
vance on top quotations. The higher prices are due 
to light supplies and the upward movement in the 
product. Milch cows are neglected. An offer was 
made in the yards to sell 100 head that will come in 
in the sp-ing at $10 a head— good dairy cows, too, 
without finding a buyer. No pasture and the high 
cost of leed cause the selling pressure. It is claimed 
that considerable loss by starvation and cold has 
been met by some dairymen in Marin and Sonoma 
counties. They milked the cows too long, and not 
feeding them full up they were not in condition to 
withstand the cold weather. In horses there is no 
demand for work-horses; many bands have been 
driven back, owing to no buyers. General utility 
and driving horses and also matched teams are 
wanted. 

The following are the wholesale rates of slaugh- 
terers to butchers: 

BEEF— Extra, 8@8^c; first grade, grass fed. 7%- 
@7K $lb. ; second grade, 6^@7c; third grade, 5M 

@6c. 

~ MUTTON— Ewes, 6K@7'\ wethers, 7@7>4c 

LAMB — Spring, 12 %% 15c. 

VEAL— Large, 7@8c; small, 8@9C. 

PORK — Live hogs, 4K@5!4c for heavy and me- 
dium; hard dressed, 7@7Jicper lb; acorn fed. 4}i@ 
4Hc; dressed, 6!4@7c; soft hogs, live, 3%@^Hc. 
On foot, one-third less for grain or stall fed, and 
one-half less for stock running out. 

Vegetables. 

Cold, freezing weather is against gardening, caus- 
ing a strong market for cabbage, cauliflowers and 
root vegetables. 

Onions are higher, and stronger at the advance. 
The demand has increased while receipts are less. 
It is claimed that considerable were damaged by the 
extreme cold weather in Oregon, and as that Slate 
sends us liberal supplies any loss will be felt later on. 

Potatoes are strong at full prices. The demand 
is good, as are receipts. 

Beans are very strong. The stock in the Slate is 
lighter than for several years at this date, not- 
withstanding which the East draws steadily, not even 
the advanced prices bringing about any material check 
in the demand. 

Miscellaneous. 

The tonnage movement compares with last year at 
this date as follows: 1888. 1887. 

On the way 320,644 215 .943 

In port, disengaged 121,477 63,981 

In port, engaged 23,865 49.241 

Totals 46S.9 86 329,165 

To obtain the carrying capacity, add 60 per cent 
to the tonnage. 

In wools the market is very dull for the coarser 
grades and defective clips, but fine, lively and strong 
stapled wools are wanted at good prices. The 
change in woolen goods fashion has depressed some 
kinds and advanced others, particularly the fine 
grades. 

Hops continue quiet, but this usually obtains at 



this season of the year. Eastern and English advices 
report more buying by brewers and speculators. 

Poultry held strong at high prices, up to Tuesday, 
when, under free arrivals, the market ruled easier. 

Hides are slow, but tallow and also deerskins are 
wanted. 

In honey and beeswax, there is nothing new to 
report. 

There is a lull and some weakness in breadstuff 
and provisions, but this has been compensated by 
the good volume of trade, reducing trade in the 
fall. 

The tariff is a frequent topic, but there is no wide- 
spread fear that legislation will be enacted with con- 
siderate haste. 

Hops continue weak, but choice State range from 
8@i5; Pacific common to choice, 8@t2"4 ; old, 1886, 
8; German, 20@25. 

Mustard seed, both Pacific Coast and foreign, is 
unchanged, and prices are nominal. 

San Francisco, Jan. 11, iSSS. 



Domestic Prodnoe 



Extra choice in good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grade* fell less thao the loser 




quotations. 

Bit AN S AND PEAS. 

Bayo.ctl 2 10 

Butter 
Pea 
Red 
Pink 

Large White.. 
Small White.. 

Lima 

Fid Peas,blk ere 2 00 

do green 1 50 

do Niles 1 50 @ 2 00 

BROOM HORN. 
South'npertou.50 TO (675 00 
Norto n in rt,ju . . 50 00 1 75 00 
CHICORY 

Calif oral*. 6 @ 7 

German. 7 @ 8 

DAIRY PRODTJC1C, ETC 

BUTTER. 

Cal fresh roll, lb. .-a. 45 

do Fancy br'ndi 45 (8 47 1 

Pickle roll — ■ - 

Firkin, new — & — 

Eastern 221 

omtttSE 

Cheese, Oal.,lb.. 13 

Eastern style... 12 

■tint 

Cal. . ranch, doz. . 34 

do, store 30 

Ducks — 

Oregon 

Eastern 

FEED 



Wednesday, Jan 11. 1888. 



Brazil. 

Pecans.. 

C.-annts. 

Filberts.. 

Hickory. 



II W 
10 « 

4 « 
10 l» 

6 



POTATOFH. 



12» 

16 



3 511 Burbank 1 10 @ I 40 

3 65 Early Rose 90 ~ 

2 75 Cuff ey Cove 80 

2 10 Petal uma. 75 

75 Tommies 1 uo 

River rerig 55 

Jersey Blues 75 

Humboldt — 

do Kidney.... — St — 

Peaehblows 87) (iff 1 10 

Chile — u* — 

do Oregon... — ■ — 

Peerless 90 i 1 05 

Salt Lake «t - 

45 Sweet 1 25 (B 2 00 

47| POULTRY AMD O AM K 

— Hens, dox 5 50 ■ 8 00 

- Roosters 7 00 ffllu 00 

37i Broilers 6 00 1 8 50 

Ducks, tame... 10 >> {612 00 
4 50 



ao 



16 


do Mallard 


4 00 


IS 




1 50 






2 00 


35 


do Goslings . .. 




34 




2 50 




Turkeys, lb 


19 




do Dressed . . 


20 


2.' TurkeyFeathers. 






tail and wing. . 





Bran, ton 16 00 ®U 50 Snipe, Eng., dos. 

Oornmeal 25 (10 <&2? 00 do Common — 

Gr'd Barley ton. 20 00 $21 00 Doves. — fl 

Hay 11 00 #19 00 Quail 1 75 3 

Middlings 19 00 S'.G 50 Rabbits 1 00 9 

Oil Cake Meal. 26 50 §28 50 Hare 1 25 9 

Straw, bale 40 % 63 Venison — 9 

FLOUR PROVISIONS. 
Extra. City Mills 4 00 (8 4 25 Oal. Bacon. 

ao Co'ntry Mills 3 75 ■ 4 00 Heavy, tb 10 «j 

~ 3 50 1 Medium 11 9 

I Ugbt 

92; Extra Ugbt... IJ3 t 

1 15 Lard 9 A 

1 30 Cal.SmokedBeef I • 

1 15 Hams, Cal 121(8 

I 50 I do Eastern.. 14 ><• 
SEEDS. 



-u lertine 3 25 

GRAIN, km 
Barley, feed. ctl. 8S 
do Brewing.. 1 00 

Chevalier 1 15 

do Coast... 95 

Buckwheat 1 15 

Com, White 1 20 a 1 30 

Yellow 1203130 Alfalfa. 

Small Round. 1 a 1 3>.j Canary , 

Nebraska 1 10 & 1 25 Clover red.. 

Oats, milling ... 1 55 ® 1 60 White 

Choice feed 1 40 @ 1 45 Cotton 

do good 1 37j3 1 40 Flaxseed..., 

do fair 1 20 (S 1 3C Hemp.. 



do black 1 25 (3 1 40 Italian RyeGrasa 

do Oregon — @ — Perennial 

Rye 2 25 @ 3 00 Millet, German. 

Wheat milling. do Common. 

Gilt edged.. 1 f. 1 47i Mustard, white.. 

do Oholoe 1 40 <a 1 42; Brown 

do fair to good 1 37}« 1 40 Kape 

Shipping choice 1 40 (8 1 41} Ky. Blue Grass. 

do good 1 3*!<a; 1 40 Id quality 

do fair 1 36} <* 1 371 Sweet V. On 



HIDES 

Dry 121' 

Wet salted 5N 

HONEY, ETCJ 

Beeswax, tb 21 I 

Honey in comb. 12)' 
Honey in comb. 

fancy 

Extracted, Ugbt. 
do daik 

BOM. 

Oregon 1 

California 

ONIONS 

Pickling 

Red 

Silve-rskins 



16 @ 
6j* 



13 



19 



NUTS-Jobbiwu. 
Walnuts, Cal., lb SQ 
do Chile. 8 t 
Almonds, hdsbl 5 «* 

Soft .boll 12 <g 

Paper shell 15 @ 



Orchard. . 

Red Top 

Hungarian.... 

Lawn 9 

Mesqult 

Timothy 

TALLOW 

Crude, tb 1 1 

7: Renned 6 1 

6i WOOL, ETC. 

FALL-1887 

171 Humboldt and 

17| Mendocino ... 15 1 

Sact'o valley 12a 

— Free Mountain. 15 * 

— ' N*hern defective — 1 
1 00 § 1 75 8 Joaquin valley !0 1 



do mountain. 
10 Oava'v & F'tn'U. 
- Oregon Eastern. 

7 do valley 

13 Southern Coast. 







6 


Neetarines.. . 


8 \ 


11 


do evaporated 




18 






10 


do pared. 


1 




do evaporated. 


20 <a 


25 


Pears, suced ... 




S 






5 


do evaporated 


l" <§ 


11 


Plums, evapo'ed 


10 S 


11 


do unpitted. . 




5 






10 


do Frenoh.... 




11 


Zante Currants . 


8. 8 ^ 




RAISIN 







Fruits and Vegetables. 

Extra choice in good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 
quotations. Wednesday, Jan. II, 1888. 

Apples, bxcom.. 75 @ 1 10 

do choice 1 50 @ 2 00 

Apricots, lb — @ — 

Bananas, bunch. 2 50 ig 5 00 
Blackberries, ch. — @ — 
Oante-loupes, cr. — @ — 
Cherries whit bx — (j» — 
ao black bx . . . — (<» — 
do Royal Ann.. - @ — 
Cherry plums... — (a — 

Crabapples — @ — 

Cranberries 10 00 ftrl2 00 

Currants ch — @ — 

Gooseberries lb. . — @ — 
Puts, black bx... — (<t — 
do white bx. . . — @ — 
Grapes, white... — <g — 

do black — % — 

do Rose Peru. — (|P — 
do Muscat.... — <g — 
do Tokays .... — <ff - 

Isabel — W — 

Wine, Zinfandel — @ 
di 1 Mission.... — <0 — 

Limes, Mex — ® 

do Oal box. . . - 
Lemons, Cal., bx 1 75 
do Sicily, box. 5 00 
do Australian. — 
Nectarines, box — 
Oranges, Com bx 1 25 

do Choice 2 00 

do Navels 3 00 

do Panama... — 

Peaches, bx — 

do bask - 

Orawfords, bx — 
do bskt. . — 

do choice — 

Pears bx — 

do ohoice 1 50 

do Bartlett, bx — 
Persimmons, 
Jap, bx 



DehesaClus, fey 3 25 @ 3 50 
Imperial Cabin- 
et, fan y ... 2 00 <8 2 25 
Crown London 

Layers, fey.. 1 80 @ 2 00 
do Loose Mus- 
catels, fancy 1 80 (g 2 00 
do Loose Mus- 
catels 1 60 01 1 75 

Cal. Valencia*.. 1 60 (8 1 80 
do Layers . . . 1 50 ffl 1 6 1 
do Sultanas... 1 60 Iff 1 76 
6 50 [Dried, sacks, lb. '. «t 6 

— j Fractious come 25, 50 and 75 
cents higher for halves, quar- 
ters and eighths. 

VEGETABLES. 
4 50 'Artichokes, dox. -<t — 

— [Asparagus $>bx. — <g — 

— do ext'acuoioe — @ — 

— 'Okra, dry, tb... 

— do green bx. 

— Parsnips, ctl.. 

— Peppers, dry tb. . 

— do mreen, box — 1 
2 50 Pumpkins prton — 1 

— 1 Squash, Marrow 

tat, ton 10 00 1 

do Summer bx — 1 



4 00 



1 2 25 
2 50 



1:. - 



1 50 

10 1 



M 



S13 00 



Pineapples, dox. 2 00 @ 4 50 String beans tb. . —9 r% 



Jan. 14, 1888.] 



f ACIFK3 RjJRAb PRESS. 



°7 



Flums lb — @ 

Pomegranates, b — @ 

Prunesib — @ 

Quinces bx — @ 

Raspberries ch. . — @ 

Strawberries ch. — @ 

Watermens, 100. — @ 
DRIED FRTTIT 

Apples, sliced, lb 4 

do evaporated 
do Quartered . . . 
Aprloots 

do evaporated 
Blackberries..,. 

Oitron 18 & 

Dates 9 (8 

Figs, pressed.... 5 @ 



9 8 
12 @ 

sm 

14 @ 
12J9 



Tomatoes box... — (8 — 
do choice — @ — 

Turnips otl 75 w 1 25 

Beets, sk 75 @ 1 00 

Cabbage, 100 lbs. 1 00 @ — 

Carrots, sk 35 

Eggplant, $ bx. 

Garlic lb 

Green Corn, cr 
do sweet cr. . . 
do large box. , 

Green Peas, lb. 

Sweet Peas lb. . 

Lettuce, doz. . . 

Lima Beans lb. . 

Mushrooms, lb. 

Rhubarb bx 



- ® 

- @ 



30 ® 40 



40 



Steps have been taken to prevent the impor- 
tation of diseased pork from Denmark into this 
country. 





IMPORTED STALLIONS! 

DIRECT 

FROM 

England. 

Cleveland Bays 

FOR BREEDING 

CARRIAGE and COACH HORSES. 

— IMPORTATIONS OF — 

Seth Cook, Esq., Cook Stock Farm. Dan- 
ville, Contra Costa Co., Cal, and . 
Sherlcker Bros., Springfield, III. 

For prices and catalogues apply to or address GEO. A. 
WILEY, Cook Stock Farm, Danville, Ual., SAMUEL 
GAMBLE, 1307 Dolores street, or Bay District Track, 
or to 

KILLIP & CO., Live Stock Auctioneers, 

22 Montgomery St., S. P. 

RANCHO CHICO NURSERY. 

Large and Select Stock of 

Fruit, Shade & Ornamental 



Grown Without Irrigation, Clean, Well- 
Rooted and Free from Insect Pests. 

Full Line of Choice Grapevines. 



Stock of French Prunes and Apricots 
exhausted. 

Catalogue and price list sent on application. 

JOHN BIDWELL, Proprietor, 

Chico, 0«,1. 




HE H. H. H. Horse Liniment puts 
- new life into t'ae Antiquated Horse I 
For the last 14 years the H. H. H. Horse 
Liniment has been the leading remedy 
among Farmers and Stockmen for the 
cnre of Sprains. Bruises, Stiff Joints, 
Spavirjs, Windfalls, Sore Shoulders, etc., 
»nd for Family Use is without an equal 
jjpr Rheumatism. Neuralgia, Aches, Pains, 
Bruises, Cuts and Sprains of all characters. 
The H. H. H. Liniment has many imita- 
tions, and we caution the Public to see 
that the Trade Mark " H. H. H." is on 
every Bottle before purchasing. For sale 
everywhere for 50 cento and $1.00 per 
Bottle. 

For Sale bv all druorsrlst.B. 



To Dairymen, Fruit- Growers and 
Farmers ! 

SITUATION WANTED. 

An experienced man, with wife, wants a situation. 
Understands Dairying, Irrigating, and General Farming. 
Can eivc the best of references. Address, H. B., Box 
381, San Franc isco. 

I CURE FITS! 

When I say cure I do not mean merely to stop them for 
* time and then have them ret urn attain. I mean a rad- 
ical cure. 1 have made the disease of FITS, HPILEPSY 
or FALLING SICKNKSS a life-long study. I warrant 
my remedy to cure the worst cases. Because others have 
failed is no reason for not now receiving a cure. Send 
at once for a treatise and a Free Bottle of my infallible 
remedy. Give Express and Post Office. 
U. «. ROOT, M. C, 183 Pearl St., New York. 

This paper Is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Bneu Johnson & Co., 500 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ces— 47 Hose St, New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Coast— 
Joseph H. Dorety, 620 CommerclalSt. , S. F. 



GOULD'S SPRAY PUMP 




(Copyrighted by the Gould's Mfg. Co.) 

With Bamboo Extension all fitted up, 

COMPLETE WITH HOSE, BARREL and SPRAY NOZZLE. 

This cut shows in faithful operation our Gould's Spray Pump; they are utilized for spraying Fruit Trees, 
Orange Groves, Vines, and in fact, all Trees or Shrubbery infested with the destructive insects which infest and do 
so much injury in Orchards, Vineyards, Orange Groves, etc. They are made entirely of brass, with the exception 
of frame and handle, and are strong and heavy; the valves, being made entirely of metal, will not bo affected bv 
the corrosive solutions such as Caustic Soda, Acids, Lye, or any other solution that may be used to kill the de- 
structive insect. 

Our Bamboo Extension is an admirable invention; the operator of the Pump, by the use of this extension, can 
get to all parts of the trei while on the ground, also saving himself from gettiner his hands and face burnt from the 
solution. As a rule, the man who does the driving of the team does the pumping, and the party who has charge 
of the Bamboo Extension does the spraying. We can fit up these ,iuraps so you \re capable of running two Ex- 
tensions or Spravs at one time, each man taking a separate row of trees. Our Spray Nozzles throw the Spray out 
on the tree in a very fine mist that allows the solution to settle on the upper and lower tides of the leaves and 
branches; l y the use of a Spray Tip (in fact it is the only way to put on the solution) fully one-half or two-thirds 
of the solution is saved. The Imperial Nozzle seems to be the favorite. These pumps have been adopted and 
recommended by the State Horticultural Society. We have over 750 in use in California. 

NOTfCR.— Ongertii's Liquid True Protrctor is the best Spray for killing Red Scale, Black Scale, White 
Cushion Cottony Scale, San Jose Scale, or any other insect. 

tM"Seni for Prices and Complete Circular o' Spraying Outfit. 



WOODIN & LITTLE, 



509 & 511 Market Street, 



San Francisco, Cal, 



PERGHERON HORSES. 

FRENCH COACH HORSES. 

More Imported and Bred than by any other Eight Establishments. 

511 PURE-BREDS Now Actually on Hand. 

Experience and Facilities Combined for Furnishing Best Stock of Both Breeds 
at Reasonable Prices. 
Separate Catalogues for each breed, with history of same. Say which is wanted. Address 

M. W. DUNHAM, Wayne, Du Page Co., Illinois. 





HAMMOND'S MUSIC STORE, 

2513 MISSION ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

Dealers in Pianos and Organs, Musical Merchandise, 

Roller Organs, 

The musical marvels. Prices, §7, $12, $15. They perform a 
choice selection of over 200 tunes by rollers similar to that 
of a music box. No paper used to produce this music, new 
tunes being constantly added. 

They play the latest music in tones so full and sweet, 
For the rollers are all perfect and the parts are complete. 
For church or social meeting, for concert and for dances, 
Operettas, waltzes, jigs, hornpipes, gay life quadrille lancers. 

For dances and where musicians would have to be engaged, 
they will save their cost in one night. Circulars free on 
application. 



Warranted Seed. 



Mm 



I hare founded 
my business on 
the belief that 

the public are anxious to get their seed iirectly from the 
grower. Raising a large proportlo lol'my s'eed enables 
me to warrant Its freshness and pm Ity, as see my Vege- 
table and Flower Seed Catalogue for 1888, FREE 
for every son and daughter of Adam. It Is 
liberally illustrated with engravings made directly 
from photographs of vegetables grown on my teed 
1'arma. Besides an immense variety of standard seed, vou 
will find In It some valuable new vegetables not found in 
ny other catalogue. As the original Introducer of the 
Eclipse Beet, Burbank and Early Ohio Potatoes, Hubbard 
Squash, Deephead Cabbage, Cory Corn, and a acore of other 
Valuable vegetables. I invite the patronage of the public. 

JAMES J. H. UliUOOltY, Marblehead, Mass. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending December 31, 1887, the Board 
of Directors of the German Savings and Loan Society 
has declared a dividend at the rate of four and one-half 
per cent per annum on term deposits, and three 
and three fourths (3I|) per cent per annum on ordinary 
deposits, and pavabio on and after Tuesday, the 3d day 
of Jariuary, 1888. By order 

GEO. LETTE, Secrotary. 



HEALDS 



Shorthand, 



BUSINESS 
COLLEGE, 

24 Post St. S. F 

Send for CSrmW- 
Penmanehip, Typewriting, Book-keeping. 



WINCHESTER HOUSE. 

44 Third Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

This Fire-proof Brick Building is centrally located, in 
the healthiest part of the city, only a half block from 
the Grand and Palace Hotels, and close to all Steamboat 
and Kailroad Offices. 

Laundry Free for the use of Families 

HOT AND COLD BATHS FREE. 

Terms, Board and Room, $1.00 per Day 

And upward. 
ROOMS WITH OR WITHOUT BOARD. 

FREE COACH TO THE HOUSE. 
J. FOOLEY. 



Preliminary Announcement. 
^AUCTION SALE 

OF ■ 

Standard Bred Trotting Stallions, 

BROOD MARES, 

Colts & Fillies of Highest Type ! 

TROTTING AND ROADSTER GELDINGS. 
Cleveland Bays, Saddle and Work Horses! 

Property of SETH COOK, Esq., 
Cook Farm, Danville, Contra Costa Co , 

TO BE SOLD AT 

BAY DISTRICT TRACK, San Fra'co 

AT 10 A. K, SHARP 

THURSDAY, February 16th. 

Cataloenes, giving full pedigrees and desc.iptions, 
ready Saturday next, 14th inst. 

KfLLIP & CO., Auctioneers. 




STRYCHNINE! 

STRYCHNINE! 

Farmers who want the PUREST ami UKST 
Strychnine, SURE TO KILL Ground Squirrels, 
Gophers, Mice and other an mils which destroy the 
crops, should specify MALLINCKRODT'S ST LOUIS ' 
STRYCHNINE, manufactured hy 

Mallinckrodt's Chemical Works, 

ST. LOUIS and NEW Y0KK, 

—AND— 

SOLD BY ALL DEALERS. 



itS"Iiisi8t upon having oiik brand, and allow no sub- 
stitution of other makes. Sec that our cap and label is 
on the bottles. 




Tho LITTLE Gl _A.3SJ"T. 

The greatest fence loom on earth. Fnl'y covered hy patents. 
A sure impediment to the rahhit. Only weighs 3D pounds. 
Can be operated by a child as well as a man. You are not 
compelled to pull a cumbersome track over the rough 
ground All that is needed is a c mnion board laid upon 
the ground. Estimates for materia] made when wanted. 
Correspondence solicited with hardware meu feudally 
Price, $10. 

THOMAS D. POOLE, 



1906 San Antonio Ave., 



Alameda, Cal. 



French Prunes for Sale. 

1000 TREES! 

5 to 7 feet high, nicely rooted, at $20 
per 100. Guaranteed true to name 
and free from disease. Owing to 
their extreme scarcity, an immediate 
order would be necessary to secure 
them . Address 

H. W. PECK, 
laurel Dale Nursery. Heaklsburer, Cal. 

SORGHUM 

A little bonk that every farmer ought to hnve 
is the " Sorghum Hand Hook" for le*N. which 
may be had free, by addressing The Hlymyer 
Iron Works Co., of Cinc innati, (). Sorghum [8 a 
very valuable crop for syrup-making, feed, and 
fodder, and this pamphlet gives full information 
about the different species, best modes of culti- 
vation, etc. Send and get it and read it. 



ROOT GRAFTS AND SEEDLINGS 
Apple, Pear, Cherry, Plum. 

Wkitk fok Prices. 
BLOOMINGTON (PHCENIX) NORSERY. 

SIDNEY TUTTLE Si CO., Prop'rs, 
Established 1S52. Bloomirgton, Illinois. 

HIDDEN NAME CARDS,", l";,[''','^', r ""'"; ""'i 



941 



38 



P ACIFKB RURAL> PRESS. 



[Jan. 14, 1888 



fleetls, Plants, tic. 



NAPA VALLEY NURSERIES. 

Established 1878. 
Fruit Trees, Grapevines, Resistant Grape- 
vine Stock. 

And everything to be found in a first class Nursery; 

the loJIuwiog new fruits, obtainable only at these Ho 

Ties: . _, 

CI* man -Earliest and finest shipping Plum. 

V lat Is— Earliest and finest shipi ing Peach. 

California Advance- Earliest and best Cherry. 

Purity— Most beautiful, white, carmine Cherry. 

Black Mastodon — Largest black Cherry known. 

Centennial— The finest keeping and shipping, light- 
colored Cherry. (This variety is now cultivat.d 
throughout the State; to be safe, however, it is best to 
procure it from headquarters ) 

CoininerelM— The largest Almond. 
8end for catalogue and price list. AH stock unirri- 

gated and free from disease. LEONARD COATE8, Napa 

City, Cal. For County Hights for a new and valuable 

FRtiir Drier, address as above. 



GUM AND CYPRESS TREES. 

All Fresh. Healthy. Hardy Stock, Reeularly 
Transplanted in Boxes by Hand. 

IWootereT rrpreu. 6 to 10 inches high, of 110 trees 
per b *. at #2 per 10". or SI9 per 1000; (in larger space--!, 8 
to 12 iucher high, of 70 trees per box, at .*2 n-r box or $2* 
per 1000; or 12 to 15 inches, of SO trees per box, at $1 per box 
or ?3t per 1010 Seedlings. 2 to 4 inches (slow g ownl, at $5 
per 10X>: transplanted thick. 4 to 6 inches, at S10 per luOn. 

Monlerrv Pine*. 4 to 6 inches of 100 trees ne- box 
at 82 50 per boi, or S22 f per 1000; 6 to 8 in< hes of 80 tre s 
per box at 83.50 per 100, or .$30 per 1000. Acacia Melanoxy- 
lon, 15 t . 20 inches of 35 trjes per box at 81 75 per box. 

Hlne Uum*, 6 to 10 inches of 100 trees per boi at 81-50 
or g.14 per ion In larger Fpaces. 10 t> 15 inches of 70 trees 
per box at 81.50 per box. or $19 per 100 ; 15 to 2» inches of 
60 trees per box at $1 50 per box; 2 to 3 feet of 30 per lwx at 
the rate of per h Also larj;e straight sacked or bulked 
Gums. 6 to 13 fe t, st low rates. 

U. S. stain- b will bo taken for sample boxes. A'l trees 
will be delivered promptly snd in g od condition, free to 
shipping points. Send all money orders, postal notes or 

draftat ° GEO. R. BAILEY, 

Box 106. Berkeley, Cal. 




9 FR EE 



:e to a. 

Cox§ 

t NEW 

Seeks M \ 

FOR 1888. 



a»"Our New Catalogue for 18S8, mailed free on appli- 
cation, contiins description and price of Vegetable, 
Flower, drags, Clover, Tree and Field Seeds; Australian 
Tree and Shrub Seeds; native California Tree and I- lower 
Sesds, Fruit Trees, and many new novelties introduced 
in Europe and the United States. 

THOS. A. COX & CO., 

411. 413, 415 Ran°om« St, San Franoi ■ 



THE DINGEE & CONAR1) CO S 

LEADING SPECIALTIES. 

ROSES 

ALL VARIETIES, SIZES AND PRICES 

FINE EVER-BLOOMING PERPETUAL, 
CLIMBING AND MOSS ROSES. 

NEW AND RARE FLOWER SEEDS. 
HARDY PLANTS. N w Mo } ' u m ' '-■'■mii-. Spring 
Bulbs. JAPAN LILIES. New Chrysanthemums, sod our 
Wonderful ORNAMENTAL VECETABLES. 

BswyM so safely by mail or express ' • »« P""""- 
We Choice NEW THINCS and ST E RL INC 
NOVELTIES NEW CUIDE, 

ISj pp., etegaattr frustrated, demrib, ■ over 1500 NEWtST 
and CHOICEST Varieties of ROSES, SEEDS. 
PLANTS and BULBS, and tells how to grow them 
Free. Z:~ If you wish to plant anything, send lor it. 
20 Years Established. "r. r QQ largt iirtenhouta. 

THE DINCEE & CON ARD CO. 
ROSE GROWERS, WEST GROVE, Chester Co., Pa. 



Orange Growers, Look Here ! 

J. VILLINGER'S 
Covina Nvirsery ! 
150,000 ORANGE TREES 

One y ar old fmin the seed. Absolutely the finest plant 
in Southern California Will he carefully budded from 
the world's numt famous varieties. 
For particulars apply to 

J. VILLINGER. 

Covina, Cal. 



SAN LEANDR0 NURSERY. 

FINE ASSORTMENT f» tiik LEADING VARIETIES of 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

The Hardy White Tuscany, Hardy Yellow 
Tuscany, UliDgetone Peaches. 

LARGEST PEACHES IN CALIFORNIA. Splendid 
flavor; good shippers; excellent for canning. 

Gum, Cypress, Pine and Pepper Trees in boxes. Flow- 
ers and Shru s. 

tyAU trees grown on new, rich soil, without irriga 
tion, and are positively tree trum insect pests. 

G. TOSBTTI, 
San Leandro, Alameda Co , Cal. 



IBLEY'S TESTED SEED 



Fun 



[ • Containing 
all die liti.-Bt novelties ami stand 
K'd varieties ufUurden. Field and 
' y-'lower Seeds tinrileners ev 
where »bould consult it before 
pm-chasinK fUnek, pnrt •iHjTresa.pricea reasonable. 
Address II IramKlblei, « *!••». ,,, 
llutliesli-r, N. V .. »< Culcugo, ill*. 



s 



JAPANESE and CHINESE FRUIT TREES, 

Ornamental Plants, Palms, Bamboos, Bulbs and Seeds, 

True to name and free from insects. 

Raised in our own Nurseries at Aynio and Yokohama, Japan, under supervision of an able Horticul- 
turist, well known to the best Nurserymen ol the L*. S. We offer, free by mail, to any address, three choice Kitw 
divers colored Japanese Chrysanthemums for $1; five choice Japanese Lily Bulbs for $1. One pound Japanese 
Chestnuts for SO cents. Finely illustrated catalogue. 

H. H- BEBOhiR & CO. (Established 1S78), 
Proprietors GEO. F. SILVESTER SEED HOUSE, 315 and 317 Washington Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. P. O. Box 1501. 




GRASS, CLOVER, VEGETABLE, 

TREE AND FLOWER 



FRESH STOCK. LOW PRICES. IN LOTS TO SUIT. 

CATALOGUES ON APPLICATION. 

TRUMBULL & BBBBB. 



419 & 421 Sansome Street, 



SAN FRANOISOO. 



FRUIT TREES. -stable 18 e 3 FRUIT TREES. 

THOS. MEHERIN 



AGENT 

CtVIiIPOHKriA NURSERY COMPANY. 

NOW OFFERS THE LARGEST STOCK OF 

FRUIT TREES, GRAPEVINES, OLIVES, SMALL FRUITS, Etc , 

Ever offered on the Pacific Coast at very low rates. Samples on hand at holow address. 

SEEDS. 

We also offer at lowest rates a large and fresh stock of 

GRASS, CLOVER, VEGETABLE, FLOWER, and TREE SEEDS, 

All of which arc thoroughly tested before being sent out. Large stock of Ornamental Trees and Plants, Bulbs, 
Roses, Magnolias, Palms, etc., constantly on hand. 

P. O Box 2059. THOS. MEHERIN. 516 Batters Street, 

Priced catalogues mailed free on apnlication. Agent for California Nursery Co. In San Franci«co. 



SEEDS. 



SEEDS. 



DL'ANE WESTCOTT. 



F. B. WESTCOTT. 



Westcott Brothers, 



"WESTCOTT STANDARD," 

HARDY NORTHERN-GROWN SEEDS, 

PROM MINMEAPOLIS. MINN., 
Will be a Special Brand of Seeds Guaranteed by us as Good and Reliable. 

406 and 408 SANSOME STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Correspondence solicited from Merchants, Farmers and others All kinds of Seeds, Lawn Grass, Plants 
and Bulbs always in Stock. 



FANCHBR CREEK NURSERY, 

Frosno, Cal., 

OFFERS THIS 8EASON FOR SALE A FINE ASSORTMENT Of 

fruit c*3 onisr^iviiiiisrT^i^ trees. 

SPECIALTIES z 

WHITE ADRIATIC FIG. SAN PEDRO FINEST TABLE FIG. JAPANESE FRUITS. 
OLIVES, POMEGRANATES, MULBERRIES, TEXAS UMBRELLA 
TREES, and also a fine collection of PALMS, YUCCAS, 
ROSES, and OLE ANDERS. 

Send 10 cents in stamps for a sample of the dried and cured Adriatic Fig. Fall catalogue now ready. Address 
all letters to P- ROEDING, Fresno. Cal. 



SURP LUS STOCK. 

CHERRIES— 5000 Royal Ann and Black Tartarian. 
5000 Bartlett Pears. 

5000 Plums, Coe's Golden Drop. Kelsey's Japan, 

Washington and other good sorts. 
Also some Apricot?, Peaches and Apples. 

1000 Camellias in pots and open ground'. 25,000 Cypress transplanted in boxes. 10OO Cypress, 
2yearsold. 1 O.OOO G unm. Blue and Red, in boxes. 20OO Laurus Tiuus. IjOOO Palmi, 
1 year old in pots. 1500 Plnea, 2 year old. 20OO Peppers, pot ltowii. 25,000 
Koses. Also an immense assoitmeiit of Pot Plants and Flowering 

Shrubbery at bedrock prices. Address 

GILL'S NURSERIES, 

Twenty eighth Street, near San Pablo Avenne, 

Send for Catalogue and Price List. 



OAKLAND, CAL. 



JAPANESE NURSERIES 

Or the ORIENTAL IMPORTING COMPANY, 409 & 411 Washington St., San Francisco. 

UNSHIU AND CANTON HYBRID ORANGE TREES, 



CHOICE ALFALFA SEED 

In Lots to Suit. 

Grangers' Business Association, 

108 DAVIS STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



Barren Hill Nurseries 

NEVADA CITY, CAL. 

SPECIALTIES: 

NUTS, PRONESJND GRAPES, 

The Finest Collection of " Nut-Bearing ' 
Trees to be Found In the United States. 

21 Varieties of Walnuts, 

DMunuM 

CLUSTER WALNUT (Juglans Racemosa). 

The newest, mnet prolific and valuable variety ever 
introduced into this country. 

PREPARTURIENS, 

Or FERTILE WALNUT, introduced Into California in 
1871 by Felix Oillet. 




"Second"' Generation Prceparturiens, 

(California Grown). 

M Second Generation " trees, crown from mite 
borne oti the original tree; 80 to 90 iier cent guaran- 
teed to be " pure," or having ictained the characteristics 
of ti o original Prcepatturicns, chief among them the 
surprising futility ot that type. 

Third Generation Pi ti:parturlena or common 
French walnut (Juglans Regia), gTOWrj from nuts borne 
on Second (jenerali- n trees, all California grown. Vig- 
orous and fertile varuty, hut the nuU .smaller thau 
those of the second generation. 

GRAFTED WALNUTS. 

Franquette. Pariaienne. Mayette, Chaberte, 
Meylan, Vourey aril "Weeping" Walnuts, 

the leading varieties of Europe, highly recommended 
for the file, beauty and quality of the nuts, fertility, and 
above a'l, " hardiness " of the kinds. 

We offer thin season iinpotted trees of the seven above 
sorts, expressly grafted for us, regardless of cost. The 
difficulty in graiting the walnut is su,:h, and grafted 
walnuts M or'ingly so scarce, that we are compelled to 
decline orders for such trees in quantities over a dozen. 
Only a limited number of trees of each kiud from four to 
six feet 

" MARR0NS," or French Chestnuts. 

(Solely propagated from grafting.) 




MARRON COMBALE California grown). 

10 Varieties of the finest kinds of Mat run- 
Chestnuts to be found anywhere; at the head of the 
1 st "Marron Combale," which we have been fruiting 
u: on our pla:e the la*t 13 years; very large and sweet 
nut, proline; one of tne very be.t lor market 

7 Variele* of Filberts. 

4 Varieties of Almonds. 

4 Varieties of April Chen ies, the earliest and 
most prolific in California. 

245 Varieties of Grapes, from all parts of the 
world, including the earliest Table Varieties known, 
some of them 25 days earlier than Sweet Water. 

61 Varieties of Kngllsh Gooseberries, all 
shapes and colors, iome large as walnute; all ' true to 
name." 

CORK OAK. 2-year-old Trees, from Spain. 

Prunes! Prunes! 

Lot D'Knte, or D'Ente "true from the root," one 
of the best and finest types of the "French Prune " and 
the kind so extensively cultivated in the prune district 
of France. This type is not prorogated from grafting, 
which would do away with its chief qualities of being 
more vigorous, more long-lived than grafted trees, and a 
"gum-resistant" stock. 

Also, the finest grafted types from the home of the 
Prune li'Knte or D'Agen, on Myrobolan, St. Julien aud 
Almond stock. 

Saint Catherine (true from the root), one of the 
finest dessert Flums, and one of the bebt for preserving 
and drying. 

PuyniirnI D'Ente, Blue and Red Perdl- 
gron. German and Italian Questc-he, Alsace 
Ouestche, Knight's Green Drying, etc. 

Apricots. Peaches, Pears, 

Quinces, Plums, Mulberries, 

Figs, Fancy Fruits, Etc. 

FRENCH, ENGLISH, GERMAN AND AMERICAN 

STRAWBERRIES. 

iySend for General Descriptive Oata'o^ue, •HaPtrated 
with forty-one cuts, repretieiiting Walnuts, Chestnuts, 
Filberts, Prunes, Medlar and Sorbus. 

FELIX GILLET, 

NEVADA CITY, CAL.. 



Jan. 14, 1888.] 



PACIFI6 I^URAId press. 



Seeds, Wants, fee. 



100,000 

BARTLETT PEAR TREES, 

The best kind for Shipping and Canning. 
General assortment of all kinds of 

FRUIT and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Including 

ORANGE and LEMON TREES. 

Also, a large stock of imported Fruit Tree Seedlings, 
Apple Pear, Myrobolan Plum and Mazzard Cherry. 
Send Tor prices. Address, 

J. T. BOGUE. 

Marysvllle, Oal. 

Formerly of Martinez, Cal. 



E. J. BOWEN'S SEEDS. 

ALFALFA, 

ONION SETS, 

GRASS, 

CLOVER, 

VEGETABLE and 

FLOWER SEEDS. 

Large Illustrated Descriptive and Priced Seed Cata- 
logue, containing valuable in'ormation for the Gardener, 
Farmer, and Family, mailed FREE to all applicants. 

Address, E. J. BO WEN, Seed Merchant, 
815-817 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

Established 1858. 

A general assortment of healthy FRUIT TREES, VINES 
and SMALL FRUITS, grown without irrigation, free 
from Scale Bug and warranted true to name. 

Apple Treps in assortment, Crawford's Early, Orange 
Cling, Salway and other kinds; Roval and Blenheim 
Apricots on Myrobolan stocks: Bartlett, Beurre Hardy, 
Beurre Clairgeau, Howell, Winter Nelis and Easter 
Beurre Pears, Coe's Golden Drop or Silver Prune and 
other Plums and Prunes in assortment. Rockport, 
Black Tartarian, Napoleon and Ceutennial Cherries; 
Nut-bearing Trees; Grapevines, etc. 

Prices furnished on application. Address, 

W. H. PEPPER, 
Petaluma, Cal. 




Alfalfa, Grass, Clover, Vegetable, 
Flower, Fruit, and Seeds of every 
variety. Special low rates for 
quantity. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 
Seeds and Improved Egg Food, 

4215 Washington St.. San Francisco. 

ORANGE TREES. 

Plant Trees Grown in Your Own Section. 

They do much better than others brought from a 
distance. 

THE ALOHA NURSERIES, 

Penryn, Placer Co., California, 

Offers a large home grown stock of Orange Trees, Cali- 
fornia Fan Palms and Pepper Trees, Limes, Dates, etc , 
at prices to suit the times. 

FRED. C. MILES. Manager. 



NEWCASTLE EARLY APRICOT, 

Earliest in Cultivation. 

HANDSOME AND GOOD FREESTONE. 

Good Shipper and Productive. 

All kind i of Fruit Trees and Small Fruit Plants. Send 
for Catalogue. 

C M. SILVA & SON, Nurserymen, 
Newcastle, Cal., or Lincoln, Cal. 

FREE 

Prettiest Illustrated 
SEED-CATALOGUE 

ever pri nted. Cheapest 
[& best SEEDS grown. 
irdeners trade a spe- 
tlti/. Packets only 3c. 
eap as dirt by 07.. A lb. 
mint pkts new extras Tree. 
It. II. SHU!HVVA¥, Kockford 111. 

VITIS CALIFORNIA SEEDS. 

Five pounds and over, $1 per pound; less than five 
pounds, $1.50 per pound. 

Vitis Californica seedlings, Phylloxera Proof, 




P. O. Box 8. 



$10 per 1000. 

C. MOTTIER, 
Middletown, Lake Co., Cal. 



FRUIT TREES FOR SALE. 

2000 Tradegy Prunes and other choice varieties. 
6000 Celebrated Early Apricots. For prhe address 
G. W. WATSON, 
Turner Hall, Sacramento Co., Cal. 



HEADQUARTERS FOR WHITE ADRIATIC FIGS, 

^^^^ 




—THE— 

Largest Slock of Trees in 
the State. 



The only Fig that should 
he planted for Drying 1 . 

ALSO A LARGE STOCK 
OF OTHER TREES: 

APPLES, 

PEARS, 

PEACHES, 

PLUMS, 

PRUNES, 

APRICOTS, 

CHERRIES, 

NECTARINES, 

OLIVES, 

ORANGES. 

LEMONS, 

Shade Trees and 

Ornamental Shrubs, 
Greenhouse Plants, 

Roses, Etc. 

A complete assortment of Rooted 
Grapes and Cuttings. All trees war- 
ranted free from Scale or Aphis. 

IS Catalogue free. 

W.H. Williams & Co. 

FRE3NO, CAL. 
Box 175. 



STOCKTON NURSERY, 

Established 1853. 

ADRIATIC and SAN PEDRO FIGS. 

French Walnuts, Home-grown Oranges and Rooted Grapevines. 

Illustrated Catalogue and Price List for the seaFon of 1887 88 free to all sending for them All Trees, Vines, 
etc., guaranteed free from scale at d r.ther injurious pests. A certificate of inspection furnished to all. 
A full line of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines and Hothouse Flants. 

B. C CLOWES, Proprietor 

(Successor to W. B. WEST), 

Stockton, Cal. 



460 ACRES. 



INCORPORATED 1884. 




CALIFORNIA NURSERY COMPANY 

FRUIT & SEMI-TROPICAL. 

GRAPEVINES, SMALL FRUITS, ETC 

Largest Stock on the Pacific Coast ! 

SPECIALTIES : 

PLUMS, PRUNES AND APRICOTS, ON MYROBOLAN STOCKS. 

Facilities for Packing and Shipping to Distant Points are unsurpassed. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE. Address 

CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO., Niles, Cal. 

JOHN ROOK, Manager. 




Healthy, 
Vigorous 
PLANTS. 

DELIVERED 
FREE BY MAIL 

Morn your Homes 



A few SHRUBS, a Bed of ROSES, 
CLEMATIS on the VERANDA 

Haf /Awill work a complete change in your premises 
PRICES LOW. JUST READ I 
4 Continuous Flowering Roses $ f . 

_ '-£8 Everblooming Roses, including: Prin- 

Si^^M cess Beatrice $'2.00. 
S.Kll eleennt Carnations, nil different. In- 
cluding Mrs. Cleveland Sl.OO. 

14 Fniry flowered Clirysnntlioninmsn 
from the wonderland Japan. ....$1.00. 
10 magnificent Bceorrins, scnrlet, white, pink 
and crimnon flowered, with ornamental »arie.- 

cnted folinse 5 they succeed with all #1.00. 

Plants and Seeds of all kinds. 

CATALOGUE FREE. ItWill Please You. 

No exaggerated Descriptions. Exact facts about every 
tested variety. Address 

HILL & CO., RICHMOND, INDIANA. 



SEEDLESS OONSHIU ORANGE TREES. 

Over 40,000 received this season; from 2 to G feet high, showing fine new growth. Pear Stock (100,000 com- 
ing shortly). Every kind of 

Japanese Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Etc., Etc. 

OTCirculars On application. Correspondence invited. All orders and inquiries cor>-...iand prompt attention. 

JAPANESE TREE IMPORTING CO-, 120 Sutter St., San Francisco. 



ORANGE TREES 

AT HALF PRICE. 

Iam now prepared to furnish fine, large, first class 
Orange Trees for tho season of 1888, at the f blowing 
prices : 

_ , . Per 100 trees. 

Washington Navels, June hurls j 60 

Wellington Nawls, 2-) ear-old buds loo 

Mediterranean Sweets, 2-year-old buds 75 

Sour Stock Seedlings, i years old 30 

Indian River Sweets, " •' ^ ° fin 

Unshiu of Japan, 2-year-old buds, smaller trees! . . .. 60 
And other varieties cheap. Send for circulars. 

ALSO, FIKST-CLASS 

ORANGE AND VINEYARD LANDS, 

From $150 to $300 an Acre, 

With First Class Water Rights. 
Reference, Rivcrsido Banking Company. 

J. H. FOUNTAIN. 

Riverside, Dec, 1S87. 

FOR SALE. 

Grapevines and Cuttings, 

OLIVE TREES and CUTTINGS. 

R1PARIA SEED. 
Apply to CLARENCE J. WETMORE, 
2^4 Montgomery St., S. F. 

ROOTS AND CUTTINGS 

Of the following varieties FOR SALE: 

Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Frank, Tiririturier, 
Carinnane, (Riparia, for Rtsistants), Mataro, Ureuache, 

Troufeseau. 

Also Trees and Cuttings of (be true White Adriatic Fig. 

M. DENICKE, 
Del Monte Vineyard and Orchard, 
Fresno, Cal. 

West Side Nursery, Los Gatos. 

Situated on the hills west of Los Oatos. Orange, 
Lemon and Lime Trees. Strawberry Guavas and Date 
Palms. Citrus Fruits only. 

N. E. BECK WITH. Prop'r. 

Bartlett Pear Stock for Sale. 

5000 Rart'ett Pear Trees, one and two vears old for 
sale at bed rock prices; special rates to dealers. 

H B. MLUCOTT. San Bernardino. Cal 

BEST TREE WASH. 

" Greenbank " 98 degrees POWDERED CAUS- 
TIC .SODA (tests 99 3-10 per cent) recommended bv 
the highest authorities in the State. Also Common 
Caustic Soda and Potash, etc., for sale by 

T. W. JACKSON & CO., 
Manufacturers' Agents, 
104 Market St. and 3 California St., S. F 

UNFERMENTED WINE. 

Made from Zinfandel graces. Put up in quart and 
pint bottles. Price, K> per dozen quart bo'tles; $1 per 
dozen pint bottles. Orders can be filled through thin 
oilicc or by H. MILLS & SO\, Lakcvillo, Cal. 



io f>ACirie HURAb press. [JiN . u 1888 



SAN FRANCISCO: V ~J g\ 1/ J ^J. #\ f ll\ 1 SACRAMENTO I 

J °-"r:r - DA r\ lL n oc n M I VII L I ^ I N . ~ vl::;. - a " 



MANUFACTORY : Benicia Agricultural Works, Benicia, Cal. EASTERN OFFICE : 88 Wall Street, New York. 

IMPORTERS, MANUFACTURERS, AND DEALERS IN 

HARDWARE AND AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 




SEED SOWERS. 





No. 1, Weight, 130 lbs. $20. 

This Machine is run with a Chain and Bevel 
Oear. It is the one we have sold for years, and 
has given the best satisfaction of any broadcast 
seeder ytt invented. 



No. 2, Weight. 154 lbs. $22.50. 

Runs with Chain and B.dt Gtar. The advantages 
gained on the bevel gear are smoothness of movement, 
noiseless while running, durability of the fast running 
parts,, and the evenness with which it sows the grain. 



No. 3, Weight, 164 lbs. $25. 

Iluns with all Gears. This machine is preferred by many to 
the others which run by Chain. The feed valves and distributor 
are the same as in the others. 



We have manufactured the GEM SEEDERS for a number of years, and they have given better satisfaction than any other Broadcast Seeder in the unrk.t. They throw the. seed 
horizontally irstead of vertically (as in all old-style Seeders), and thus save a large portion of the grain. Where sold they have never failed to give satisfaction. ARMSTRONG'S PATENT 
FORCE FEED is attached again this year, and is considered by those who have used it, a great improvement. 

THE GENUINE GEM SEEDERS are manufactured exclusively for us at Benicia. SEE THAT OUR NAME IS ON THEM. 



Vineyardists, Orchardists & Farmers! HEAVY RAINS EVERYWHERE 

HAVE PUT THE 

Soil in Splendid Condition for Crops. 



TAKE NOTICE! 

OF THE 




FARMERS MUST NOW GET THEIR SEEDS IN QUICKLY. 



WE HAVE DECIDED TO 



REDUCE THE PRICE 



-OF THE- 



J.A.BILZ Horse Gang & l-Horse Plow 

Which the Cuts Represent. PatenteJ October 19, 1886. 




FARMERS' FRIEND 
3- 

From S60 to S31.50. 

TERMS CASH. 





These Plows have been in market for the past two 
seasons, anil those that use them would not do without 
them at any price. All claim to save from $2 to $2.60 
per day over any ot ler plow. Not only for orchards and 

vineyards, but a!so for field plowing, where a two-horse , 

single plow is used. 

The Plow cu's is inches, weighs 16fi pounds, and two horses will i>ull it as easily as a 12-inch plow, and does 
better work than a single plow. No trees arc barked and sticks in vineyards pulled over where my Patent Double- 
trees and Singletrees are used. 

I ALSO MANUFACTURE ALL STALES OP 

CARTS, BUGGIES, SPRING WAGONS, CARRIAGES 

AND ALL KINDS OF 

VINEYARD AND AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

IVScnd for Testimonials and Circulars. Addres9 J, A. BILZ, PleaSanton. Cal. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., 427 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

M. KIRSCH, Walnut Creek, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 



This offer to hold good for 30 days. 

The Farmers' Friend 3 ten-inch Gang will do more work, and do 
it better, with less labor and horse-flesh, than 
any other Gang Plow. 

Bull & Grant Farm Implement Co., 

14 & 16 MAIN STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 

233 N. Los Angeles Street, LOS ANGELES. 

211, 213&215J Street, SACRAMENTO. 




T'WZElSrT^Z'-F.A.GKE EDITION". 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 21, 1888. { 



Vol. XXXV —No. 3. 



The Golden Gate Conservatory. 

An object of especial interest, no doubt, to 
visiting horticulturists will be the conservatory 
in Golden Gate park, the great recreation re- 
sort of San Francisco. The park in all its ap- 



of the wings of the conservatory, and is but an 
exponent of the contents of the building. The 
structure in itself is interesting. It is favor- 
ably situated on a commanding site between 
the main drive and the north ridge road. The 
building is about 250 feet in length, covering 



fountain set in the center of all. On the right 
of the rotunda is the orchid-house, an arched 
room 35x50 feet. There are many rare and 
beautiful varieties of this strange family to be 
found here. The space not being entirely 
taken up by the orchids, an infinite variety of 



$3 a Year. In Advance 

Single Copies, 10 Ots. 

potting-room, 30 by 30 feet. A heating ap- 
paratus supplies the requisite warmth to all 
the chambers, and an admirable system of ven- 
tilation enables the keeper in charge to pre- 
serve at all times an equable temperature. 
Thirty-five tons of glass and over three tons of 



A VIEW IN THE CONSERVATORY AT GOLDEN GATE PARK, SAN FRANCISOO-A TROPICAL CORNER, 



pointments is very creditable to far Western 
enterprise and public spirit, and its growths 
will afford the visiting experts good opportunity 
for study of tree, shrub and flower, many of 
which may be new to them, for, in our plant 
ing, we draw much from Australia and the 
Orient, and can show open-air growths which 
are not at all possible at the Eist. The general 
landscape features of the park, the bedding, 
the drives, the children's playground and many 
other features, may interest and please the 
visitor, and afford open-air scenes in January 
quite unwonted to their eyes. 
Our engraving gives a glimpse at one corner 



an area of about 15,000 square feet, and a few 
years ago, at least, was exceeded in size only 
by the Government conservatory at Washing- 
ton. It is oriental in style, graceful in outline, 
and highly ornamental. The main entrance, 
or reception-room, is 23 feet square, substan- 
tially furnished, and ornamented with a fount- 
ain in the center. From this room the visitor 
enters the rotunda— a circular room, 56' feet in 
diameter and about the same number of feet in 
hight. An octagonal space in the center of 
the rotunda is occupied by several varieties of 
rare tropical plants; and the dryness of the at- 
mosphere is relieved by the spray from a 



other fascinating flowers have been introduced. 

The arched room. on the extreme right of the 
building is set apart for the cultivation of tho 
larger and rarer aquatio plants. A ciroular 
pond, 28 feet in diameter, has been constructed 
here, with the necessary heating apparatus, 
for the Victoria R?gia and other water lilies. 

On the left of the rotunda is another arched 
room, 35x50 feet, and at the end another trans- 
verse room, giving a symmetrical balance to the 
design as seen from the front. 

In the rear of the buildin» are two propagat- 
ing pits, 50 feet long by 12 feet wide; a grow- 
ing-house, 75 feet long by 25 feet wide, and a 



putty were used in the construction of the con- 
servatory. 

Although but young, the conservatory has a 
history. Just five years ago this month the 
building took fire in the center and the central 
erection, the palmhouse, was destroyed. It 
was restored through the liberality of Charles 
Crocker. Considerable interior improvements 
have been recently made, and the collections of 
desirable plants have grown by contribution 
from all parts of the world. 



Scotch cattle were the finest presented in the 
recent Christmas market at London, England. 



42 



f ACIFie f^URAb> PRESS 



[Jan. 21, 1888 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Correspondents are alone responsible for their opinions 

A Visit to Phoenix, A. T. 

Editors Press: — Within the last few weeks 
I have visited portions of Arizona, Ptutoix and 
the Salt River Y T alley. 

I .had Inot been in Pbrenix in ten months, 
and was amazed to see the advancement it had 
made. Commodious brick blocks for mer- 
cantile and business purposes, a large opera- 
house, many fine residences, and buildings 
now in progress for an elegant city hall, for the 
First Presbyterian church, a temperance temple 
and many other indications, are among the evi- 
dences of thrift Been in every direction. Street 
railroads are now in operation through the en- 
tire body of the city, about two and a half 
miles in length, and others will be running so 
as to enlarge the mileage to double its present 
extent within a few months. 

The lands of the valley are rapidly passing 
into the hands of those who design to occupy 
and cultivate them. Planting is going on with 
great rapidity, and is accomplished with a fa- 
cility I have not elsewhere seen. I carefully 
examined a quarter-section, a little distance, 
from the city, which had been cleared 
and fitted for planting at an expense of only 
$1 per acre. There is a descent from the north- 
east to the southwest, very slight, yet suliioif nt 
for water to flow to the west or south. The 
surface is so smooth and regular that not a 
spoonful of earth needs to be removed in order 
for water to follow a common plow over every 
part of it. 

The soil is so light and friable that no pre- 
paration for planting vines is necessary, except 
to run a single furrow with a common plow 
where the row of plants is desired. The water 
is then let in at the head of the furrow, either 
on the north or east side, and as the cuttings 
are put into the bottom, the water follows the 
planting, packing the eoil around the cuttings. 
No plowing, harrowing or cultivating is re- 
quired until weeds appear. This quarter-sec- 
tion of land can be planted with raisin grape- 
cuttings, and all necessary care bestowed upon 
them for 12 months, at an expense not exceed- 
ing $6 per acre, so a man of intelligence and ex- 
perience in the business tells me. This is a fair 
sample of what is being done with many thou- 
sands of acres within a few miles of the city of 
Phoenix. 

Schools, churches and associations for moral 
and social improvement are being organized 
and sustained with a degree of enterprise quite 
uncommon in a new town. 

Another feature that strikes me with great 
interest is that the general characteristics of 
the people of Phienix and vicinity, for probity 
and virtue and the higher orders of civilization 
and enlightened society, surpass in development 
those of any other frontier town of similar age 
and circumstances I have ever been acquainted 
with. I was especially impressed with the de- 
sirableness of the valley and town, as a home 
for those who, with small (or large) means, de- 
sire to secure the advantages of real estate ap- 
preciation (to be found in fullest extent only on 
the frontier) and as a home, in which to enjoy 
life and rear families. I found all classes of busi- 
ness prosperous, also specimens of the produc- 
tions of the soil, during the last year, that were 
more than equal to my most sanguine expecta- 
tions. 

But as I am expecting to write something 
further in the early future, I will fnr the pres- 
ent cease. 0. C. Wheeler. 

No. 1H3J Grove St., Oakland. 



In the Sonoma Redwoods. 

Editors Press: — I have had the pleasure of 
reading your valuable paper for the past year, 
and I feel thankful to the Rural Press for the 
active part it has taken in aiding and encourag- 
ing the fruit-growers and farmers. It is their 
friend and guide. And I am sure that every 
one who has read its columns the past year will 
agree with me that its labor has not been in 
vain. The fruit interests of California are in- 
deed enormous, to say the least, and scattered 
over an extensive field, with every variety of 
soil and climate. And when we add to this 
the many blights and pests that infest it, what 
a problem the fruit-raiser has to work out to 
know just where to locate to obtain the best 
results. But when he has a paper printed right 
in the State, which gives the advice and expe- 
rience of farmers in different localities, many of 
the things that seemed impossibilities melt 
away. 

I nave been located in the northern part of 
Sonoma county for the past eight years, in 
what is known as the great redwood belt. This 
locality is situated about eight miles from the 
coast. Its surface is broken or hilly, lying as it 
does in the Coast Range. The altitude is 1500 
feet above the sea. The climate is mild during 
the entire year. Fruits of all kinds do exceed- 
ingly well here, and especially grapes and apples. 
The soil is rich and productive; having a sub- 
soil of clay, it holds the moisture well. This 
locality, like many others in this vast State, 
has no railroad, and it is not likely its fruit in- 
terest will be developed to any great extent 
till it has. 

The farmers here pay most of their attention 
to raising stock, principally sheep, and it is a 



fine-paying business, as this mountain range is 
very healthy and the sheep produce an extra 
quality of wool. Taking all in all, the north- 
ern part of Sonoma county is one of the most 
inviting parts of the State, and its farmers are 
a thrifty, happy class of people. That legal 
document called a mortgage, that has made 
Christmas a blue day in many a household, is a 
thing very seldom met with in these parts. 

If you are looking for health, you need not 
travel any farther. I have known two doctors 
who have left us because there is too much 
health to suit them. As for nature in all its 
loveliness, one never tires of it. The grand old 
redwoods with their evergreen boughs and tow- 
ering heads; the living mountains of nature. 
Truly they are wonderful. Then the cool 
mountain streams with their sparkling waters, 
where glide the silvery trout, and, if you are 
a lover of this sport, you can pass a day now 
and then very pleasantly angling for these 
speckled beauties. 

I might go on writing for pages of the many 
interests of the redwood country, but, like many 
writprs for new»papers, I fear the waste basket, 

Fisherman's Bay. G. S. F. 



The Tariff and Our Industries. 

Editors Press: — In your issue of December 
31st you call your readers' attention to the tariff 
question, not with a view to discussing on gen- 
eral or theoretical grounds, but simply how the 
principle of removing the duties from wool and 
fruit might affect those industries in California. 

I agree with you that to enter upon a general 
discussion of the various questions involved in 
a revision of the tariff laws of the United 
States iB foreign to the purview of the Ki'KAL 
Press. Still, as the National Wool-Growers' 
Association seems to be up and doing all possi- 
ble not only to have the present tariff on wool 
continued, but increased, I have a few queries 
to put to wool -growers. 

The tariff of 1S47, which continued without 
any essential change to 1807, rated wool at 30 
per cent ad valorem as valued at the port of 
exportation. This tariff, be it remembered, 
was a so-called Democratic measure and framed 
for revenue, and was supposed to give protec- 
tion only incidentally to domestic industries. 

Under this tariff the wool-growers of the 
United States gradually increased the number 
of their sheep till in 1S67 Ohio had 7,159,177; 
Michigan, 3,473,075; Pennsylvania, 3.230,440; 
New York, 5117,148; Indiana, 2,783,367; 
Illinois, 2,446,481; Wisconsin, 1,260.000; Iowa, 
1.950,752. The total number of sheep in all 
these States in 1866 was 26 829,SI5 head, and 
in 1867, 29.S79.222 head. 

In 1S67 Congress enacted a new wool tariff 
increasing the duties on fine wools 30 per cent, 
or a total duty of 60 per cent. 

This tariff rate continued to 1871, when it was 
reduced to 55 per cent, and so continued to 
1S83, when the tar.ff was further reduced to 50 
per cent. 

Yet under all these protective tariffs, how is 
it that in the above mentioned Sta'es the num- 
ber of sheep has been reduced to less than half 
the number that existed in 1S67 nnder the low 
wool tariff of 30 percent ? In 1878 these States 
had only 12 893,600 head; in 1879, 13 527,500 
head; in 1880, 14,122 778 head; in 1SS2, 14,- 
761,150 head. Texas in 1S67 had 9,401,195 
head; in 1882, 6,S50,000. 

From the above statistics it would seem the 
wool industry was never so prosperous as under 
the low 30 per cent tariff of 1847. Will the 
National Wool-Growers' Association rise and 
explain ? 

Again, let us look at the prices obtained un- 
der these several tariffs. Under the tariff of 
1 847, the lowest price for fine wool was in 1849, 
39 cents per pound. The highest was in 1853, 
59 cents per pound. Under the high protective 
tariff of 1867, the lowest price for wool was in 
1868. The price was 42 cents per pound; the 
highest price was in 1871, namely, 58 cents per 
pound. From these statistics where is the cor- 
responding relation between high and low 
tariffs and prices? Will the advocates of a 
protective tariff point it out? 

It is claimed by the friends of wool protec- 
tion that the free importation of wool will 
ruin the sheep industry in the United States, 
and those now engaged in the business must 
resort to other pursuits. If this should be so 
in fact, it would be only the large flock-mas- 
ters in the Territories and in California, and 
their numbers are few. The small farmers of 
the Middle and Western S:ates will continne 
to grow their small flocks as a necessary por- 
tion of their farm stock. But the woolen fac- 
tories would continue to run all the same. If 
the home supply should fall short of the de 
mand, they would import,- and for raw wools 
they would swap cloths, and thus trade would 
be stimulated to the mutual benefit of all. 

Now as regarding the fruit industries of Cali- 
fornia, you intimate in your article that free 
trade in these industries, in your opinion, would 
destroy them, now in their infancy. I hardly 
think so. Our fruits in various prepared forms 
are now seeking markets in the various marts 
of the world, but if we refuse to trade on equal 
terms, we cannot expect ever to get up much of 
a trade. Commerce is simply the exchange of 
the commodities of one country for those of 
another. Now if we as fruit-growers insist on 
maintaining and even building higher a wall of 



exclusion, shutting out fruit importations, we 
will surely be met by similar walls of exclusion 
in those countries we may propose to trade with . 
Now I submit, is such a policy a sound one ? 
The consumers of every country far exceed the 
producers. By restrictive imports we put the 
products of a country beyond the reach of many, 
and thereby lessen consumption, and, as I think, 
in the main to the injury of the producer him- 
self. Suppose the United States should enact a 
general non-intercourse law, would such a law 
be benefioial to the fruit-growers of California 
as a whole ? No sensible, intelligent man would 
say it would. Well, if total non-intercourse 
would be in the highest degree unwise, partial 
restriction is, I think, unwise in degree. As 
a California fruit-grower I have no fear of be- 
ing driven out of the business by the so-called 
pauper-labor products of other countries. 

Let the people of the United States adopt a 
liberal commercial policy toward the people of 
other powers and we will find a world's market 
for our fruits with profi^to ourselves. 

Hay wards. Col. W.C. Blackwood. 



The Tariff Question. 

Editors Press:— Uuder cover of a message 
to Congress the President has addressed an open 
letter to American farmers. He suggests to us 
the propriety of ruminating over the free-trade 
question. It's a mental cud that will bear 
much mastication before it can be thoroughly 
digested and receive its final solution. In its 
present state it is not very attractive intellect- 
ual diet. It is a mass of crude theories, dubi- 
ous figures and knotty points, of which poli- 
ticians seize such a handful as will suit their 
turn and dish them up with all possible party 
spice and seasoning to suit the palates of their 
audience. 

I think a reversion to first principles always 
simplifies matters. The continuity of law is one 
of these first principles. Now we all concur in 
a belief that one of the best laws by which to 
regulate our private lives is what we call the 
" Golden Rule." Continuity of law demands 
that the Golden Rule be applied to national as 
well as individual affairs. Let us apply it ! 
California is a producer of cheap food. Her 
superabundance annually increases. Her wheat 
and honey, her fruits and wine, cry out for con- 
sumers: "Liverpool to the rescue ! " And to 
our comfort and gratification the swelling 
stream of gold rolls back to the Golden Gate. 
Almost free of impost, England admits our 
produce and her toiling millions are fed. Nat- 
nrally she asks in return that her products be 
similarly favored in our marts. Let the Gold- 
en Rule be applied ! If not, say out boldly 
that national selfishness is a virtue and private 
selfishness is a vice. 

There is a great deal too much affectation of 
mystery about politics; too much diplomacy 
and chicanery masquerading as statesmanship. 
Look at the antiquated nonsense being perpetu- 
ated in this new world of America ? Here is an 
immense area peopled by a homogeneous race, 
mainly attached to identical laws, habits and 
customs ! And how the gods must laugh to 
see them drawing an arbitrary imaginary line 
across their country, setting up custom houses 
and marching regiments of revenue officers each 
side the boundary to prevent Canuck and Yan- 
kee from a free trade ! 

And it is all in the interest of our cherished 
laborers ! How careful we are of their wel- 
fare : The world has got too small for such 
fictitious coddling of any class. Granting 
wages are higher here at present than else- 
where, what results? The depopulation of 
Ireland ! Instead of feeding foreign popula- 
tions in their own lands with Cilifornian prod- 
uce, they are fed here as American immigrants. 
Is this heavy immigration desirable ? If so, 
continue the system of protection. " Whereso- 
ever the carcass ib, there will the eagles be 
gathered together." 

The President's open letter selects wool as its 
main illustration. Having watched the market 
for many years, I know that something besides 
tariff causes the greatest market fluctuations. 
Price for ordinary grades has ranged from 45 
cents to 11 cents per pound. I should like to 
see this farmer's question fully discussed apart 
from its present political bearings. In fact, I 
hardly regard it as a fair party issue. Rouse 
up. Rural readers I Edwd, Berwick. 

Carmel Valley, Jan. 5, 1S88. 

[With the tariff as a question of party poli 
tics, we have nothing to do; as a matter of 
general theory, on the lines of political econo- 
mists and the universal brotherhood idea, we 
wish to have just as little as possible; as affect- 
ing the industries, and consequently the liveli 
hood and prosperity of our readers on this 
coast, it is a topic appropriate for our columns. 
— Eds Press.] 

Wool-Growers' Meeting. 

As announced by the newspapers of Ukiah, 
the wool-growers and farmers of Mendocino 
county met at the Court-house Saturday even- 
ing, 7th, to consider the policy of the Adminis- 
tration, as expressed in the message of the 
President to CongresB. The meeting, says the 
Ukiah Press, was attended by a large number 
of those interested in the wool and other in- 
dustries common to Mendocino county, and was 
unanimous in its denunciation of anything 



looking toward a free-trade policy. Able 
speeches were made by the Hon. R. McOarvey 
and Hon. Whit Henley in support of the reso- 
lutions adopted, which areas follows: 

Whereas, The production of wool is a large 
and important industry in California and through- 
out a large part of the United States, rendering 
productive and remunerative a vast area of land that 
would otherwise be almost worthless; and 

Whereas, A removal of the tariff on imported 
wools would be destructive to this interest, and any 
reduction of the same would seriously cripple it; be 
it therefore 

Resolved, That we enter our earnest protest 
against any reduction of the present tariff on im- 
ported wools. 

Resolved, That the removal of the duty on the 
raw material, and the retention of the same on 
woolen manufactures, would in no way benefit con- 
sumers and would be but an unjust and unwarranted 
discrimination against the producers and in favor of 
the manufacturers of wool. 

Resolved, That we appeal to Congress to neithe 
remove nor reduce the present tariff on imported 
wools, and we hereby petition our Senators and ad- 
vi-e our Representatives to use every lawful effort 
to this end. 

Resolved, That we heartily indorse the views set 
forth by the National Wool-Growers' Association, 
and extend to them our hearty co-operation in pro- 
tec ing the wool industries. 

Resolved, That we forward to our Senators and 
Representatives at Washington and to the National 
Wool-Growers' Association a copy each of these 
resolutions. Wsf. Fokd. 

Chairman of Committee. 



JI[he JStock *Y"ard. 



Treatment for Cows at Calving. 

Editors Press : — As you ask for informa- 
tion as to what is good to assist cows in get- 
ting rid of the afterbirth, I will give yon my 
plan, which I never knew to fail. Take one- 
half pint (or more) of whole flaxseed, and boil 
it well in one half gallon or more of water, ac- 
cording to quantity of seed, stirring all the 
while to prevent scorching. Then take a quan- 
tity of bran in a bucket and pour sufficient 
boiling water on it to tcald it well, making a 
thick batter; then add the flaxseed and stir 
well, and while lukewarm give to the cow. 

In the winter season this mash should be 
given once or twice a day for two or three days 
before calving; also a few times after, as it is 
very soothing. In case they retain the after- 
birth a few honrs after the calf is born, give 
the above mash with one-half teacupful Epsom 
salts dissolved in warm water added; mix 
well. 

A cow not used to eating slop may refuse to 
eat it; if so, throw a little dry bran on top 
and a very little fine salt on that. The reason 
I say whole fl ixseed is because I could never 
boil ground flaxseed sufficient to make a pood 
mucilage. E E K. 

Tuolumne Co. 



1119 Dehorning Doctrine. 

Editors Press : — The article on dehorning 
cattle in your issue of Dec. 31st gives, I should 
say, all the arguments that can be adduced in 
favor of the practice, and while some of them 
are good, others run contrary to my experience. 
The argument in favor of the saving in shed- 
room is probably correct, although perhaps not 
to the extent claimed. I cannot see where the 
saving of one-fourth the feed, especially in this 
climate, can be, neither the saving of manure. 
I will concede that where cows are stabled to 
be milked and fed they may be handled a little 
more easily, but if confined in stanchions or 
any other way they are more liable to get 
loose if the horns are off. 

Your correspondent's description of the horn- 
ing capers in corral at milking-time is graphic; 
no doubt he has a lively lot of cows. 

Now as to the effect of cutting off the horns. 
I have always practiced cutting the tips off the 
horna of cows that were quarrelsome, and I 
never thought that it made a difference in their 
dispositions. They make other cows stand 
aside all the same, but cannot do the same mis- 
chief as easily. 

Your correspondent seems to indorse Mr. 
Haaf'a work on dehorning, giving several ex- 
tracts by way of argument. One is: Cut the 
horns off from cattle and you save nearly all 
loss of calves by abortion. Mr. Haaf's idea as 
to the cauce of abortion will, I think, be new to 
many. No doubt wonnds or bruises are the 
cause in some cases, but I am at fault if they 
are the main cause. I have lost calves by abor- 
tion, but have generally found the cause to be 
something beside a bruise. Think I would have 
lost one this winter had I not used preventive 
measures. 

Judging of Mr. Haaf's work by the extracts 
given, I should say that a strong vein of exagger- 
ation runs through it. As I look at it, careless- 
ness is the cause of nearly all the loss of cattle 
by horna, nor do I think the Iojs is as large as 
Mr. Haaf makes it or your correspondent seems 
to think it is, and, for this reason, Mr. Steele 
says: Nearly every farmer loses cattle right 
along by horns. I have been engaged in rais- 
ing cattle and horses nearly all my life and think 
I lose an average with other farmers from other 
causes but never lost one by horns. So it seems 
to me that mine might be a typical oaae. 

I recollect of three bulla that did damage 



Jan. 21, 1888 ] 



f ACIF16 I^URAId pRESS, 



with their horns, but in all cases the owners 
had warning enough of trouble to come and the 
bulls should have been taken care of. In those 
three cases horses were the victims. Dahorn- 
ing those bulls would have saved the horses. 
Whether the bulls would have been safe at 
large is a question, for a bull that would gore 
a horse is liable to attack a man, and it is best 
to have him confined. 

As a breeder of cattle I care not a pin for 
horns save as they are indicative of the breed- 
ing of the animal. If Mr. Haaf has a patent on 
his tools and can get them introduced so that 
they are generally used, he can perhaps make 
as large a fortune as those other men men- 
tioned, even rival a Croesus. 

Whether dehorning will ever become popular 
enough to cause an indiscriminate mutilation 
of our cattle, time alone can tell. For the 
present I consider many of the positions taken 
not proven. J. A Brewer, 

CenterihUe, Cul. 



ORTICULTURE, 



Cling Peachps vs. Free. 

Editors Press : — In the planting of peaches, 
both for shipping and drying, many seem to 
lose sight of the great advantages the cling 
peach has over the freestone. 

In the shipments Eist last year the cling 
peach brought the highest price in market, 
which, on account of its good keeping quali- 
ties, arrived at its destination in good condition. 
As a drying peach the cling, because of its 
keeping in good condition when ripe on the 
tree, gives time to handle, and, the flesh being 
firmer, does not lose so much in drying. 

With the pitters now in use, the cling is as 
easily handled as the free, and holds better on 
the fork to pare. In paring the peach to dry 
there is not so much loss in weight as many 
suppose. It does not require so much drying 
as the unpared, and when so pared and evap- 
orated brings double the price in market. 

Many varieties of yellow clings are Bold under 
the name of the Orange and Lemon Cling, both 
in the local and in the Eistern markets. A 
number of the California seedlings sold as such 
are superior to either and to many other of the 
old standard varieties, which are the following, 
viz : E Iwards' Cling, called also the Califor- 
nia Cling, Day's Yellow Cling, Tuscan Cling, 
Albright Cling, Sellers' Cling, French Cling, 
McDavit's Cling, all fine yellow peaches of first 
quality. Mr. McDavit of Placer county had in 
his crop of that name, in 1886, six peaches that 
weighed nine pounds. George's Late Cling and 
Winters Cling are both superior white peaches, 
ripening in September, and both good shippers. 
The Winters Cling is a favorite canning peach. 
I refer to nurserymen's catalogue for description 
of varieties named. Isaac Bird. 

Sacramento. 

There are many others which might be men- 
tioned. Who will write about them ? 



juice is clear and sparkling without being in- 
sipid. 

The largest cider-manufacturing and storage 
firm in the world is near this sand-bank. 

Last year it turned out 40,000 barrels and 
this year 50,000 barrels will be made there. 

There are other large manufactories in Mass- 
achusetts and New York. The main railway 
lines through the State are busy sending 
trainloads of apples to the several mills. 
The Interstate Commerce Act handicaps 
the manufacturers and refiners in West- 
ern New York, as it enhances by about 
40 per cent the cost of the Somerset sand when 
transported to even that distance; but such is 
the demand for cider that all firms engaged in 
this industry are trying to increase their out- 
put. 

The export trade to Eogland is very large, 
and American cider is driving the English 
from the market wherever they come in com- 
petition. 

About 35,000 barrels of cider were shipped 
from the Atlantic ports to Liverpool and Lon- 
don last year. 

The cider is sold there the same as in this 
country, in bottles or drawn from the tap, and 
the trade has increased wonderfully within the 
last five years. 

The cost of cider juice now in New York is 
ten cents per gallon; that of refined cider is 
four or five cents more. The quality of the 
cider this year will be superior to that of last 
year, for the apples, although a short crop, are 
of better quality. 

New York has had the largest crop. In those 
counties that lie along the southern border of 
Lake Ontario the yield is the heaviest. The 
Chenango valley, which was formerly a great 
apple-bearing section, has not had a heavy yield 
for four seasons; but in the apple orchards of 
that locality little or no attention is paid 
to fighting insect pests, and during my 
last visit in Chenango county a perfect apple 
was a rarity. Few new trees were being plant- 
ed; the old trees were mossy and limbs break- 
ing off. Signs of decay and neglect were the 
rule rather than the exception. The orchards 
looked as if let to grow unpruned, year after 
year trusting to Providence to care for them. 



Cider-Making at the East. 

[Written for the Rural Press by M. A. S.] 

The making of cider in the olden times was 
done at small cider-mills, usually a rough, cheap 
affair, owned by some well-to-do farmer who 
made cider for his neighbors at very low price 
per barrel, or else a certain share of the cider 
made. The farmers drew their apples and 
empty barrels to the cider-mill, very likely as- 
sisted in making the cider, and carried home 
their barrels of sweet cider, and it was often 
sold as low as $1 per barrel where the purchaser 
furnished his own barrel. 

The barrels of sweet cider were rolled into the 
cellar on to a low platform and fermentation was 
soon over, and the bungs fastened and a wooden 
fauoet inserted in one end of the barrel. 

Some put in a cupful of mustard seed into 
each barrel of cider before fermentation was 
fairly over, and other devices were used to pre- 
vent the cider from becoming what was called 
" hard cider," that if drank of freely was apt 
to affect locomotion, or loosen the tongue. 

Cider-making in New York and some other 
StateB has been gaining in importance of late 
years, as wine-making has in California. 

As good apples as are grown in the United 
States are raised in the lake counties of New 
York, although some other States claim to have 
as good. The soil is fertile, the cold north winds 
are modified and warmed by their passage over 
the great bodies of water, so that they do not 
chill or stunt the fruit. 

Cider-making is now carried on in a different 
manner and on a larger scale. The grinding of 
the apples is done by steam-power, and the 
presses are operated by the same power. 

Cider is no longer allowed to grow hard in 
barrels, but is a refined liquid which can be 
used at any time of the year and is bottled. 

The apple juice is refined by filtering it 
through a peculiar sand which is found in 
Somerset county, Massachusetts. The sand is 
very fine and contains no iron, but has a con- 
siderable percentage of mica in its body. 
This seems to gather all the impurities of the 
apple juice, and allows the cider to pass out 
with the flavor and strength retained; and with 
the decomposing element so modified that the 



Packing Ciirns Fruits. 

At a meeting of the F-uit-Packers of South- 
ern California, held in Riverside on Dec. 28th, 
the following rules were adopted and the pack- 
ers, whose names are attached, pledged them- 
selves to abide by same for the present season. 
The subject of prices was not touched upon : 

1. In buying oranges or lemons deliv- 
ered at our several packing-houses, we shall 
in all and every case insist on such fruit being 
stem-cut, stems to be cut close to the fruit. 
All oranges pulled from the trees without be- 
ing clipped to be classed as culls and weighed 
back to the grower or sold for his account. 

2. The weight of a box of loose Navel or 
Paper Rind St. Michael oranges to be 70 pounds 
net merchantable fruit. The weight of all 
other varieties of oranges to be 65 pounds 
net merchantable fruit. 

The weight of a box of loose green or cured 
lemons to be 70 pounds net merchantable fruit. 

3. The merchantable sizes in Navels to be 
176 size to the standard box, and all larger or- 
anges. The merchantable sizes in the Paper 
Rind St. Michaels to be 250 size and all larger 
oranges. The merchantable sizei of all other 
varieties of oranges to be 128 to 226, inolusive. 
The unmerchantable sizes of Navels or Paper 
Rind St. Michaels to be classed with Seedling 
oranges of same sizes, and bought at the same 
price as Seedlings of such sizes. The unmer- 
chantable siz-'s of all other varieties of oranges 
except Navel or Paper Rind St. Michaels to 
be paid for at the rate of one-third less than the 
price paid for the merchantable sizes of such 
varieties. 

The merchantable sizes in green lemons to be 
200 to 250 to the standard box, and of cured 
lemons 250 to 350 to the box, all other sizes to 
be classed as unmerchantable and weighed back 
to the grower or sold for his account. 

4. All windfalls, thorned or limbscratched, 
bruised, frosted, pulled, buttoned or other- 
wised injured oranges to be classed in all cases 
as culls and weighed back to the grower or sold 
for his account. 

Germain Fruit Co., Griffia & Skelley, Eirl 
Fiuit Co., A. J. & D. C Ttfogond, C. J. Shep 
ard, Thacker Bros. & Mann, W. R. Strong & 
Co., Riverside Fruit Co., Bjyd & Ddvine, Geo. 
W. Meade & Co. 



to retain within our own borders the millions of dol- 
lars annually paid to loreign producers of fruit and 
fruit products, the fruit-growers of California have 
invested millions in developing irrigation facilities, 
in planting orchards and vineyards and in devising 
and constructing appliances for presenting the prod- 
ucts thereof in marketable form. 

Second — Encouraged by the import duties which 
have long prevailed, our growers have labored for 
years in securing the most suitable varieties of fruits 
and in experiments to ascertain the modes of cultiva- 
tion and methods of preservation which would yield 
success under the novel conditions of California 
soils and climates. 

Third — This effort has attained such measure of 
success in spite of the vastly higher wages paid in 
this country that the products have reached an an- 
nual valuation of $25,000,000, and have shown a 
quality which is pronounced by experts to be in 
many cases equal to the imported articles, and are 
supplanting the latter in the markets of the country- 
Fourth — Though these be facts, the development 
of California, and probibly some adjacent parts of 
the Pacific Coast, in the line of productions men- 
tioned, is but just beginning, and should favoring 
conditions continue, the industries involved will give 
profitable employment for the surplus energy and 
capital of the older States, and at the same time add 
incalculably to the national wealth and the popular 
comfort and prosperity. 

Fifth — It is beyond question that the admission, 
duty-free, of foreign competing products would not 
only arrest the growth now in progress, and preclude 
the development now anticipated, but would bring 
actual hardship to our whole local population, for 
these great industr es afford livelihood not only to the 
thousands of small holders directly engaged in them, 
but to all arts, handicrafts, producing, manuf^ct 
uring and mercantile interests which minister 
thereto. 

Sixth — California and the Pacific Coast possess 
vast area upon which the raisin and other products 
of the grape, the prune, fig, date, olive, orange, 
lemon, almond, walnut and other products, which 
are not staple foods but luxuri-s, may be produced 
in quantities to supply the entire demand of the 
United States and adjacent countries, and. as a 
matter of fact, is so increasing in quantity and im- 
proving in quality, under the fostering influence of 
the low revenue duties now levied, that it will be able 
in a few years to supplant all foreign importa- 
tions with better products and finally render them 
cheaper to consumers than they can be made with 
free goods and the extinction of our industries. 

Resolved, That it is because of these most impor- 
tant considerations, and many more of equal weight 
which might be cited, ih it our organization, repre- 
senting producers in ihese interests, humbly prays 
the Congress of the United States that naught be 
done to unsettle or endanger the sucress of these 
industries, and that the honorable Senators and 
Represen atives in Congress from the Pacific Coast 
b*. individually informed of ourac'ion and earnestly 
besought to do all in their power to promote the 
views herein set forth. 

Edwin Kimball, 
Eugene W. Hngard, 
Edwakd J. Wickson, 

Commiltep. 



QlMTOMObOGKBAb. 



Fruit-Growers' Memorial. 

The following memorial, adopted by the Cali- 
fornia Siate Horticultural Society, has been 
transmitted to Congress : 

Whereas, It is currently reported that Congress 
will be urged to remove the existing import duties 
from certain articles of foreign production and manu- 
facture; and 

Whereas, We fear that the list of such articles 
may include products which are at the basis of the 
new industrial lile of California and upon which her 
future prosperity rests; therefore, he it 

Resolved, That the State Horticultural Society of 
Californii humbly prays that the Congress of the 
United State-; will refuse to remove existing duties 
from foreign fruit and fruit products of all kinds, and 
in support of this petition begs leave to submit the 
following statement of facts, to wit: 

First— Incited by hop.'; of profit and with ambition 



Cabbage Lice. 

Editors Press : — In a recent number of the 
Press Mr. Berwick asks for information about 
cabbage lice and the best methods to use for 
destroying them. 

Here in Southern California but little cab- 
bage is grown except by the Chinese market- 
gardens, and I have never known it to become 
very seriously infested with lice, doubtless 
owing to the attacks of internal parasites. Of 
these I have reared two different species, both 
of which are also known to attack it in the 
East. The most common of these is a slender- 
bodied ichneumon fly known as Trionyx rapm; 
the other has a much thicker, almost spherical 
body, and is evidently the species described 
many years ago as Allotria tritici by Dr. Fitch, 
and more recently as A llotria brassiem by Mr. 
Ashmead of Florida, who also bred it from a 
cabbage louse. 

The habits of these two parasites are inter- 
esting, although widely different. When the 
slender-bodied Trionyx wishes to deposit an 
egg in one of the lice she walks up to it, 
touches it several times with her antennas, as if 
ascertaining whether or not he already contains 
a parasite, and after satisfying herself that he 
does not, she brings her abdomen beneath the 
rest of her body and thrusting it out in front of 
her, strikes the louse with her sharp, sting-like 
ovipositor, at the same time depositing an egg 
in the puncture thus made. All this requires 
but an instant of time, the motions ot her 
abdomen being so rapid that the eye is scarcely 
able to follow it. The eggs are consigned alike 
to the smallest as well as to the largest lice, 
and the parasitized lice finally swell up to an 
unnatural size and become quite hard. When 
ready to escape, the adult Trionyx gnaws a cir- 
cular hole through the back of the now dead 
loose. 

The Allotria is much more sluggish in her 
movements; mounting upon the back of her 
victim, she leisurely pushes her ovipositor into 
his back and deposits an egg, the louse in the 
meantime moving uneasily about, as if desirous 
of getting rid of his unwelcome gnest. 

Among remedies, perhaps the most effective 
and easiest of application is a solution of tobacco 
soap and water, in the proportion of one pound 
of the soap to 10 or 12 gallons of water. This 
soap, which I have used with very good success 
against the cottony cushion scale, is manu- 
factured by the Rose Manufacturing Co. of New 
YorV, it should first be dissolved in hot water 
and afterward diluted with cold water. Prof. 



Riley's kerosene emulsion has also been used 
very successfully against these lice; it is made 
by dissolving half a pound of hard soap in one 
gallon of water and adding it very hot to two 
gallons of the best grade of kerosene oil, after 
which the mixture should be violently agitated 
by being forced through a spraying-pump back 
into the vessel again, continuing this until a 
thick, creamy emulsion is formed, which may 
be diluted with water to almost any extent. 
For cabbage lice, use one part of this emulsion 
to about 12 parts of water. 

Los Angeles, Cat.- D. W. Coquillett. 

The Woolly Aphis. 

Editors Press:— I wish to tell what I have 
learned about this pest. I am satisfied that 
the winged form flies into adjoining orchards; 
lays their eggs. When the young hatch and 
have grown to their full size, they leave their 
wool in their nest and commence crawling and 
continue so to do until their wings are full 
size. At this state they are brown. In five or 
six days they turn amber color, and then they 
are ready to deposit their eggs again. I think 
they deposit on twigs and roots as well as 
branches. I have seen them in February de- 
positing their eggs where the limbs have been 
cut off. They work similar to the phylloxera 
on grapes. 

They can be kept in check by spraying the 
trees with soap in May of each year. The way 
I do it is to use the " Petaluma Tree wash." 
I use one can of this soap, 45 pounds, to 250 
gallons of water. Use it hot. 

This wash is composed of caustic soda, con- 
centrated lye, lime, sulphur, carbolic acid, 
tobacco and grease or oil of any kind. The 
sulphur is well dissolved so as not to leave a 
grain of it to be seen. 

Some people think that they can make soap 
as well as a soapmaker. I for one prefer to 
have mine made by some one who can buy the 
material cheaper than I can, and one who has 
the conveniences and knowledge. 

This wash forms a coating that covers the 
trees completely, and I will defy a bug of any 
kind to live after hatching out, or an egg laid on 
a tree coated with this wash to hatch, or live. 
It is true that they may be sheltered under the 
bark, so that they mav live there. Besides its 
insecticide properties I consider that this wash 
is worth all it costs for a fertilizer. At any 
rate, it has proved a grand success with me. 

As for the application of the wash, I will say 
that if water is handy to the orchard, three 
men can put on from eight to ten 60 gallon 
casks per day. It will go a long way in small 
trees, but large ones will take from two to 
three gallons per tree. If people would use 
this wash, or some other as good, and be thor- 
ough about it, there would be less fear of the 
bugs running us out of our orchards. 

I would like to know why it is that I cannot 
see any beneficial results from lime or ashes put 
around the tree. I have some trees that I have 
put ashes round for five years and the fruit is 
no better than those ad j oining that had nothing. 
Petaluma, Cal. A. Cadwell. 



Insects in Ventura County. 

The following is the report from Ventura 
county to the State Board of Horticulture: 

We have found so little to do in Ventura 
county the past year that we have almost fallen 
into desuetude. The county, so far as we 
know, is still free from the more injurious in- 
sects, having no white scale, red scale, San Jose 
scale nor codlin moth. 

When the Ventura division of the S. P. rail- 
way was opened for travel, the train fruit-boy 
was found to be selling infected fruit, but upon 
the request to the railroad authorities that such 
danger to the county should be prevented, they 
at once kindly put a stop to it. 

In a few instances during the past year 
oranges and lemons from Los Angeles, covered 
with the red scale, have been found offered for 
sale, but by action of the Commissioners they 
were returned or destroyed. 

In one orchard the Sin Jose scale was found, 
but the owner made effective work by destroy- 
ing the trees. 

The fruit crop of the county has been a very 
large one this year. Many carloads of apricots 
were shipped out of the county for want of a 
canning establishment or more driers. There 
are few citrus orchards in the county, but the 
crop iB larger than ever before and is looking 
well. Nathan W. Blanchard, 

Sfc. Couuty Board of Hort. Com'rs. 



The coal famine in the Puget Sound district 
still continues. Only one company now sells to 
local customers, the others having orders to 
ship all that is mined to San Francisco. The 
people are, therefore, laying in stocks of oord- 
wood and bark. Six dollars and fifty cents per 
ton is the price now asked in the local market, 
a figure never before reached. 

The San Bernardino Board of Trustees has 
accepted plans for a sewerage system for the 
entire city. The cost is nearly $132,000. 
Waste land will be secured for a sewerage 
farm, in which the sewer system will empty, 
and the material be used as a fertilizer. 



The building for the Ramona Indian Girls' 
School at Sinta Fe, N. M., commemorating 
Helen Hunt Jackson, will cost $30,000. 



44 



f ACIFI6 F^URAlo PRESS. 



[Jan. 21, 1888 



J^ATf^ONS OF J^USBA-NDRY 

Correspondence on Grange principles and work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Granges are respect- 
fully solicited for this department. 



When Women Vote. 

When woman suffrage comes, no doubt 

'Twill be a good deal talked about. 

Bui let us see what it will do, 

If 'tis approved, for me and you. 

And first, 'twill vote the " Rummies" down, 

And drive bad whisky out of town. 

Next, the tax-payers, each and all. 

Will vote the taxes, large or small. 

Once more— for I must needs be brief— 

'Twill be a very great relief 

On each election day to find 

Good order and fair play combined; 

Rudeness suppressed, pro'aneness checked, 

And " Roughs" restrained by self-respecl; 

The diy all used in lawful strife 

By everybody — and his wife. 

—Rutland Herald. 



Grange Installations. 

Rjports are coming in from various quarters 
of good times had at the installation of Grange 
officers for 18S8. 

Alhambra's officers were duly installed on 
the 7th by District Lecturer Loucks. Sister 
Linder, the Worthy Lecturer, though unable 
to be present, was reported on the hopeful way 
to recovery. 

Eden and Temescal kept np their pleasant 
custom of having a joint installation, meeting 
at Haywards for that purpose on the 14th. 
Despite the bitter cold weather, a goodly Dum- 
ber came from Oakland and four or rive from 
Danville, while the members of Eden, especially 
the younger folk, were out in force, and enter- 
tained their guests right royally with Harvest 
Feast, music and literary exercises. W. P. M. 
Coulter was down from Santa Rosa to conduct 
the ceremonies, and also spoke on matters 
touching the Good of the Order, as did Bros. 
Baldwin, Rsnwick, Goodenongh, Blackwood 
and Dewey. The occasion was greatly enjoyed 
by those who participated. 

Franklin's old officers having been re-elected 
(excepting Sister Flaxman, the deceased Lec- 
turer, whose place is as yet vacant), were in- 
stalled on the 7th by Bro. C. A. Hull, Bro. H. 
W. Johnson assisting. 

At Sicramento last Saturday the new officers 
of Pomona and Subordinate Granges were in- 
stalled together, and after the ceremonies the 
banquet-hall was the scene of a fine spread pro- 
vided by the sisters. 

Sebastopol's installation took place on the 
7th, Bro. E. W. Davis, W. 0. S. G., officiating. 

Stockton's offijers were duly inducted the 
same.dayjby Bro. Elliott, assisted by Sister Cora 
Beecber. 

Washington's installation also came off on 
the first Saturday of the new year, with en- 
joyable adjuncts, edible and audible. 

Wheatland was forehanded in this pleasant 
work, which was publicly performed on the last 
day of 'S7 by W. P. M., Frank Kirshner, as- 
sisted by Bro. Anthonv Huffaker. 

The installation at Yuba City, Jan. 7th, was 
largely attended and marked by features of 
special interest. These have been touched upon 
by Bro. Flint and " W." in the pages of the 
Patron, from which most of the foregoing is 
condensed and to which we refer those desiring 
more extended information as to what the Or- 
der is doing in California, Oregon and other 
parts of the United States. 

Installations to Come 

Lodi — January 21. 
Point of Timber — January 21. 
Watsonville — January 21. 
South Slitter— January 28. 
Valley — January 28. 

Postal Telegraphy. 

The trumpet of the Herald of Trade gives no 
uncertain sound as to postal telegraphy. Hear 
it ! 

There is a growing demand for a postal tele- 
graph — a system of telegraph lines owned and 
controlled by the Government. When the sub- 
ject was first broached it met with decided op- 
position; but under discussion, more informa- 
tion was drawn out and a better understanding 
arrived at, and to day it numbers with its ad- 
vocates the ablest political economists of the 
country. They recognize the fact that this is 
the age of push, and that the country calls for 
cheaper and more rapid means of communica- 
tion. *»*«..« 

Again, the telegraph, as now conducted, is 
more in the interest of a limited few than of the 
many; in other words, there is a rank discrim- 
ination, greatly to the injury of the business 
community at large. 

Aside from this, the very important and vital 
fact must not be lost sight of that the whole 
theory of the establishment and operation of the 
PoBtoffice Department has been that it should be 
an instrumentality for the enlightenment, as 
well as for the convenience of the general 
public. It is upon that theory that second-class 
matter (newspapers and periodicals) are trans- 
ported any distance between the two oceans for 
the otherwise ridiculous price of one cent a 
pound. Intelligence is one of the great safe- 
guards of a republican form of government, 



and in order that intelligence may be dissemi- 
nated generally and cheaply, the rates of post- 
age have been reduced from time to time to the 
lowest possible points. It is in the line of this 
policy that the addition of the telegraph to the 
postal system is urged, and by none more ear- 
nestly than those who have given the subject 
deep thought and consideration. * * * 
Our country is growing too rapidly in popu- 
lation, wealth, and general trade, to allow what 
should be a branch of the General Government 
to be monopolized by a few and controlled by 
no other consideration than to make all the 
money possible out of the necessities of those I 
compelled to give patronage. 



Grange Elections. 

Eureka. — December 24. — J. C. Burns, M.; F. 
A. Duryea, O.; Mrs. H. F. Pillsbury, L.: J. O. 
Burns, 8.J A. C. Pillsburv. A. S.; Mrs. Srite, C; 
M. Srite, T.; R. S. Filthy, G. K.; Miss A. Futhy, 
Sec; Miss D. Burns, P.; Miss L. Lewis, F.; Miss 
A. Burns, Ceres; Miss E. Hulbert, L. A. 8. 

Franklin. — Win. Johnston, M.; Lake Free- 
man, O.; W. A. Johnston, S.; P. B. Bradford, 
A. S.; Mrs. A. E. Freeman, C; I. T. Freeman, 
T.; C. P. Freeman, Sec; J. B. Bradford, G. K.; 
Mrs. W. A. Johnston, P.; Mrs. S. G. Bradford, 
P.; Mrs. E. S. Johnston, Ceres; Mrs. Annie 
Bradford, L. A. S.; Miss Matie Johnston, Org. 

Merced.— January 11. — W. E. Elliott, M.; 
M. D. Atwater, O.;* H. J. Ostrander, L.; C. 
Healv, S.; J. A. Perrv, A. 8.; J. T. Lander, C: 
Wm. Applegate. T.; Mrs. E. S. Elliott, Sec; H. 
Halterman, G. K.; Mrs. J. A. Perrv, Ceres; Mrs. 
J. T. Lander, P.; Mrs. M. Healy, F.; Mrs. L. A. 
Atwater, L. A. S. 

Note.— The Secretaries of Granges are reques'ed to for- 
ward rei>orts of all election and other matters of interest 
relating tu their Orange and the Order. 



Suffrage and Tariff. 

Merced Grange passed the following resolu- 
tions at a recent meeting: 

Resolved, That Merced Grange most heartily ap- 
proves ol Senator Sianlord's course in his effort to 
so amend the naturalization laws as to require a 
residence of 2t years to entitle any person to the 
right of suffrage. 

Resolved, That Merced Grange is opposed to the 
reduction of the present tariff on wool, and that our 
Representatives in Congress be instructed to use all 
their influence to defeat any effort to lessen the duty 
on any grade of wool, also on raisins, wines, nuis, 
grapes and all kinds of semi-tropical fruits and hops. 



Woman Suffrage in Washington Terri- 
tory. — An Associated Press dispatch from 
Olympia, 16th inst., says that a bill conferring 
the right of suffrage on the women of Washing- 
ton Territory passed the Lower House of the 
Legislature that afternoon by a vote of 14 to 9. 
It passed the Upper House last week by a vote 
of 9 to 3. Petitions are pouring in from all 
quarters asking Gov. Semple to veto the bill. 
Those opposed to it think he will return the 
bill without his approval. Friends of the 
measure say it will pass over his veto. It is 
claimed by the anti-suffragists that the measure 
was carried through by a deal over the re- 
moval of the capital. Eastern Washington is 
pulling hard to have the capital removed to 
some point east of the Cascade mountains, and 
it is charged that members from the His tern 
section have voted for woman suffrage under a 
promUe of a return of the favor in the way of 
votes for the relocation of the capital. The 
Legislature, three years ago, gave women the 
right to vote, but the Supreme Court a year 
ago declared it unconstitutional, and has re 
cently reaffirmed that decision. The present 
bill was framed so as to stand the test in the 
courts. Among the changes is a provision that 
women shall not be required to serve as jurors. 



The Saloon Must Go.— The St. Louis Globe- 
Democrat is far from a temperance paper, but it 
says: " There are to-day 200,000 saloons in 
the United States, which is equivalent to say- 
ing that we have 200,000 places of business 
which are so many stumbling-blocks in the way 
of our national safety and welfare. After all 
possible arguments have been made as to the 
right of these institutions to exist, the fact re- 
mains that they are in no sense beneficial to the 
country, they are a positive and continuous det- 
riment. They may be excused on one ground 
or another, but they cannot be justified. No 
man who cares anything for his reputation will 
undertake to defend the saloon as an agency of 
civilization, or to show that the liquor traffic is 
in any way conducive to material or moral prog- 
ress. The enligh'ened judgment of mankind 
condemns the business as a business, and no 
amount of sophistry can hide the truth that 
if all the saloons on the planet should be sup- 
pressed it would be a great gain for human com- 
fort and happiness." 

The young ladies of Danville Grange will 
give a leap-year social at the hall Feb. 23d. 
All gentlemen and their escorts are cordially 
invited. Should any young gentleman be so 
unfortunate as to have no best girl he may 
come alone, and trust the floor managers for a 
good time.— Martinez Item. 



Temescal Grange has the tariff up for dis- 
cussion to-day, 21st. It is hoped there will be 
a large attendance. 



Even Mexico for some distance beyond the 
Rio Grande, suffered some detriment to its cat- 
tle herds through the blizzard just before 
Christmas. 



Smooth City Frauds. 

It is no grateful task to undertake to make 
people suspicious of their fellow -men. We 
would rather teach mankind to trust one an- 
other, and it is with pain that we every now 
and then recognize the duty of teaching honest, 
confiding persons to question the word and 
motives of others who seem fair, honorable and 
trustworthy. Bat there are sleek sharpers 
about with pleasant, winning ways who are but 
cruel and deceitful beasts of prey, as cunning 
and as heartless as a coyote, who live only by 
outwitting and despoiling the guileless and 
trusting. 

A few instances, drawn from San Francisco 
papers of 18SS, will illustrate our meaning, and, 
we hope, convey sufficient warning. 

S imewhat over a twelvemonth since, an in- 
dustrious machinist, who had worked nine 
years for one of the large shoe-manufacturing 
firms in this city, and laid up nearly $2000, 
was forced by failing health to give up his po 
sition. After a trip to the islands, which did 
him little good, he came home and began to 
look about for some business in which, with his 
small capital and broken strength, he might 
still make a comfortable living for himself and 
family. 

He soon saw advertised for sale in a morn- 
ing paper a half-interest in a well-established 
insole factory, which purported to be doing a 
good profitable business. Calling at the ad- 
dress named, he was most politely treated by 
the gentlemanly agent, and presently intro- 
duced to the plausible Neustadt, who ex- 
plained that he was reluctantly compelled to 
withdraw from the prosperous firm of Neuatad: 
& Hamberg, in order to give his whole atten- 
tion to a growing re il estate and brokerage 
business in which also he was interested. The 
victim was taken to a bogus factory, where a 
dozen girls, directed by an " experienced and 
trusty" foreman, were busy running machines, 
became convinced that it was just the chance he 
was in search of, was talked out of all doubts 
and hesitation by the adroit, oily-tongued swin 
dlers, and presently, without consulting his 
more prudent wife, closed the pretended bar- 
gain and paid down $1200. 

It is too long a story for us to detail, how 
he was led to make over the rest of his money 
to the specious robbers, and how at last his 
eyes were opened to the killing fact that he 
had been choused out of all his savings. In 
his already weakened state the loss nearly 
drove him frantic, and, impoverished and dis- 
heartened, he soon succumbed to the disease 
which was preying on him, leaving his widow 
and four orphan children des itute. 

Another sad case is that of an old Ore 
gon farmer, who owned a ranch in Jackson 
county worth $8000, representing the toil and 
thrift of 20 years. He came down to San Fran- 
cisco to look around, took the bait of a half- 
interest in a sham real-estate office, and was 
then fooled into giving not only his spare cash 
but also a deed to his home-ranch in exchange 
for a worthless deed for a piece of real estate 
on Fifth and Brannan streets, to which the 
thieves who pretended to execute the instru 
mi nt had no title whatever. 

The foolish old man cannot recover his farm, 
as the swindlers disposed of it in a hurry to a 
person who bought and paid for it in good 
faith, and is left poor and almost heart-broken. 

That Hamberg, Neustadt and Pilcher, the 
partners in the fraud, are arrested and impris- 
oned does not make good the losses to thtir 
victims, bat we hope the woful experiences of 
Tom Trenell, the S. F. machinist, and F. M. 
Parker, the Oregon rancher (among many 
others), will put other honest men upon their 
guard against falling into the teeth of such 
human hyenas. 



Illegal Fencing. — In the U. S. Circuit 
Court at Denver, on ths 9th inst., Judge 
Brewer rendered a decision in favor of the 
Government in the case of the U. S. vs. the 
Cleveland Cattle Co., in which suit was brought 
to enjoin the company from fencing a tract con- 
taining nearly 4,000,000 acres lying in the south- 
eastern part ot the State. This case has been 
in the courts for a number of yearR. The fiaal 
argument was made bef >re Judge Brewer in St. 
Louis last September. The case will probably 
be carried to the U. S. Supreme Cjurt. 



Railroad and Cattlemen. — Charles B. 
Hudson shipped 37S steers from Bennington, 
Kas., with orders to have them in the Kansas 
City stockyards next day in time for the mar- 
kets. The Union Pacific railroad failed to do 
this, and the cittle were sold next day, when 
the market was dull, at a loss of $756 Hud- 
son sued and recovered the money, and on the 
7th inst., in the U. S. Circuit Court at Kansa* 
City, Judge Krekel refused to grant a motion 
for a new trial. 



Cold Storage at San Diego. — Articles of 
incorporation of the Occidental and Refrigerat- 
ing Company of San Diego have been tiled. The 
manufacture and sale of ice, the refrigerating of 
all articles or products requiring cold storage 
and dealing in such articles are among the ob- 
jects of its organization. The capital stock is 
$100,000, and among the incorporators are E. 
C. Reed, A. G. Nason, A. Hart, J. C Kitton 
and H. A. Howard. 



jEtGF^I CULTURAL X^ 0TES - 



CALIFORNIA. 
Alameda. 

Planting Almonds. — Livermore Herald, 
Jan. 12: The almond is the coming tree in 
Livermore valley; SO acres were planted last 
season, and upward of 400 acres will be put out 
this winter — all to A. T. Hatch's varieties, the 
"I. X. L.," "Nonpareil," and " Ne Plus 
Ultra." The fact that Mr. Hatch himself is 
our leading planter confirms us in the belief 
that almond raising is to be one of the principal 
industries of Livermore valley. The tree bears 
at an early age, is a thrifty grower, and the va- 
rieties named always produce a good crop of 
large, white, soft shelled nuts. 

Con'ra Costa. 

Arbor Society. — Antioch Ledger, Jan. 14: 
A meeting of the Arbor Society was held at 
Union hill Tuesdiy afternoon, Mrs. E L Wem- 
ple presiding. The attendance was Urge and the 
members were evidently there with the inten- 
tion of transacting business. The report of the 
committee on the variety of trees suitable to the 
climate «a- accepted and the recommendation 
made acted upon. Of the three varieties of 
trees selected by the committee (viz., walnat, 
mulberry, and pepper) the society evidently 
favored the mulberry, as that tree was decided 
upon when the vote was taken .... Land owners 
on the east tide of the road, who bad been in- 
terviewed, had expressed themselves as per- 
fectly willing to donate a strip of land eight feet 
in width to the purpose of the society. Two 
committees were appointed — Mrs. J. P. Ab'iott 
as chairman of a committee to farther the object 
of the organization, with the privili ge of select- 
ing such assistants as she required, and a com- 
mittee to investigate and report on the varieties 
of mulberry and that variety best adapted to the 
purpose; also to learn if the trees sent out by 
the last State Biard of Sericulture cannot be 
obtained. To Mrs. Willis and Mrs. Carmau 
thta duty was assigned. 

Lassen. 

What the County is Good For. — Long 
Valley Cor. Record- Union : Lassen having 
been tucked way off by it-. -If, remote from 
railroads and waterways, is comparatively un- 
known to the outside world. Of the hardier 
fruits, such as apples, peaches, pears, black- 
berries, raspberries, strawberries and plums, 
she is prolific, and challenges not only any 
other part of California, bat the world at large 
to produce better. Her cabbages, turnips, 
onions, beets, parsnips, carrots, potatoes, 
beans, peas, corn, for quantity and quality she 
will "size up" with any portion of this broad 
domain, acre for acre. Alfalfa, timothy, blue- 
joint, red-top or her native grasses are nutri- 
tious and abundant. Her wool commands the 
highest market rates; her beef and mutton are 
sought after by every click butcher in tre Bay 
City, while Sacramento is always bidding for a 
band of her fat steers. The siil will, if pr >p- 
erly cultivated, produce from 30 to 40 bushels of 
wheat per acre, and a cash mirket is always 
found at R;no at from $1 50 to $2 per cental. 
Lassen is not ashamed to show her record 
on the production of wheat, barley, oats or rye 
with any of you. There are thousands of acres 
awaiting the grub-hoe that can be had for the 
taking. Industry and brains are a 1 that are 
required to make of them beautiful, thrifty 
homes, and if you have among your influx of 
home-seekers any considerable number nf good, 
honest, hard working, law-abiding American 
citizens without money enough to buy an or- 
ange grove, refer them to Listen, where, with 
brave hearts, a pair of willing hands, a grub- 
hoe, plow and span of Norman horses they can 
make a home that any American could point to 
with pride. Improved lands can be bought for 
from $10 to $50 per acre. The Nevada & 
California railroad running north from I: no 
gives us the world for a market. 

Los Angeles. 

Walnuts Paying — Santa Ana Bhde: H. 
K. Snow has a walnut orchard at Tuntin, 330x 
336 feet in dimensions — le-s than 2£ acres of 
ltud — and he has sold $856 worth of nuts this 
year and h»e ».»v .1 nearly 200 poun Is for fam- 
ily use. This nets him over $380 per acre, and 
the expense of cultivating and working nf nuts 
will not exceed $100 for the whole tract. This 
grove brings in an income of $300 per ace clear 
of all expenses, and, mind you, most of the 
trees were set out nine years ago last spring. 
Marin. 

Vaccine Farm — Journal, Jan. 12: San 
Rafael has a vaccine farm, - .i i to be the only 
one west of the Mississippi, and the present 
epidemic or scare of smallpox his caused a run 
on its product and brought it into fame. The 
proprietors are Dr. Dubois and J. G Sheppard. 
Some 40 or 50 calves are now at the farm, and 
more are being added. S>me are bought and 
some are rented or loaned — in fact, anything to 
get calves except stealing. The process of pro- 
ducing and obtaining the virus is peculiar, and 
those who know it keep it secret. Dr. Dubois 
has been working at it for years, and is a pro- 
ficient. His labors are now being rewarded, as 
the demand for points -s greater than he can 
meet, and bis produce is also a greit boon to 
the coast, as hitherto we were dependent on the 
Eist, and only a small proportion of the 
points Bold here were effective, 
San Bernardino. 

One Orange Orchard. — Citrograph : Wm. 
Curtis, who has lived at Old San Bernardino 



Jan. 21, 1888.] 



f ACIFI6 RURAb PRESS. 



45 



for many years, is the owner of one of the 
fintst orange groves in this section. He esti- 
mates his crop this year at about three boxes 
to the tree, taking old and young, big and lit 
tie. His oldest trees — 18 years — are good for 
an average of 12 boxes each. His trees are 22 
feet apart, which gives 90 to the acre. If his 
orchard would all do as well as the oldest ones 
are doing, he would get 1080 boxes to the acre. 
The selling price is $2 per box; $2160 per acre 
is a pretty good income. Cut it down one-half 
and it would not take many acres to support a 
family. Yet what Mr. Curtis has done any one 
else can do, given the soil, climate, water, at- 
tention and time. So far from the orange busi- 
ness of California being overdone, it looks as if 
orange planting was just commencing. 

Orchard-Robbing Tourists. — Riverside 
Press, Jan. 14 : Complaints of thieving in or 
ange groves come in thick and fast. A gentle- 
man and two ladies were caught by the owner 
of an orchard filling a wagon and given a lesson 
they will not be apt to forget this trip. The 
thieves all claim that they get permission 
from the hotel proprietors and liverymen and 
drivers of carriages to help themselves to every- 
thing in sight. It would be a good idea, in ad- 
dition to the mounted police force, for the 
growers to place large placards in all hotels and 
livery-stables warning tourists of the penalties 
attached to a violation of our laws in taking 
fruit without permission. The penalty is 
severe and should be enforced. 

Frost Bell and Fires. — Valley Echo, Jan. 
12: Thos. Bakewell and sons turned out last 
Saturday night atone o'clock, when the danger- 
bell raug, aud lit fires in their orchard in Ar- 
lington. They had the signal set at 28°. The 
temperature was raised by the " smudge " at 
least three degrees. The smoke hung thick 
through the grove. The signal is made by a 
peculiarly constructed indicator — a bar of steel 
and gutta percha, which changes its length 
with change of temperature and starts an 
alarm. 

San Diego. 

A Prehistoric Ditch. — Press and Horti- 
culturist: H. J. Su-veDSon, surveyor for the 
Palm Valley Water Co., came to Riverside on 
Tuesday, to report progress and get instruc- 
tions for further work. He reports making a 
singular discovery while surveying the canal 
line running south and easterly from the old 
Agua Caliente springs. He had run one line 
on a grade of four feet to the mile, from the 
present terminus of the stone canal to the new 
townsite, but in crossing a depression near the 
mountains, it became necessary to build a 
quarter of a mile of flume. In order to obvi- 
ate this expense be was instructed to make a 
new survey on a grade of eight feet to the 
mile, so as to strike the townsite at a lower 
level, and cross the depression without a flume. 
On this last survey he struck an old canal that 
muat have been U9ed centuries ago, for large 
trees had grown up in the very bottom of the 
canal, and the indications were that when used 
it carried a very large volume of water. The 
most s ngular thing about it was that the sur- 
veyors fonnd it just where they wanted to con- 
struct the new canal, and on following it up 
for about a mile, it was found to have a regular 
grade of about eight feet to the mile. 

A Fair to be Held— Nitional City Record, 
Jan. 12: Tne San Diego County Horticultur- 
al S iciety met at Elsin >re last week and de- 
cided to hold a fair at Sin Diego some time 
during the fill, the date being left to a subse- 
quent meeting. All persons interested in the 
fair and in advancing the interest of the coun- 
ty are invited to place themselves in commu- 
nication with G. H. Bower, the secretary at 
El Caj >n. 

Heroic Treatment for Codlin Moth.— 
Under date ot December 18th Cheater Guun of 
Julian, Quarantine Guardian, wrote to G. W. 
Parnell, secretary of the County Horticultural 
Society, as follows : I have to report that yes- 
terday a man named J. W. Bailey, from San 
Bernardino, brought to Julian four barrels of 
apples which were badly infected with codlin 
moth. I examined his fruit soon after he got 
here. I then notified him to sell no more till 1 
could come home and find out what to do. I 
returned with a copy of Ordinance No. 17, 
which I gave him to read. I then gave him 
hia.choice between giving me the fruit and bar- 
rels to destroy or being prosecuted. He gave 
me the fruit, and we had a big bonfire in the 
street. All the apples which had been sold in 
Julian were put in the fire, except what had 
been eaten, and we hope the hogs found all of 
the cores which were thrown out. Mr. Btiley 
sold one barrel between here and Sin Bernar- 
dino, so he has probably scattered the seed 
along the road. 

San Joaquin. 

Stockton Oranges. — Independent, Jan. 10: 
Yesterday morning Louia Hansel plucked two 
fine oranges from a tree in his yard. The fruit 
is not very large, but it has an excellent flavor. 
Mr. Hansel's trees are heavily laden with or- 
anges and they do not appear to have suffered 
any from the heavy frost*. 

Shipment of Wheat. — Independent, Jan. 
13: Yesterday the firm of Smith & Wright, 
grain dealers, shipped 815 tons of wheat by 
the barge Atlas, to San Francisco. This is 
the first shipment of wheat by barge from 
Stockton since last S ptember. 

Cabbage for Texas. — Several carloads of 
cabbages grown on Rjnerts island have been 
shipped to Texas daring the past few days. 
The supply of cabbages raised on the island 



this year far exceeds the demand required for 
home consumption. 

Santa Clara. 

Raisins.— San Jose Herald: John Phelps, 
an old resident of San Jose, reports very en- 
couraging prospects in the raisin business. Hia 
six-year-old vineyard averaged a ton of fine 
raisins per acre, and when it is in full bearing 
he hopes to get double that amount. If, as 
Mr. Phelps says, raisins can be made for GO 
cents a box and sold at §1.25, there is money in 
the business. 

Santa Cruz. 
Experimenting with Flax. — Pajaronian, 
Jan. 12: Geo. A. Trafton has received 120 
pounds of flaxseed from Mr. Hatfield of the 
Menlo Park Fiax-Mill, and he will distribute 
the same among farmers who are desirous of 
experimenting with the cultivation of flax. Mr, 
Hatfield visited this valley last October with a 
view of moving his mill to this town, but he 
has concluded to defer the removal until the 
result of the experiments with the trial seed is 
known. 

Sonoma. 

Agricultural Park.— Santa Rosa Republi- 
can, Jan. 12- There was a meeting of the 
Agricultural Park Association Wednesday, at 
which the following officers were elected: J N. 
Bailhache, Pres.; S. I. Allen, V. P.; G. A. 
Tupper, Sec ; E. W. Davis, Treas. According 
to the reports of the secretary and treasurer the 
affairs of the association are in a more prosperous 
condition than ever before. The entire indebted- 
ness has been reduced to $600. Two years ago 
it was a little less than $6000. The present 
Board of Directors was re-elected. 

Hybrid Depredators. — I. Satori of Russian 
River brought to the Board of Supervisors 
Thursday the stuffed skin of a peculiar animal 
which was killed while committing depredations 
upon a band of sheep. It is somewhat larger 
than a coyote, with ears shaped like a coyote's, 
but longer, of a dark brown color mottled with 
white and gray. Its feet and legs are exactly 
like a dog's, and those who are acquainted with 
its habits and know something of its origin say 
that it is the offspring of coyotes and large wolf- 
dog* breeding. It was brought before the Board 
to determine whether the same bounty for them 
as for coyotes will be allowed. There was a band 
of six after the sheep when this one was killed 
and they are committing great depredations on 
the flocks of sheep and herds of calves. The 
board decided that no bounty should be allowed 
upon the hybrid animal. The dog features are 
more prominent than those of the coyote, and a 
bad precedent would be established if the coyote 
bounty of $10 was laid upon them. 

Tulare. 

Herding the Hares — Visalia Times, Jan. 12: 
The people residing between Tule river and 
Deer creek assembled at a point west of the 
lone sycamore, on Saturday last, for a rabbit- 
drive, a corral and fence having been erected 
there for use on such occasions. About 150 
men and boys and 100 ladiea were preaent. It 
was the most succecsful drive yet made in this 
county, 1800 rabbits having been corraled and 
killed. About 4000 rabbits were driven to the 
corral, but through a misunderstanding of the 
ways of entrance, they were driven up on the 
wrong side and were thus allowed to escape. 
Another drive will take place next Saturday 
over the same ground, to which everybody is 
invited. The corral is 40 feet square and has 
two wit gs extending three-quarters of a mile 
on each side. 

Tulare Pork. — An idea of the hog product 
of this county may be formed when it is 
stated that one man, during the year 1887, 
purchased and shipped 37,000 head, for which 
he disbursed the sum of $240,000. This is the 
business of one dealer, but there are eight or 
ten others engaged in the business of buying 
and shipping hogs. Probably there is $1,000,- 
000 paid out for hogs in this county every year. 

Stock Suffering. — The continued cold 
weather is having a deadly effect on the cattle 
feeding on the plains, as well as those in the 
hills. The snow that fell low down on the 
foothills, to a depth sufficient to cover the 
grass, has not thawed any since it fell, and con- 
sequently the cattle there have to browse on 
the shrubbery. Old cattle in that vicinity are 
dying in great numbers, aa they were generally 
in poor condition previous to the snowfall, ow- 
ing to the scarcity of dry feed. Probably one- 
half of the stock in the mountains will die. 
John Stokes has something over 600 head of 
cattle on the Kelsey ranch near Goshen, and it 
is stated that six or seven head die every day, 
and he has a force of men engaged in skinning 
them and saving the tallow. Those persona 
fortunate enough to own alfalfa hay are feeding 
liberally, and will lose none of their stock, 
though most of the cattle seen present a 
pinched appearance. 

Yolo. 

From One Vineyard. — Woodland Democrat, 
Jan. 12: The foreman of J. G. Briggs* Glori- 
etta vineyard says that 30 carloads of raisins 
have already been shipped from their place, 
and 30 more will be, before the season is over. 
The vineyard consists of three quarter-sections. 

Licorice. — Mr. B. B. Franklin, who lives 
about eight miles from Woodland, toward Mad- 
ison, was in town to-day and showed us a sam- 
ple root of licorice plant he has growing upon 
hia place, which was five or six feet long, and 
green and fresh. 

Spanish Merino Sheep. — Woodland Mail: 
Frank Bullard has deposited with the Board of 
Trade a specimen fleece from hia clip of this 



year, to be placed with Yolo's collection at the 
rooms of the State Board in S. F. This single 
fleece fairly shows the quality Mr. Bullard clips 
from hia celebrated band of over 1000 Spanish 
merino sheep. It weighs over 25 pounds, and 
in texture is as soft, fine and firm as silk. The 
growth measures fully five inches and is re- 
markably clean and snowy. Mr. Bullard finds 
a ready sale for all hia young bucks at prices 
ranging from $20 to $100, the demand for them 
coming from all parts of the State and the Ter- 
ritories. He has given special attention to 
breeding the Spanish merino for the past 10 
years. He does not breed in and in, but is im- 
porting new blood from the best Eastern and 
foreign breeders. Every sheep on his place is 
registered upon his books, and is identified by 
patent ear-tags which he uses with success. 
Thus he can trace the pedigree of every sheep 
on the place, and so is enabled to breed all his 
stock intelligently. Year after year Mr. Bul- 
lard captures the State Fair prize for the best 
exhibit of thia class of wool. He cultivates 
about 100 acres of alfalfa irrigated from Moore's 
ditch, and by thia means keeps his sheep in the 
finest condition. His clip this year will weigh 
16,000 pounds, which will bring him $2000. 

NEVADA. 

Glanders. — Reno Gazette, Jan. 9: Glanders 
has broken out in Lyon county, near Dayton, 
during the past few weeks, and over 20 horses 
have been taken with it. The disease was 
brought over here from California by a man 
who aold some infected stage horses to a rancher 
near Dayton. Thirteen horses have been shot 
and more will have to go. Some infected 
horses have been fed recently in one of the hay- 
yards of this city. The commissioners of this 
county should take immediate action or there 
will be a run of glanders in this county. Yes- 
terday J. Nichol, the thoroughbred horseman 
of Mason valley, came before the Board of 
Commissioners and stated that the disease was 
on at least ten ranches of Mason valley, and it 
would become necessary for all counties adjoin- 
ing to take immediate steps. 

Condition of Cattle. — While the winter 
has been unusually severe in the western part 
of the Slate, stockmen do not anticipate much 
lo8s, although advices agree that many old 
cows have succumbed. From stockmen, who 
have lately come in from the East, the 
Gazelle also learns that snow lies deep on the 
ranges and in the valleys; and should the storm 
continue, and a freeze-up result, a great many 
cattle will go under. The loss will be heavier 
on the smaller stockmen who are unable to pre- 
pare for winter feeding. In Squaw, Independ- 
ence, Ruby, Clover and several other valleys, 
which are occupied by wealthy cattlemen, an 
ample supply of hay has been stacked, and it 
will have to be an unusually severe winter to 
cause loss. 



The American Horticulturists. 

Partial List of Excursionists. 

As we go to press on Wednesday evening, the 
excursion train carrying the members of the 
American Horticultural Society is approaching 
San Francisco. They reached the borders of 
California on Monday, and were met on the 
desert by a delegation from the Riverside Board 
of Trade with greetings emphasized by gifts of 
oranges, raisins and other Riverside products. 
They arrived in Los Angeles on Tuesday, and on 
Wednesday started northward, to arrive San in 
Francisco on Thursday afternoon. The meet- 
ing will open according to announcement in San 
Jose on Tuesday, Jan. 24th. 

Just before leaving his home in Greencastle, 
Indiana, Prof. W. H. Rigan mailed us a list 
of those whom he had booked for the excur- 
sion up to that time, stating, however, that 
many others might afterward come aboard at 
points further west. Therefore the list we 
give below is not complete, but contains a large 
number of those who may be seen at San Jose 
and Riverside. Our design in publishing the 
list as early as possible is to give our readers an 
opportunity to learn if personal friends are 
included, meeting whom would be an addition- 
al inducement for them to attend the two meet- 
ings of the society in this State. Next week 
we shall try to complete the list so that it may 
serve as a full index to E istern attendance at 
the Riverside meeting. Of course there will 
be hundreds of other Eastern people at both 
meetings and fairs, but we probably can note 
only those who come under the auspices of the 
visiting society. 

Dr. Joseph Albrecht, New Orleans, La. 

Abner Allen, Wabaunsee, Kan. 

Henry Avery, Burlington, la. 

Josh. G. Bailey, Columbia, Tenn. 

Sam Barnard, Sec'y Hort. Soc'y, Table Rock, Neb. 

James A. Bayless, Lee's Summit, Mo. 

J. S. Beatty, Simpsonville, Ky. 

H. Y. Beebe, Pres. Hort. Soc'y, Ravenna, O. 

F. M. Benham, Petosky, Mich. 

J. C. Blair, Kansas Cily, Mo. 

[. P. Buck, Appleton, Wis. 

Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, 111. 

Prof. J. L. Budd, Agricultural College, Ames, la. 

William By. rs, Kansas City, Mo. 

demons, Cloon & Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

John W. Collins, Liberty, Mo. 

Chas. G. Comstock, Albiny, Mo. 

A. F. Cook, Gibbsville, Wis. 

Wm. N. Cook, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Chas. C. Cornett, Madison, Lid. 

Matthew Crawford, Cuyahoga Falls, O. 



E. H. Cushman, Euclid, O. 
John B. Durand, Prairie City, Mo. 
J. A. Durkes, Weston, Mo. 

Parker Earle, Pres. Am. Hort. Soc"y, Cobden, 111. 
Mrs. Melanie T. Earle, Cobden, 111. 
Samuel Edwards, Mendota, III. 
G. C. Eisenmayer. Mascoutah. III. 

G. W. Endicott, Villa Ridge, 111. 

J. C. Evans, Treas. Am. Hort. Soc'y, Harlem, Mo. 
J. J. Fairbanks, Denison, Tex. 
C. Falkner, Waco. Tex. 

C. W. Faust, Canton, O. 
Washington Folck, Marshall, Mo. 
Samuel Gainer, Pilot Point, Tex. 
W. G. Gano, Parkville, Mo. 

J. Y. Gilmore, 6 Camp street, New Orleans, La. 
L. A. Goodman, Sec'y Hort. Soc'y, Westport, Mo. 
Dr. A. Goslin, Oregon, Mo. 

Prof. W. J. Green, Experiment Station, Columbus, O. 

D. S. Grimes, Denver, Col. 

Mrs. J. T. Grimes and daughter, Minneapolis, Min. 

J. H. Hale, South Glastonbury, Conn 

L. Harms, Euclid, O. 

Edmund H. Hart, Federal Point, Fla. 

W. F. Heikes, Huntsville, Ala. 

Peter Henderson, 35 Courtland St., New York. 

E. P. Henry, Butler, Mo. 
John S. Hicks, Roslyn, N. Y. 
Amos Hiestand, Vincent, Penn. 
W. D. Hills, Odin. III. 

C. M. Hobbs, Sec'y Hort. Soc'y, Bridgeport, Ind. 

E. T. Hollister. St. Louis, Mo. 

F. Holsinger, Rosedale, Kan. 

R. H. Howard, 792 Lafayette Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

J. M. Howell, Dallas, Tex. 

Mrs. J. M. Howell, Dallas, Tex. 

T. S. Hubbard, Fredonia, N. Y. 

Dr. Robt. Hughes and lady, Okawville, 111. 

H. S. Hurd, Burlington, Ont. 
Joseph I. Irwin, Columbus, Ind. 
Mrs. H. C. Irwin, Columbus, Ind. 

Sylvester Johnson, Pres. State Hort. Soc'y, and 

lady, Irvington, Ind. 
F. C. Johnson, Kishwaul.ee, 111. 
Mrs. J. R. Johnson, Sec'y Hort. Soc'y, Dallas, Tex. 
John Kaufman, Kansas City, Mo. 
C. C. Kelsey, Humboldt, Kan. 
T. W. Kizer, Winchester, Ind. 
J. Van Lindley, Pres. H. S. and lady, Pomona, N. C. 
William Lyons, Box 685, Minneapolis, Minn. 
J. F. Martin, Pres. Hort. Soc'y, Winfteld, Kan. 
J. W. Maxwell, Euclid, O. 
W. P. Mesler, Cobden, 111. 
Mrs.W. P. Mesler, Cobden, 111. 
B. S. Miles, Gray's Summit, Mo. 

F. C. Miller, New Philadelphia, O. 
Curtis J. Miller, Canal Fulton, O. 

T. V. Munson, Pres. Hort. Soc'v, Denison, Tex. 

Mrs. Maria Munson, Denison, Tex. 

M. L. McClave, Benton Harbor, Mich. 

N. Ohmer, Pres. State Hort. Soc'y, Dayton, O. 

M. 1. Parker, Carthage, Mo. 

Miss H. E. Peake, Fairmount A v. , Jersey City, N. J. 

Geo. P. Peffer, Pewaukee. Wis. 

Chas. F. Pierce, 205 La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

G. Poindexter, Blue Lick, Ind. 

Prof. E. A. Popenoe, Ag. Coll., Manhattan, Kan. 

J. H. Priest, Greencastle, Ind. 

Z. S. Ragan, Independence, Mo. 

W H. Ragan, Greencastle, Ind. 

Horace Rainey, Columbia, Tenn. 

T. D. Randall & Co., 219 S. Water St., Chicago, 111. 

Mrs. T. D. Randall and daughter, Chicago, 111. 

J. C. Ridpaih, LL. D., Greencastle, Ind. 

Wm. Roy (Royston Park), Owen Sound, Ont. 

Geo. E. Ryckman, Brockton, N. Y. 

J. M. Smith, Pres. State Hort. Soc'y, and lady, 

Green Bay, Wis. 
E. Ashley Smith, Lockport, N. Y. 
Henry Speer, Butler, Mo. 
Nat. Stevens, F'orney, Tex. 

I. N. Stone, Sioux City, la. 

Dr. W. Thompson, Effingham, III. 

Prof. H. E. Van Deman, U. S. Pom., Washington. 

J. M. Ward, Naples, III. 

R. H. Warder, North Bend, O. 

B. iC Warfield, Sandoval, III. 

C. L. Watrous, Pres. A. A. of Nurserymen, Des 
Moines, la. 

D. B. Weir, Lacon, 111. 

Leo Weltz, Treas. Am. F'try Cong., Wilmington, O. 

S. D. Willard, Geneva, N. Y. 

Dr. R. J. Williams, Gadsden, Tenn. 

Mrs. Wade Burden, Springfield, Mo. 

H. I. Budd, Mount Holly, N. J. 
Hiram Craig, Ft. Calhoun, Neb. 

H. J. Clarke and daughter, Tottenville, N. Y. 
W. H. Farrell, Leavenworth. Kan. 

Dr. Allen Furnas and lady. Danville, Ind. 
C. Harrington and lady, Painesville, O. 

C. J. Holmgren, Hamilton, N. Y. 

D. Ilgenfrilz, Monroe, Mich. 

A. Kanatzar, Centralia, Mo. 
Joseph 1). King, Ravenna, O. 

Theo. M. Layne and lady, Cloverdale, Ind. 
Jacob W. Manning, Reading, Mass. 
Hon. C. J. Monroe, Souih Haven, Mich. 
W. J. Mallby, Baird, Tex. 
J. S. Newmeyer and lady, Love Lake, Mo. 

I. C. Newbury, Pilot Point. Tex. 
W. W. Ross, Pilot Point, Tex. 
Preston Rider, Crothersville, Ind. 
L. T. Sanders, Collinsburg, La. 
Mrs. Michael Sells, Indianapolis, Ind. 
W. W. Thompson, Smiihville, Ga. 
W. G. Veal, Fort Worth, Tex. 

L. A. Williams, Glenwood, la. 

Judson Williams, Ottawa, Kan. 

Levi Zook, Oregon, Mo. 

John N. Scearce and lady, Danville, III. 

M. B. Rudi<sill, Green Castle, Ind. 

Miss Sallie Rudissill, Indianapolis, Ind. 

David Wilson, Martinsville, Ind. 

Mrs. Wilson and son, Brazil, Ind. 

W. II. White, Lena, Ind. 

Theo. Goodrich, Cobden, 111. 

Rev. M. A. Johnson, Burlington, la. 

Edwin Soper, Danville, Ind. 

C. C. Fisher, Moorefield, W. Va. 

Geo. L Martin, Brant. N. Y. 

J W. Jeffries, Bridgeton, Ind. 

W. R. Mott. Yonkers, N. Y. 

Ransom Hull, Burgh Hill, O. 

Geo. H. Rupp, Shi-emanstown, Pa. 

Sam'l Patterson, Berlin Hi«hts, O. 

Judge J. Mcllhany, Biird, Tex. 

MadKon Mcllwain, Warren, Mo. 

B. M Smith, Beverlv, Mass. 
J. A. Slever, Penn Yan, N. Y. 



46 



pACIFKB RURAb PRESS, 



[Jan. 21, 1888 




Twilight in tbe Country. 

[Written (or the Ki-ral Press by Ada E. Taylor. J 

The ruby sunset fades away, 

And leaves a tinted sky; 
The robins cease their tuneful lay, 

As toward the south they fly. 

The fe.ithery clouds float idly past, 

All flecked with red and gold; 
Their radiance over all is cast, 
Most beauteous to behold. 

The meadow-lark while soaring high, 
Trills forth his sweet good-night; 

And answered by his mate clo c e by, 
They lake their homeward flight. 

The mavis whistles blithe and gay 

To welcome evening's hours; 
The cow-bells tinkle far away 

Amid the fragrant flowers. 

The canyon sloping toward the vale 

Is filled with rosy ligh'; 
The best and tarf st art would fail 

To paint the shades so bright. 

Beside the pearly, rippling stream, 

The tangled blossoms grow; 
And dainty silvery fern leaves gleam 

When gentle breezes blow. 

The cypress shadows fall to meet 

The lovely changing shades; 
And all the air is still and sweet. 

Among the quiet glades. 

Far in the woods the swallows dirt, 

And skim the shining stream; 
Where creamy lilus love to part 

The waters all agleam. 

The restful hush that evening brings 

Has fallen everywhere; 
The bat flits past on silent wing?, 

In twilight's dewy air. 

With loving tenderness the night 

All sunset shades enfold; 
And far above with netted light 

Shines glistening stars of go d. 

In pearly skies the pale young moon 

Sheds forth its feeble light; 
And scattering rays in deepest gloom 

Bids all a sweet good-night. 



Miss Rugget's Narrative. 

Law ! haint you never heerd tell how Mis 
Peasley an' Mis Briggs come to be so dead 6ot 
agin each other ? That beats me ! I 'eposed 
everybody in this place knowed all about it. 
'Pears to me that folks in small towns don't 
seem to spend their time to no better advantage 
than a-mindin' of other folk's business, jest as 
if they didn't have none of their own to attend 
to. Wal, it do beat all creation the way some 
folks will run to get the last piece o' tattlin' 
thar is goin'. 'Twa'n't never so with me. I 
never could abide folks that gossips. An' as to 
what my neighbors is a-doin' or aint a-doin' V 
long's they let me alone I'll let'em mind their 
own business an' I'll tend to mine— say ! d'ye 
hear that air pianny a-goin'? That's Mis Kings- 
ley's pianny, an' that's one of her young ladies 
as is a-visitin' of her which is a-playin' of that 
pianny ! 

An' d'ye see Mis Fair's window-blinds has 
got their slats turned so's she can watch out 
through 'em? Land o' Goshen ! Won't thar be 
some fun a-goin' on now ? Ye see Mis Fair's 
powerful jealous of them two gals which is 
a-visitin' of Mis Kingaley, one of which is 
a-playin' of Mis Kingsley's pianny this blessed 
minute. Mr. Fair is one of them men that fond 
of music that there aint no gettin' round it. 
An' Mia' Fair she don't care nothin' at all about 
it, an' never touches her pianny, so, bein's Mis 
Kingfley an' Mr. Fair's cousins onct off, why 
he will go over an' hear them gals play. One, 
she sings some, an' t'other jest plays, but law ! 
she do scramble over them keys to beat all out 
doors. An' they're both good-lookin' inter the 
bargain, them gals is. I don't say but what 
Mis KingBley is a doin' more'n the law allows 
bavin' of Mr. Fair there so mnch, an' them 
gals dressed up like all possessed, an' ready an' 
willin' to wall their eyes at any man, single or 
donble, which they certainly do. But you 
jest oughter be here right along an' watch 
them slats of Mis Fair's fly open ker slap when- 
ever she hears that pianny a-tunin' up. An' 
they do say that patience is alters rewarded, 
he 1 he ! an' if she sets there long enough she's 
bound to see Mr. Fair a-walkin' over, an' jest 
a-goin' right in, jest as if he was to home, an' 
then that pianny begins to thump. Sometimes 
I've seen Mis Fair that mad that she couldn't 
stand it no longer, an' jest come a-flouncin' out 
of her house an' go a-bouncin' inter Mis Kings- 
ley's. Onct I went in arter her jest to see what 
she waz a goin' to do. But law ! she didn't do 
nothin' — she jest sot there an' coughed ! But 



maybe ye think her face wa'n't red ! She's 
middlin' Bandy complected, anyhow, one of 
them peppery kind with more temper than any- 
thin' else, an' she waz as red as a lobster from 
her collar up. 

But let me see. What was it I started in to 
tell ye ? Oh, yes ! 'bout Mis Peasley'n' Mis 
Briggs. Ye see Mis Peasley had one of her 
spells — an' I s'pose nobody knows nothin' 'bout 
the way that air woman must have suffered in 
them spells of her'n — an' Brother Peasley he 
allers 'lowed she'd go off in one of 'em. There 
was some as did say, an' make no secret on't, 
that he'd a ben mighty glad to have seen her 
went . I aint nowise s'prised myself if that's so, 
fer Mis Peasley waz twenty years older'n Mr. 
l'easley, an' when he sot out here to tike the 
Zion church there waz them among the elders 
as said they shouldn't never have hired him if 
they'd a-known Mis Peasley waz that old an' 
peenky she couldn't be looked to fur to help in 
the soci'ties an' sich. Wal, as I waz a-goin' to 
say, Mis Briggs waz a-takin' care of Mis Peas- 
ley through this here spell I'm speakin' of; 
Brother Peasley he used to come in an' — there ! 
what'd I tell ye! There goes Mr. Fair after 
that pianny music like a nsh after the bait. 
My ! but aint Mis Fair mad, now ? You jest 
watch them slats ! 

Wal, as I waz sayin', Brother Peasley used 
to come in an' look at her, an' fetch a big sigh, 
an' shake his head an' go away agin. An' Mis 
Briggs — she waz a war widder — she'd shake 
her head an' sigh, too, an' between 'em both 
they kept the air a-movin' in that air room, 
now, I ken tell ye. Wal, one night Mis Peas- 
ley seemed to be lower'n usual, an' she jest lay 
there as if she was purty near gone under, V 
bimeby in comes Brother Peasley, an' he heaves 
a big sigh, an' shakes his head, an' Mis Briggs 
she heaves another, an' wags her head drefful 
solemn-like. Mis Peasley she didn't seem to be 
conscious nor nothin'. 

Mr. Peasley he heaved another sigh an' sot 
down an' looked fust at Mis Peasley 'n' then at 
Mis Briggs. Mis Briggs war a handsome 
woman allers; one of your fat and jolly kind 
everywhere but in a sick-room. There she waz 
as fat as ever, but her face'd be longer'n yer 
arm allers. 

"She's a-failin' purty fast, Sister Briggs," 
says Mr. Peasley. 

"Yes, Brother Peasley, she do seem to be 
that low since sundown that the dear soul aint 
got much life left in her." 

" Jes' so, jes' so," sez Mr. Peasley, an' I'll 
warrant ye he didn't feel near so down in the 
mouth as he tried to look. 

" She never's been so low as this before," 
pez he, an' fetched another powerful sigh. Mis 
Briggs she heaved one too, but bein's she'd 
never been with Mis Peasley in any of her 
spells before she couldn't say no more. 

" I shouldn't be surprised if she didn't last 
until mornin' " sez Brother Peasley, alookin' 
kinder longin'-like at Mis Briggs; " she's worser 
than I ever knowed her to be." 

Mis Briggs didn't say nothin'. 

" The hand of the Lord is laid heavy upon 
me," sez he purty soon. " Did you ever know 
anybody so low as she is to git up. Mis 
Briggs ?" 

'■ No, Brother Peasley, I never seen anybody 
so low as she is an' live,'' sez Mis Briggs, " but 
ye can't most allers tell; sometimes them as 
seems the worst offU rally wonderful." 

" Yes, I s'pose that is the way with some 
folks,' sez he, " but it don't seem as if Arrer- 
beller could ever survive this spell." Ye see 
he was bound an' possessed to think so 'cause 
he didn't want her to. 

They didn't say nothin' no more fer some 
time, but jest sot there a-heavin* of big sighs, 
an' Mis Briggs a-fannin' of Mis Peasley. 
Bimeby he sez, sez he: 

" It's purty hard on a man to be left alone in 
this world." 

Mis Briggs didn't say nothin'. Maybe she 
thought he'd better not count his chickens 'fore 
they waz hatched. 

"I s'pose," sez he, "it's harder on a man 
than it is on a woman." 

" They do say sich is the case, Brother Peas- 
ley, but it's hard fur a woman, ton." 

"Jest so," sez he, an' they both fetched long 
breaths, " you've ben a widder woman an' 
knows what it is to be left alone, dear sister. 
You must get powerful lonesome sometimes." 

Mis Briggs smiled kinder pensive-like, an' 
jest then they both seen Mis Peaaley sorter 
straighten out an' fetch a long breath too. 

Mis Briggs held up her finger solemn-like an' 
sez: 

"She's a-goin' now." 

Brother Peasley he t'wonct flopped onter his 
knees by the bedside an' somehow nuther 
ketched holt Mis Brigga's hand instead of Mis 
l'easley's. 

" Oh, dear sister," sez he, " help me to bear 
this heavy load; Arrerbeller is a goin' " 

An' jest then what d'ye s'pose happened? 
Wal, Miss Peasley she sot right up in bed, an' 
she sez, Sfz she: 

"No, Arrerbeller aint a-goin'," sez she, "but 
I keD 'tell ye who it a-goin', an' that's Marier 
Ann Brigg*, right out of this hou«e, now, 
t'wonct, without no further delay. Git right 
out o' this room, you hussy," sez she, powerful 
strong fer a dead woman. " Git right along 
an' don't stay fer nothin'. John Jacob Peas- 
ley, you leave go of her hand, an' don't you 
go a-holdin' of any widder woman's hand, wid- 
der er no widder, never no more, fer Arrerbel- 
ler aint dead yet." (Ye see they waz both 
struck so dumb they didn't have sense enough 
to let go of hands.) "An next time don't you 



neither of ye marry a widder nor yet a widderer 
until his wife is dead an' buried, even though 
her husband is an' may be." With that Mis 
Briggs got up an' went right out, an' Mis Peas- 
ley sez to Mr. Peasley, "John Jacob," sez she, 
"give me that medicine an' keep this here fan 
a-goin'," an' John Jacob done it, you'd better 
just believe. Since which time Mia Peasley an' 
Mis Briggs has ben dead set agin each other, 
fust an' last, fore and aft, hittermost an' hind- 
ermost, an' Mis Peasley's mighty spry fer her 
years yet — if there aint Mis Fair a-bouncin' 
over to Mis Kingsley's this blessed minute! 
An' ther she'll set an' cough as red as a turkey- 
cock until he's through with one kind o' music 
an' ready to catch another. — Marion Afanville. 



Punishing a Grandfather. 

Down on the Cape in a time now well gone 

by, Benjamin C was a prominent man, 

wealthy, and foremost in a good many enter- 
prises. Old Mr. C was thrifty, like 

most of the Cape people, with a high regard 
for the almighty dollar. He had a lively, 
freckle-faced, athletic grandson, as agile as a 
squirrel, who was named for him Benjamin C. 
D , since a man of a good deal of prom- 
inence on his own account, and who lived with 
him. The old gentleman's barn, as a good 
many other old places have done, became terribly 
infested with rats. The old gentleman was 
so greatly annoyed that he offered the boy 50 
cents apiece for all the rats he would catch and 
■how to him alive on tbe premises — a precau- 
tion to prevent sharp practice on the part of the 
youth. After two or three days little Ben- 
jamin came to old Benjamin and asked him to 
step out into the barn. He did so, and was 
conducted to a big disused molasses barrel that 
stood in the middle of the barn floor, and aekeu 
to look in it. And there, on the bottom, was 
a wriggling mass of rata three or four feet deep, 
struggling vainly to get out of the barrel. 

" My gorry ! exclaimed the old gentleman. 
" Where did you get all the rata ? " 

"Caught 'em here in the old barn, gran'sir." 

" How many be they ? " 

"Eighty. That's just forty dollars, gran'- 
sir." 

" Forty dollars ! Why, I aint goin' to pay 
you all that money." 

" Aint you ? Didn't you agree to, gran'sir ? " 

" Well, yes, but I hadn't no idee wbeu I did 
that you'd catch such a tarnation lot." 

The boy looked up. There was a rope dang- 
ling down from the beam above that was used 
to help in climbing up the hay-loft. Benny 
pulled himself up hand over baud on this rope 
until he hung suspended over the barrel. 

" Aint you goin' to give me that forty dollars 
you agreed to, gran'sir ? " said the boy. 

" Never ! " said tbe old man, looking over 
again into the barrel with its squirming mass 
of rats. 

" Well, then, here goes ! " said tbe boy. 

With a lively kick of his foot he upset the 
barrel in the direction of his grandfather. The 
multitude of rats poured out around the old 
man's feet. He leaped wildly up and down in 
terror, and spiang through the mass to a ladder 
that stood near. Then he ran up the ladder 
with an agility that he had not equaled for 50 
years. And the rats resumed possession of the 
premises. — Ex. 

The Glorious Climate ol* Minnesota. 

And this is the heartless and irreverent 
way in which the Chicago Tribune discourses 
about it : 

" Yes," remarked the St. Paul man to a 
friend from Chicago as he stood arrayed in his 
blanket suit and adjusted a couple of buckskin 
chest protectors; "yes, there is something 
about the air in this northwestern climate 
which causes a person not to notice the cold. 
Its extreme dryness," he continued, as he drew 
on a couple of extra woolen socks, a pair of 
Scandinavian sheepskin boots and some Alaska 
overshoes, "its extreme dryness makes a de- 
gree of cold, reckoned by the mercury, which 
would be unbearable in other latitudes, simply 
exhilarating here. I have suffered more with 
the cold in Michigan, for instance," be added, 
as he drew on a pair of goatskin leggings, ad- 
justed a double fur cap and tied on some 
Esquimaux ear-muffs, " in Michigan or Illinois, 
we will say, with the thermometer at zero or 
above, than I have here with it at from 45 to 55 
below. The dryness of our winter is cer- 
tainly remarkable," he went on as he wound 
a couple of rods of red woolen scarf 
about his neck, wrapped a dozen news- 
papers about his body, drew on a fall-cloth 
overcoat, a winter-cloth overcoat, a light buf- 
falo-skin overcoat, and a heavy polar bear-skin 
overcoat; "no, if you have never eDjoyed our 
glorious Minnesota winter climate and its dry 
atmosphere, its bright sunshine and invigorat- 
ing ozone, you would scarcely believe some 
things I could tell you about it. The air is ao 
dry," he continued, as he adjusted bis leather 
nose protector, drew on his reindeers iu mit- 
tens, and carefully closed one eye-hole in the 
sealskin mask he drew down from bis cap — " it 
is so dry that actually it seems next to impossi- 
ble to feel the cold at all. We can scarcely 
realize in the spring that we have had winter, 
owing to the extreme dryness of the atmos- 
phere. By the way," he went on, turning to 
his wife, " just bring me a couple of blankets 
and those bedquilts to throw over my shoulders, 



and hand me that muff with the soap-stone in 
it, and now I'll take a pull at this jug of brandy 
and whale-oil, and then if you'll have the girl 
bring my snowahoes and iceberg scaling stick. 
I'll atep over and see them pry the workmen off 
the top of the ice-palace who were frozen on 
yesterday. I tell you we wouldn't be going out 
this way 500 miles further south, where the air 
is damp and chilly. Nothing but our dry air 
makes it possible." 

Abuse of the Toothpick. 

The toothpick, when used with discretion 
and at proper times and in proper places, is an 
unobjectionable little instrument. Its occa- 
sional employment is, as a rule, necessary to 
cleanliness and the preservation of the teeth. 
So, also, is the use of the tooth brush. This ad- 
junct of the toilet is, however, never used in 
public. The person who, after partaking of a 
meal, should proceed to publicly use his tooth- 
brush would speedily find himself banished 
from decent society. Yet such action would 
be less objectionable to witness than the serv- 
ice to which some people who pretend to re- 
finement and culture put the toothpick. Th< re 
is but one place in which it may be rightly 
used — the dressing-room — and no person who 
has the slightest consideration for the feelings 
of others will handle it anywhere else. 

It would seem to be almost unnecessary to 
make such statements as those in the foregoing 
paragraph. No one possessing any delicacy of 
feeling or squeamishness of digestion will dream 
of controverting them. And yet the public nse 
of the toothpick is daily increasing, and has 
already reached proportions that strike the 
foreign visitor with astonishment and disgust, 
and make the lives of many of our citizens any- 
thing but agreeable. 

The practice has doubtless grown owing to 
tbe large number of people who live or have 
lived in hotels and boarding-houses, where 
toothpicks were furnished with the idea that 
guests would take them to their rooms, and in 
some of the good hotels guests can even now 
only procure toothpicks at the doors by which 
they leave the dining-rooms. In other hotels 
and in many boarding-houses, and also, it is sad 
to have to write, in some private houses, the 
toothpick-holder is a regular ornament (?) of 
the meal table, and its contents are assiduously 
worked. 

In no other country that the writer has ever 
visited have toothpicks been publicly used in 
private houses or in the presence of women. An 
English woman or a French woman of the bet- 
ter class not only never dreams of using a tooth- 
pick before people, but she considers it some- 
thing that it is more pleasant not even to men- 
tion. Here, however, it is no uncommon oc- 
currence to hear a lady ask for the toothpicks, 
and select one that Bhe thinks will lit her needs. 
— The Epoch. 

Dandruff. 

Euitors Press-. — I would 'ike to ask a ques- 
tion through your paper. Can any of the read- 
ers of the Press tell me of a permanent cure for 
dandruff? If they will kindly do «n it will 
greatly oblige— Constant Reaper, Woodland, 
Cal. 



The Status of SchoolTeacbers. — Judge 
Wallace of the Supreme Court has rendered a 
decision in favor of the plaintiff in the case of 
Miss Kate Kennedy, who applied for a writ of 
mandate to compel the Board of Education of 
this city and county to restore her to her posi- 
tion as principal of the North Cosmopolitan 
grammar school. The law quoted by Judge 
Wallace as governing the School Department in 
transferring teachers is as follows: Teachers in 
the public schools cannot be removed by tbe 
Board of Education at its mere will and pleas- 
ure, but only for one of the causes enumerated 
in the Political Code as grounds of removal; 
second, nor can such removal be accomplished 
by an order made ex parte; third, to effect such 
removal, charges must have been filed and no- 
tice and an opportunity to be heard given to the 
accused teacher; fourth, no transfer can be 
made so as to involve the loss of rank and pay 
upon the part of the teacher transferred. 

Tryino to Get Posted Up. — A Nebraska 
man wbo talks of locating in California writes 
the Placerville Democrat asking where Govern- 
ment land can be had; how close to a railroad. 
Can you plant it in olive and orange trees 
without cutting off the trees or plowing the 
land ? Can you raise any fruit the first year ? 
Is there any prairie and hay land close to it ? 
How much gold can a mau dig in one day? The 
editor suggests that in his next letter he atk 
how much corn a pig can eat, and how many 
cast-iron boot-jacks will be required to shingle a 
lamp post. 

Humane and Self Possessed. — The Semi- 
Tropic noticed a teamster of exemplary patience 
in the street at Colton the other morning. He 
was driving eight mules attached to an im- 
mense load of wood, when one of the number, 
with the contrariness usual to the race, sudden- 
ly concluded to go the other way. In his vain 
efforts to do so, the team became quite serious- 
ly disarranged. It took some time to get them 
back into proper working order. Yet during 
the whole time the man in charge did not ad- 
minister a kick or a blow, but patiently pulled 
and persuaded them into place. 



Jan. 21, 1888.] 



f ACIFie RURAb PRESS. 



47 



^OUNG JE( 0LKS ' 0ObUMJM. 



What the Frogs Sang. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Martha T. Tyler.] 

A musical toad had her home in a hole, 

Croak ! Croak ! Croak ! 
Beneath a gray rock on a little green knoll, 

Croak !* Croak ! Croak ! 
As mildly malicious as toad nature may be, 
The neighbors all cried, " what an aniiable lady I" 
The beetle, the snail and the esthetic mole, 

Croak 1 Croak ! Croak ! 

The esthetic mole made a tragical stride, 

Croak ! Croak ! Croak ! 
" Like the poets of old I am sightless," he cried, 

Croak ! Croak ! Croak ! 
" I've a beautiful soul and a mind analytic; 
These glasses, I'm told, are becoming a critic." 
And he mounted his goggles with infinite pride, 

Croak ! Croak ! Croak ! 

Sang the musical toad in a low minor key, 

Croak ! Croak ! Croak ! 
" On some sweet summer marsh he is dreaming of 

me !" 

Croak ! Croak ! Croak 1 
' O love !" cried the mole, all his soul in a quiver, 
" I've an underground cattle not far Irom the river; 
O say d j arest, say, that our wedding shall be 1" 

Croak ! Croak 1 Croak ! 

S lid the musical toad with a coquettish start, 

Croak ! Croak ! Croak ! 
" Shall I give you my hand, when you've stolen my 

heart V 

Croak ! Croak ! Croak ! 
The wedding created a social sensation; 
The beetle and all of the knoll population 
Were bid to the union of Mu-ic and Art — 

Croak ! Croak! Croak ! 



My First Pet. 

[Wiitten for the Rural Press by Aunt Mary.] 

1 am going to write a little story for those 
children who like truly true stories bet- 
ter than fairy tales. My story, even the 
names, is all true. I wonder if there are chil- 
dren nowadays who like live pets better than 
dolls and toys — I am sure I did. 

When I was a little girl I lived away off in 
Minnesota, and saw more Indians every day 
than 1 did white folks. One day an Indian 
woman came in, and, taking a beautiful little 
animal off her back, laid it on the floor, asking 
mother to buy it. I was so excited I ran to the 
next room, where uncle and aunt w^ere, saying: 
" Oh, oh ! come and see — such a lovely thing, 
with such bright, black eyes." 

"It must be a snake," said Uncle Jonas. 
" I don't know of anything with brighter eyes 
than a snake." 

I had never been to a kindergarten school, as 
some of you have, or perhaps I would have said 
it was a quadruped. As it was, I only said no; 
not a bit like a snake — it has feet. 

" Oh ! a mouse, perhaps." 

" No, ever so much bigger than a mouse." 

" A buffalo, possibly," said this teasing un- 
cle, while Aunt Fanny laughed. She hadn't 
been married very long, and I guess she thought 
almost everything Uncle Jonas said was funny. 

I was rather vexed then, and went to ask 
mother what it was. She told me it was a 
fawn or young deer. The Indian woman was 
glad to leave it for a pan of potatoes and calico 
enough to make herself a short gown. 

We untied its poor little feet and gave it 
some warm milk. In a few days it was as 
tame as a kitten and would run about after us 
and come whenever we called " Betty." It had 
beautiful white Bpots all over its sides. My 
little brother and I would stroke its hair and 
put our arms around its neck and thought it 
the dearest little creature in the world. But 
one evening when we called it did not come, 
and though we ran through the pasture and up 
the hill calling "Betty, Betty," we could not 
find it. 

Next day we found it killed and half eaten 
up by Indian dogs. No need to tell of tears. 
It was a big trouble for a six-year-old, and 
although I had many pets afterward, I never 
forgot dear little Betty the fawn. 

A Thrilling Romance. 

Dear Editor: — As this is the first of the 
year, I will send you my first effort of story 
writing. I wrote it and read at my school. 
Thus runs my story: 

Maud. 

On a small farm in the country lived a girl 
about 16 years old, who was tall and awkward 
looking. Her hair was very thick and the 
color of a carrot; she had gray eyes, and was 
altogether homely. The boys and girls of the 
small school she attended ridiculed her because 
she was not pretty. And one boy, Grant War- 
den, especially was the tease and torment of 
her life; but soon this trouble was ended, for 
he was sent to college, and all went well for 
some time. But alas ! she was taken ill with 
the typhoid fever, and was sick unto death for 
many days. It was not until then that her 
friends and playmates ceased to ridicule her. 
As they stood around her supposed deathbed, 
they thought only of her good traits, and were 
very sorry for the way they treated her in the 
pact. 

When her life hung as if by a mere thread, 



the crisis came and the doctor said she would 
live. 

She slowly recovered, and when she was pro- 
nounced out of danger and was allowed to go 
about the house as of old, she found she was 
greatly changed during her illness. Her hair 
had fallen out, and now her head was covered 
with a profusion of beautiful auburn ringlets, 
and her once dull, gray eyes were darker, lar- 
ier a :d lustrous, and she was proud as she 
glanced at her reflection in the mirror. 

Her aunt and uncle with whom she lived con- 
cluded to send her to college. She was very 
much delighted at the idea of going to school 
again, and tried in all ways to please her 
guardians. 

She was 18 years old, and was going to com- 
plete her education. The professor was very 
kind to her, and after a great deal of hard 
studying, she became one of the graduates. 

They were to have some exercises, and 
many attended, most of them being friends and 
relatives of the members of the class. Among 
them was a very handsome young man, and he 
was none other than Grant Warden, Maud's 
old schoolmate. 

There was one young lady that he was particu- 
larly impressed with her beauty, and on inquir 
ingas to who she was, he could scarcely believe 
the truth of the informers when they told him 
it was Maud Manners. He thought, could it 
really be the little girl whom he used to make 
sport of in bygone days. But now he had quite 
changed his mind, and now he thought she was 
one of the most beautiful creatures ever be- 
held. 

And after a year's pleading with her, he led 
her to the altar as his beautiful bride. 

This is the end of my story. 

I hope some of the readers will say how I 
have done. 

I wish you all a happy New Year. 

Kitten's Mistress. 

Clover Creek, Shasta Co. 



A Ghost Story. 

(founded on fact ) 

[Written for the Rural Press by Helen Sweit, aged 12 
i ears. 1 

Same years ago I was living with my 
parents in a roomy, well-finished, two-story 
cottage in the southern part of San Francisco. 
The street was neither large nor fashionable, 
but the society was good with the exception of 
the usual sprinkling of " undesirable neighbors." 

We had not been there long before we began 
to be troubled with certain unearthly noises, 
which seemed to proceed from the basement. 
In vain we ransacked every portion of the 
house from top to bottom, and cudgeled our 
brains to find some clue to the mystery. 

Our large family of cats precluded all possi- 
bility of rats, and as there was no cellar, and 
the house was built upon solid ground, we 
seemed, after a couple of weeks' anxious inves- 
tigation, as far from the solution as ever. 

Sometimes sounding suspiciously like a cough 
or sneeze, and oftener like a suppressed grum- 
bling murmur, the sounds still continued baf- 
fling all our most strenuous efforts to find their 
source. 

Spiritual friends suggested " sperrits, " and 
advised us to engage tne services of a medium, 
and hold communication with the supposed vis- 
itors from "lands unknown," and we felt half 
inclined to take their view of the case, for, in 
our fevered imagination, as soon as the lights 
were put out the whole house seemed filled 
with mysterious rappings, the stealthy tread of 
light feet, and similar performances usually at- 
tributed to spooks and other evil spirits. 

One evening toward dark, sitting in the bay 
window in front, I saw a little Irish boy, sou of 
a washerwoman on the next block, come run- 
ning along in a rapid yet stealthy manner, 
and instead of coming in at our gate or at our 
neighbor's as I had supposed he would, he 
squeezed in between the two houses which were 
about a foot apart, and disappeared. 

Here at last was a key to the mystery. We 
searched carefully but could find nothing to 
indicate the whereabouts of the boy; nobody in 
the back yard, nobody in the front yard, no- 
body under the stairs, nobody between the 
houses. 

The next day we informed the police, and 
toward evening a watch was set. Pretty soon 
one little boy came along, squeezed in between 
the houses, and disappeared; then another re- 
peated the action; then another, and still 
another, until at least 20 had done the same. 

On removing the sidewalk we saw, through 
the dense clouds of tobacco smoke which filled 
the place, the objects of our search huddled 
closely together in a sort of subterranean cave 
of their own construction under our house, 
indulging in the " manly " pastimes of smoking 
anil chewing tobacco. 

We boarded up the space between the 
houses and the "sperrits" troubled us no 
more. 

Willougiiby mentions a parrot which, when 
he said to it, " Laugh, parrot I" immediately 
broke out laughing, and cried out an instant 
after, " Oh, the great fool who made me 
laugh '." A keeper of a glass shop possessed 
one that, when he accidentally broke anything 
or knocked over a vase, invariably exclaimed in 
tones of anger: " Awkward brute ! He never 
does anything else !" 



Coffee— lis History and Use. 

We give from the Chronicle the following re- 
port of a lecture recently given by Prof. Line 
before the Cooper Medical Institute. of this city 
on the origin, history, and use of the coffee 
plant: 

" In searching for the origin of coffee," said 
Prof. Lane, " authors have agreed to assign its 
birthplace to Ethiopia. When it was carried 
to Arabia it soon became naturalized. In a 
search for the earliest mention of it, one writer, 
inspired with that reverence which has sought 
to find out all things in the sacred book, assures 
us that coffee is mentioned in the history of 
King David, where it is stated that this was the 
potion which was offered by the hands of fair 
Abigail to calm the excited monarch. The 
proof urged in favor of this biblical claim is 
that the drink offered was prepared from some- 
thing roasted." 

" While visiting Paris," continued the lec- 
turer, " I was agreeably surprised to find in a 
museum a portion of the original coffee shrub 
which was brought to France. Probably no 
more precious sample of this berry exists in the 
world. Coffee, at the time of its introduction 
into use, was very expensive, selling for from 
$20 to $25 a pound. Such a price led to its 
general cultivation, and soon, instead of being 
the monopoly of Arabia, whence it was first de- 
rived, it was grown in the East and West 
Indies, Central and South America, and now 
large amounts of it are grown in Java, Ceylon, 
Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Brazil. The 
production of the latter country is the largest, 
being about 4,500,000 quintals annually, one 
sack generally holding about one quintal. 
While coffee can only be cultivated in a warm 
climate, yet it cannot bear great heat. The 
seed is first planted in a cool, shaded nursery, 
the infant plants being scrupulously screened 
from the rays of the sun. It is next trans- 
planted to the fields destined for its growth, 
and there it is carefully cultivated for nearly 
five years before the product is sufficiently abun- 
dant to be remunerative. The shrub usually 
reaches a hight of from 12 to 15 feet, and is well 
covered by leaves of a dark, glossy green. Small 
flowers of snow-white color spring from the stem 
at the foot of the leaf. When in full bloom the 
appearance is exceedingly charming. The 
flowere are soon transformed into round, green 
berries, which, ripening, present the appearance 
of red cherries. From two to three crops of ma- 
ture berries may be gathered annually. The work 
of preparing the berries for the market is done 
partly by hand and partly by machinery. Each 
berry should have two grains on it, yet some- 
times but one is found, and this one is especial- 
ly prized and commands the highest price. The 
pulp of the berry is sweet to the taste. 

"A chemical analysis of coffee, after being 
burned, shows that it contains 20 per cent of 
water and about 50 per cent of cellulose — a 
substance resembling starch — and grape sugar. 
The agents which especially distinguish it are 
caffeine and coffeone. The former belongs to 
that group of chemical agents named alkaloids. 
Coffeone is a volatile oil, the result of an essen- 
tial change in coffee produced by roasting. To 
this subtle and fugitive principle the aroma of 
coffee is due, and in roasting this oil permeates 
the entire grain; but if the heat be too great, or 
continued too long, it is dissipated and lost. 
Experiments show that caffeine and coffeone 
have different effects on the animal body, the 
caffeine acting as a transient stimulant, while 
the coffeone is more prolonged in its effects and 
exercises a sedative or tranquillizing action. 
But in drinking an ordinary cup of coffee, these 
two actions are obtained, stimulation preceding 
for 15 minutes the stage of sedation or repose. 

" Coffee lessens tissue waste. Physicians have 
found that, among other articles, coffee tem- 
porarily at rests and stays this change. Coffee 
has another action — that of stimulating the 
faculties. The soldiers of the Ffench army 
fought better in Syria and E^ypt because they 
received coffee among their rations, and to 
authors and scientists it has been an untold 
blessing. Certain evils, too, may arise from its 
overuse, such as insomnia and palpitation of the 
heart. Children should not be allowed to drink 
it freely, because, as Savarin says, it dries them 
up and converts them into dwarfed machines. 
Commercial cupidity and dishonesty of the 
dealers often prevent the article from coming 
pure on our tables. But there is cheating in 
all trades. Both ground and unground coffee 
are falsified. 

"Coffee figures largely as a remedial agent 
and a disinfectant. For nervous headache, it 
is often a cure, and gives great help in cases of 
narcotic poisoning or great depression of 
strength from hemorrhage. As a disinfectant, 
it is less disagreeable than chloride of lime and 
more accessible." 

At the conclusion of the lecture, loud ap- 
plause ensued. Prof. Line then announced 
that on the evening of January 20th Dr. Gush- 
ing would lecture in the same place on " Physi- 
cal Exodus." 



Kerosene and Diphtheria. — A well-known 
doctor says that the fumes of kerosene when 
a lamp is turned low are likely to cause diph- 
theria. The New York Board of Health a few 
years ago decided that to this, more than any 
I ether cause, the prevalence of this disease was 



to be attributed. This is given as account, 
for the fact that diphtheria generally begins to 
spread with the advent of short days and long 
nights. Children dislike to go to bed in the 
dark, and the kind mother lets the lamp re- 
main in the bedroom, usually turning down 
the flame, so that the light will not keep the 
child awake. Many bedrooms are thus semi- 
lighted all night, and the windows being closed 
or raised but slightly, the atmospheric condi- 
tion is simply deathly. A turned-down kero- 
sene lamp is a magazine of deadly gas that the 
healthiest lungs cannot be safely exposed to. 



DofviESTie QeofJOjviY. 



Tested Recipes. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Ada E. Taylor.] 

Foamy Sauce. — Yolks of two eggs, beaten 
light in a little water, mix one-half cup of sugar 
and one tablespoonfui flour together, then add 
to the eggs, pour over the whole about two cups 
of boiling water; steam 10 or 15 minutes. 
Flavor to taste. 

Chocolate Frosting. — Whites of 4 eggs, 1 
cup sugar, 1 tablespoonfui vanilla, 3 bars 
chocolate, grated. Beat whites stiff, add sugar 
and chocolate mixed together, then vanilla. 
Place over a kettle of boiling water until it is 
thoroughly steamed and has a shiny appearance; 
cool before putting on the cake. 

Fruit Cake. — Work 1J pounds of butter to a 
cream, add 1J pounds of brown sugar, 1 small 
cup syrup, 14 eggs well beaten, glass of brandy; 
mace, nutmeg, cloves, allspice, and cinnamon; 
mix all together, then work in 3 cups of flour 
as light as possible; add fruit as follows: Four 
pounds of currants, 2 pounds citrou, 5 pounds 
seeded raisins, all well floured and mixed be- 
fore putting in the cake. Bake 3 or 4 hours in 
a moderate oven. 

Snowjlake Cake. — Whites of 12 eggs, 2 cups 
of sugar, 1 cup butter, 1 cup milk, 3 cups flour, 
1 cup cornstarch, 2 heaping teaspoonfuls yeast 
powder, 3 tablespoonfuls lemon, 1 cup of very 
thinly shaved citron, dusted with flour. Beat 
the butter to a cream with the hands, then add 
sugar, then milk, then flour and cornstarch in 
which the yeast powder has been sifted, then 
the eggs beaten; last of all, gently stir in the 
citron. 

Cocoanut Pudding. — Soak one cup of cocoa- 
nut in two pints of boiling milk for half an 
hour, then let boil again and add the yolks of 
three eggs, beaten in a little milk, one cup of 
sugar, two teaspoonfuls cornstarch, mix to- 
gether, set in a pudding dish, and place on top 
the beaten whites of five eggs, in which has 
been added one-half cup sugar; sprinkle over 
the top a little cocoanut. Bake in a slow oven 
ten minutes. 

Mince Meat. — Eight pounds of meat, 25 cts. 
worth of suet, 6 pounds of raisins chopped, 4 
pounds of currants, 1 large pan of chopped 
apples (then stewed), 1 pound citron, one-half 
can cinnamon, 1 dozen nutmegs (ground), 2.j 
cans of cloves, one-half can of allspice. Mix 
them all dry, then add 4 pounds of brown sugar 
and one-half gallon syrup, and one-half gallon 
brandy. Put all in a boiler, mix well together, 
and put on the stove till it come to a boil. 

Chinese Camp, Cal. 



TanniDg Skins With Far On. 

Editors Press: — Please wi'l you inlorm me how 
to tan skins and keep the hair on? — M. E. C, 

Healdsbvrg. 

Isaac H. Bailey, an authority in such matters, 
publishes the following formulas for accomplish- 
ing this in his Shoe and Leather Reporter: Take 
two parts each of alum and salt, and one of salt- 
peter, all well pulverized. Clear the flesh of 
fatty matter. Sprinkle it white with mixture. 
Fold in edges and roll up; remain four days, 
then wash with clean water, and then with soap 
and water. Pull the sk n when drying, to make 
it soft. Another recipe is: Lay the wet skin 
on a smooth slab or a hard board; scrape with 
a dull knife until all loose flesh and film is re- 
moved; then wash off in soft water. Take a 
glass or stone jar, put in an ounce of oil of vit- 
riol and a gallon of rain or river water. Let 
steep in this for about half an hour. Take it 
out, work it with the hands until dry, when it 
will be pliable and soft. The more worked the 
softer. Use no grease. 



To Banish the Mosquito. — The great an- 
noyance that comes from the presence of mos- 
quitoes is the Yolo Democrat's excuse for offer- 
ing the following remedy, which is said to be 
effectual in clearing a sleeping-room: Roll a 
piece of paper around a lead pencil, so as to 
form a case; fill this with very dry pyrethrum 
powder, putting in a little at a time and press- 
ing it down with the lead pencil. Set in a 
cup of dry sand or something to hold it erect, 
and an hour before going to bed close the room 
and burn one of these cartridges. A single one 
will be sufficient for a small room; a large one 
will require two. [The same result can be se- 
cured much more easily. Put a small tea- 
spoonful of the powder on a rumpled piece of 
paper; place the paper on a tire-shovel and light 
one corner of the paper. The powder ignites, 
smokes like a small volcano for a few moments, 
and the mosquitoes are quiet for the night. — ■ 
Eds. Press.] 



48 



PACIFIC I^URAlo PRESS, 



[Jan. 21, 1888 




T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 



Office, 220 Market St., X. E. cor. Front St., S.F. 
tr Take the Elevator, No. 1! Front Sf.-*» 



Our Subscription Rates. 

Ofr Subscriptiow Ratks a k ft tiirkk i»«,«s a year, in 
advance. While this notice appears, all subscribers pay- 
ing $3 in advance will receive 13$ months' (one year and 
•ix weeks) credit. For $1.50 in advance, six months and 
three weeks. All agents and clerks are required to 
adhere to these terms. No new names entered on the 
list without payment in advance. Our premium offer- 
ings are subject to these terms. 

Advertising Rates. 

1 Week. 1 Xn.ith. S Months. 1 Year. 

Per Line (agate) » .26 $ .80 | 2.20 $6.00 

Half inch (1 square)... 1.00 3.00 8.00 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 14.00 45.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
In extraordinary type, or in particular parts of the paper, 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 

SCIENTIFIC PRESS PATENT AGENCY. 
DEWEY & CO., Pa twit Solicitors. 

A. T. DSWKY. W. B. gWB». O. H. 8TR0NO 



Our latest forms go to jrress Wednesday evening. 
Registered atS. F. Post Office as second-class mail matter. 
SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, Jan. 21, 18S8. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



EDITORIALS.— The Oo'den Gate Conservatory, 41- 
The Week: The Pacific Railroads Again: The Terrible 
Weatier; Forestry; The Fruit Union, 48. 

ILLUSTRATIONS*.- View of the Golden Gate Con- 
servatory, San Francisco, 4 1 . 

CORRESPONDENCE —A Visit to Phcenix, A. T. ; 
In the Sonoma Beiwoods. 42. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS.— The Tariff and Our Indus- 
tries; The Tariff question; Wool Growers' Meeting, 
42. 

THE STOCK YARD.— Treatment for Cows at 

Calving; The Dehorning Doctrine, 42. 
HORTlCULTU RE. — Cling Peaches vb Free; Cider- 
Making at the East; Packing Citrus Fruits; Fruit 

Growers' Memorial, 43. 
ENTOMOLOGICAL.— Cabbage Lice; The Woolly 

Aphis; Insects in Ventura County, 43. 
PATRONS OF HUttliANDKY —When Women 

Vote; Grange Installations; Postal Telegraphy; Urange 

Elections; Smooth City Frauds, 44. 
AGRICULTURAL NOTES— From the various 

counties of California, 45. 
THE HOME CIRCLE.— Twilight in the Country; 

Miss Rngget's Narrative; Punishing a Grandfather; 

The Glorious Climate of Minnesota: Dandruff; The 

Status of School Teachers; Trying to Get Posted Up; 

Humane and Self- Possessed, 46. 
YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— What the Frogs 

Sang; Mv First Pet; A Thrilling Romance; A Ghost 

Story, 47. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY — Tested Recipes; Tan- 
ning Skins With Fur On; To Bauish the Mosquito, 47. 



Business Announcements. 

Agricultural Implements— Baker & Hamilton. 

Pumps— Lewis & Cowles, Catskill. N. Y. 

Japanese Trees— H. U. Berger & Co. 

Japanese Orange Trees— Oriental Importing Co. 

Orange Trees - W. R. Strong & Co , Sacramento. 

Palermo Land & Water Co.— Oroville, Cal. 

Pianos— Kohler & ( hase. 

Tree Cleanser— Charles J. Woodbury. 

Cards— Hines & Co., Cadiz, Ohio. 

Forest Trees— R. Douglas & Son, Waukegan, III. 

GrindcrB— Higganum M'f'g Corporation, New York. 

Orange Trees— H. L Wheatley, Altamonte, Ha. 

Horses— Theodore Skillman, Petal am*, Cal. 

tS" See Advertising Columns. 



The Week. 



Still the temperature and chilly north wind 
remain the main topics of conversation. The 
spell has considerably overstepped the Califor- 
nia limit of three to five days for anything dis- 
agreeable in the way of weather, and though 
the thermometer has been doing better for a day 
or two, we do not yet feel the winning south 
wind, nor do we see the gathering rain-clouds. 
The low temperature and the correspondingly 
high coal prices have wrought much discomfort, 
and we hope both are nearly over. 

Agricultural matters have been almost at a 
standstill. The California calendar has no 
mark for " timely work " when the top of the 
ground is frozen, and so the farmer has cocked 
his feet on the kitchen stove and lifted up his 
voice against the weather. The fruit grower 
has his pruning to do, but he doesn't like the 
idea of bundling up with a shawl when he goes 
out in the orchard — it looks too much like an 
Kistern farmer going out to water his "crit- 
ters " — so he, too, has had recourse to warm 
words. But there is an end to all things tem- 
poral, and there will be to this, and we shall 
soon have shooting grass blades and blooming 
trees and all that. 



G. W. Meade & Co. resumed business to-day, 
Jan. ISth. 



Tbe Pacific Railroads Again. 

The telegraph on Wednesday morning 
brought a message transmitted to Congress by 
President Cleveland, the message being accom- 
panied by the two reports of the Pacific Railway 
Commission, to which we alluded recently in 
these columns. The President does not incline 
toward Congressional action which will bring 
the properties into the hands of the Govern- 
ment. On this point he says : 

Any proceeding or arrangement that would 
result now or at any other time in putting 
these roads or any portion of them in posses- 
sion or control of the Government is, in my 
opinion, to be rejected. Certainly, as long as 
there is the least chance for indemnification 
through any other means, I suppose we are 
hardly justified in indulging in irritation and 
indignation naturally arising from contempla- 
tion of malfeasance to such an extent as to lead 
to the useless destruction of these roads or the 
loss of the advances made by the Government. 
I believe that our efforts should be in a more 
practical direction, and should tend with no 
condonation of wrongdoing to the collection by 
the Government on behalf of the people of the 
public money now in jeopardy. 

This seems to be the ordinary business way 
of looking at the matter and is the view any 
mortgagee would take when he held a claim 
upon property which he did not want, and 
which would be of value only as a part of a 
business which is to be continued. In such 
cases tbe mortgagee usually makes the best 
terms he can to save at least a part of his in- 
vestment, and in this hope may allow the con- 
tinuation of persons whose conduct he cannot 
approve. Of course, it is a question whether 
this is the proper basis on which to settle a 
question of such public import, or whether the 
moral effect of a more summary method of pro- 
cedure would not be worth more to the future 
of the country than in regaining the value, if 
any, which may yet be recovered from these 
corporations. This question is too broad for 
present discussion; besides, it is a question 
which one can well consider and settle in his 
own mind, or which may receive attention 
from various organizations given to discussion 
of public affairs. 

There is, however, in the message of the Pres- 
ident another matter of moral weight which is 
forcibly brought out and which can be best ex- 
pressed in his language, as follows: 

It is almost needless to state that the com- 
panies have availed themselves to the utmost 
extent of the permission given them to issue 
their bonds and to mortgage their property to 
secure the payment of the same by incum- 
brances having the preference over the Govern- 
ment's lien, and precisely equal to it in amount. 

When the relations created between the 
Government and these companies by the legis- 
lation referred to is considered, it is astonish- 
ing that the claim should be made that the di- 
rectors of these roads owed no duty except to 
themselves in their construction; that they 
need regard no interests but their own, and that 
they were justified in contracting with them- 
selves, and making such bargains as resulted in 
conveying to their pockets ail assets of the com- 
panies. As a lienor the Government was vital- 
ly interested in the amount of mortgage to 
which its security had been subordinated, and 
it had a right to insist that none of the bonds 
secured by this prior mortgage should be issued 
fraudulently or for the purpose of division 
among the stockholders without consideration. 

This is a pretty sharp arraignment of the 
process which was followed of treating the 
Government aid as a contribution to private 
aggrandizement, and this is the conduct which 
President Cleveland rightly says should not be 
condoned, although he believes the Govern- 
ment, having been thus treated, should now 
make the best arrangement it can to recover 
what it can of the immense loan which it made 
to the companies. The whole matter is now 
before Congress, and we shall Boon discern its 
attitude on the proposition. 



Cactus Fodder in Texas.— It is "said that 
something like 50,000 steers will be fed on cac- 
tus the coming season in the State of Texas. 
The process is reported to make solid and de- 
licious beef, and as the fodder is easily pro- 
cured it is likely to be largely adopted in other 
sections of tbe Southwest. 



Dehorning.— I. C. Steele of Pescadero de- 
horned 53 two-year-olds and one older cow Dec. 
27th, and reports them all in tiptop condition, 
despite the surgery and the cold snap. 



The California Cotton-Mills of Oakland have 
received 223 bales of cotton from Valley Cen- 
ter, San Diego county. 



The Terrible Weather. 

California has undergone an exceptionally 
cold spell. Sergeant Barwick of Sacramento 
notes a registry on his minimum thermometer 
of 19° F. on Saturday and Sunday, January 
14th and 15th. This record has the greater in- 
terest because it goes to verify a record of 19' 
made by Dr. Logan in 1854, and which has 
been thought possibly a mistake on his part. 
This fact is in itself significant because it shows 
how rare it is for the temperature to fall so low, 
and that it is a third of a century since such 
cold has been known. It is not a wonder, then, 
that we cry out " terrible weather " when we 
feel an atmosphere that only comes once in a 
generation. As to the effect of this experience 
beyond the shivers and objurgations of the peo- 
ple, it has so far been seen to seriously injure 
only plants known to be tender. Reports are 
that the orange is showing itself a hardy plant, 
when in proper condition, by age or matured 
wood, to stand tbe infliction. Both north and 
south, in some districts where oranges are 
grown, there has been ice formed on standing 
water and frozen ground, which did not thaw 
during the succeeding day, and yet old orange 
trees only suffer injury on their young shoots. 
Young trees, however, are seriously hurt in 
some localities; in others, where the temper- 
ature has not fallen bo low, even these have not 
been materially injured. On the whole, it is 
shown that our semi-tropical fruits do not suc- 
cumb to the coldest weather known here since 
the American occupation. 

The cold weather coming on bare pastures 
has wrought some injury to our live-stock 
which have not been given extra food or shel- 
ter. Jt has killed some grain and will necessi- 
tate resowing such fields. It has made our 
flower-gardens rather sorry-looking areas, and 
by vote of all, once in a generation is often 
enough for such weather. 

Such a complaint sounds rather childish, 
though, as we read the daily accounts of the 
fearful weather in other parts of the country. 
The account of Dakota winter given by the 
writer of our Christmas story in the issue of 
December 24th, is far within the truth as set 
forth from day to day by the dispatches from 
that region, and in fact from the whole West 
and Northwest region. Let us cite merely a 
few most heart-rending facts from a single 
day's dispatches: 

Robert Kennedy frozen to death in his wagon 
while going for coal to the railway station in 
Sherman county, Kansas. 

Two children frozen on their way home from 
school; a man and team frozen on the road; two 
men frozen while walking along the road; 
father and son frozen while driving cattle to 
feed on cornstalks; three children frozen on 
their way home from school, although their 
teacher tried to save them and escaped herself 
with frozen feet; a schoolteacher and eight 
children frozen; a man and boy frozen while re- 
turning from a funeral, and a mother lost both 
legs by freezing while returning from the 
funeral of a son who had perished in the snow 
previously — all these casualties occurred in 
Nebraska. 

In a single county in Dakota 19 deaths are re- 
ported. Schoolteachers and groups of children, 
as high as eight in a group, have perished. 

But we need not continue this distressing 
narrative. The thermometer has fallen 40° to 
50° below zero, the wind and snow have blown 
blizzards, and life cannot withstand these con- 
ditions. 

A dispatch from Omaha Jan. 18th is as follows: 
The latest reports from all quarters show that 
the loss of life during the recent blizzard foots 
up nearly 200. This includes Dakota, Mon- 
tana, Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska. 
When the record of the loss of life is complete 
it will show the largest number of deaths ever 
known to have resulted from a similar occur- 
rence. Unprotected cattle were frozen by the 
thousand, Nebraska suffering greatly in this 
respect. 

With such things in mind, what reason 
have we to complain of our little discomfort 
which would indeed have been hailed as almost 
a return of summer by the poor people in 
these inhospitable parts of the country ? Rather 
let us give thanks that our lines have been cast 
in pleasant places, and let us give a heartier 
welcome to the thousands who are now coming 
to California to escape the ills which human en- 
durance is powerless to withstand. Happy are 
they who secure in California homes for them- 
selves and a heritage for th<ir children. 



Forestry. 

It is announced that the Forestry Commis- 
sion will hold a meeting in their office in the 
Nevada block on January 24th. Messrs. Kin- 
ney and Bettner are expected to arrive from 
their southern homes, and John D. Spreckels, 
lately appointed as successor to Mr. Coieman, 
will take his seat in the board. Reports are 
expected from some of the large number of 
local forestry guardians which have been ap- 
pointed, and other matters of importance are 
expected. 

Word has been received from Senator Stan- 
ford that he will introduce a bill for the pres- 
ervation of the forests somewhat different from 
that adopted by our board and submitted by 
them at the Santa Rosa convention. It has 
also been announced by telegraph that Senator 
Hale has introduced a bill, prepared by the 
American Foresters' Congress, to preserve the 
forests. It withdraws from entry as forest 
lands all public lands of the United States more 
valuable for their timber than for agricultural 
purposes. It institutes the office of Commis- 
sioner of Forests and authorizes the appoint- 
ment of four assistant Commissioners. The 
Commissioner is instructed to form forest land 
into what are designated as forest reserves. He 
is given power to frame ruleB and regulations 
for the government of these reserves, and to 
appoint rangers to see that the rules are ob- 
served. No forest lands are to be sold, but 
the stumpage on them may be disposed of in 
the discretion of the Commissioner of Forests. 

It is evident that more public attention is be- 
ing drawn to forestry in all its branches than 
ever before in this country. The idea of preser- 
vation of forests from illegal and wasteful de- 
struction is gaining force by public opinion and 
by the prosecutions which the Government is 
conducting against trespassers. It is certainly 
true, as has often been pointed out in our col- 
umns, that effective measures should ba adopt- 
ed to prevent our new country from following 
the hard experience which older countries have 
undergone and from which they are now put- 
ting forth such vigorous efforts to recover. 



The Fruit Union. 

The meeting of the stockholders of the Fruit 
Union is in progress as we go to press on Wed- 
nesday, and we are, therefore, unable to give a 
report this week. We will state, however, in 
advance of a full report, that the report of the 
secretary shows the Union in good condition 
financially. Stock subscriptions during the 
year have footed up §5408, and from various 
agents $17,017 has been received, making gross 
receipts $22,425. There is now over $8000 in 
the bank, and the total assets aggregate 
$11,300. 

Salaries amounted to $7689.50. This amount 
includes expenses of an Eastern manager and 
some back salaries. A dividend of six per cent 
has been declared, and two per cent will go 
into a reserve fund. The shipments of last sea- 
son aggregated 11.3GS, 020 pounds. The gross 
charges, freight, ca'tage, etc., footed up $3.10, - 
289.59, making the net returns to the Union 
$319,574.85, the gross receipts being $675,864. 
The Union has gained during the year 269 
members. Of stockholders, 4S6 have paid in 
full for stock subscribed, and 217 members are 
delinquent, holding 3415 shares. But we 
must defer other facts until our next issue. 

Nails Left Stickino Out in barna and 
stables cause the death of horses every now and 
then. We notice in the Martinez Item that Mr. 
Donnelly sustained the loss of a valuable mare 
a few nights ago through one of these accidents. 
The animal had been sick and was moving 
around, when she struck a nail, which pene- 
trated her head and killed her. This is not the 
first time we have made note of such casualties. 
Moral: Don't leave ragged or sharp nails stick- 
ing out where there is likelihood of horses, 
cattle, or human beings running against them. 



Canners' Supplies. — There is much talk 
among canners about the rise in price of tin 
solder and sugar which they claim will ma- 
terially advance the cost of canned goods dur- 
ing this season's pack. Some even claim that 
the cost of canning will be 25 per cent higher 
than heretofore. This will certainly not be 
desirable, and we hope such forecasts may not 
be realized. 



Jan. 2i, 1888] 



f ACIFI6 I^URAId press. 



49 



Agricultural Eeview, 

LeadlDg Articles of California Production 
In 1887. 

[Written for the Rural Pkess by J. R. F.] 
The year 1887 was, in many respects, most 
remarkable. Opening auspiciously for leading 
farm products, prices stiffened for the first 
few months with the highest range of values in 
April extending into June. With the com- 
mencement of the last half of the year values 
for cereals began to weaken off, and ruled only 
fair to the close of the year. Wools, hops and 
one or two other articles also gradually shaded 
off. Outside of these, other products gained in 
strength, closing the year strong. Under 
appropriate headings below, this is given 
more at length. The State gained in popula- 
tion by large immigration of a desirable class. 
The increase is placed at 100,000, which, if cor- 
rect, gives the State a population of 1,250,000. 
Some authorities place it some higher. While 
the State made large gains in population, the 
gain has been, if anything, larger proportion- 
ately in wealth. The banks have larger lines 
of deposits, carry larger reserve funds. Land 
has advanced in price. Many large tracts of 
land have been cut up and sold to actual farm- 
ers. Railroad building has been unexampled 
in the history of the State. Without further 
details it is safe to state that there has not 
been an industry, manufacturing or otherwise, 
but shows an increase; and as the year closed 
favorable it warrants the assertion that 1S88 
will show a still further gain, and if anything be 
larger proportionately over 1887 than that 
year was over 1886. 

Wheat. 

The year 1887 was most remarkable in two 
respects. First, the bold attempt of the syndi- 
cate formed in September, 1886, to control the 
world's market, entering the markets on this 
coast and in the East, and by manipulations 
made sharp turns up and down, catching friends 
and foes alike. 'This move met with strong 
opponents who fought to the bitter end, for as 
fast as one went to the wall another with 
stronger financial backing took his place. 
Those who fought the syndicate the- more bit- 
terly were in Great Britain and at the East. 
After sending prices tor futures up from com- 
paratively low prices to an advance of from 40 to 
70 per cent and crushing many in so doing, 
they met final defeat. Whether the bull inter- 
ests on this coast were connected with the corner 
run at Chicago is an open question. Many be- 
lieve they at the first were, but after having 
Bent that market to high figures the Califor- 
nians unloaded on the others, causing financial 
wrecks and a collapse in prices, which also 
broke the markets abroad and caused those 
running a German wheat corner to go to 
the wall. When the Chicago corner broke 
the pool here stood under this market and 
succeeded in buying options aggregating over 
100,000 tons from the bears, who had already 
sold quite heavily. Then began a systematic 
advance in both options and sample parcels. 
Prices were fluctuated up quite rapidly until 
$2 17£ was reached for seller 1887, the last ol 
July, against $1.89 for the same option the 
fore part of the month. Spot wheat sold at 
$2 09 per cental on July 29th, against $1.85 on 
July 1st. Tnere were such large quantities of 
seller 1887 offered on Call, and money having 
grown very tight, with large quantities of 
wheat already put to the pool, and still larger 
quantities near at hand for delivery, that the pool 
found themselves unable to carry the load and 
on August 3i there was a collapse. The direct- 
ors of the Call Bsard Association thereupon an- 
nounced that the sessions would be suspended 
until further notice. By their prompt action, 
and through the exertions of the conservative 
element on 'Change, a panic was averted, 
which might have been far-re3ehing in its re- 
sults. No sessions of the C ill Board were 
held between August 3d and 23d. On Septem- 
ber 1st the president of the Call Board an- 
nounced for sale, for the benefit of the creditors, 
5600 tons No. 1 white wheat, more or less, 
which had been held by the bull syndicate. 
A total of 5800 tons was sold at an average of 
a little over $1.24 J per cental, the whole 
making a total value of $144 599. Other sales 
were also made. Wild statements were made 
as to the quantity of wheat involved in the 
failure of the syndicate, ranging all the way 
from 200,000 to 400,000 tons. The quantity 
was finally narrowed down to about 106,000 
tons. A final settlement of the great wheat 
deal was made in December. It was generally 
reported that the pool and their financial back- 
ing lost very heavily, but all such reports are 
exaggerated. Many large moneyed men on 
this coast, at the East and in Earope who 
shorted ihe market were forced to compromise 
with the pool at heavy losses, and the enormous 
sum drawn in from this source will never be 
known, but it runs into the millions of dollars. 
There are those closely allied with the persons 
supposed to have been intimately connected 
with the pool managers who claim that the 
losses by the pool will prove very small after 



the wheat now held is disposed of. But then 
so muddled is the entire affair that no one can 
form a correct idea how they will come out. 
During the month of September the local mar- 
ket was unsettled, ranging under light trading 
from $1.20 to $1.35 per cental. The market be- 
gan to gather strength in October, and under 
freer trading and gradual strengthening mar- 
kets abroad, values held strong at slowly 
advancing prices in November, with strong 
markets in December. 

In this connection it is in place to note sev- 
eral important points that favored the bull in- 
terest. The Australasian wheat crop was very 
short, while Chili and the Argentine Republic 
had a light crop, as did India, The stocks in 
the consumption markets were exceedingly 
small on January 1, 1887, as were they in the 
supply markets. The average seeded in the 
United States showed a falling off in compari- 
son with the preceding season. As the year 
1887 advanced, running well into April, crop 
prospects in Great Britain and on the continent 
were unusually gloomy. So poor was the out- 
look that the very beBt-informed did not look 
for more than half a crop, which of course in- 
spired confidence in higher values later on in 
the season. Suddenly the whole complexion 
•changed, for the European weather turned for 
the better, and from that time until after har- 
vest favored the farmers, which resulted in 
larger wheat crops in England, France, Ger- 
many, Austria and Hungary than harvested for 
several years before. Full particulars of this 
and other wheat information were given at the 
time in the Rural Press. Large crops abroad, 
with the collapse of the wheat corners, con- 
tributed no little in keeping values down the 
remainder of the year, notwithstanding the large 
shortage in the crop in India, Italy and United 
States. 

For references and for other purposes we give 
the following ranges of spot prices for wheat by 
months for the first half of the year, when the 
pool was in full sway: 

January $i ^2%@i 6o 

February i 47K@i 57 K 

March i w'A@i 67M 

April. 1 67$4(ajt 80 

May 1 70 @i 85 

June 1 80. @2 10 

The Liverpool market for California wheat 
ranged as follows by months in 1887: 





Off Coast. 


Just Shipped. 


Nearly Due. 




High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


T<n. 


38s od 


36s gd 


40s cd 


38s 3d 


39= 6d 


37s od 


Feb. 


•3 6 9 


36 6 


38 


37 6 


37 


3 6 3 


Mar. 


■38 3 


36 3 


39 6 


37 


38 


3 6 3 


Apr. 


■38 3 


38 


40 


38 9 


38 3 


37 9 


May 


39 6 


38 


40 6 


38 9 


40 3 


37 9 


June 


39 9 


38 


40 6 


40 


40 3 


39 " 


July. 






39 6 


39 


39 6 


39 


Aug. 


.32 


31 6 










Sept 


31 


30 6 


33 6 


30 


33 3 


30 6 


Oct . 


•33 


3 [ 6 


33 6 


3 1 3 


33 


3 1 3 


Nov. 


• 34 3 


32 6 


35 


33 


34 


3 2 3 


Dec . 


•35 


33 6 


35 6 


33 6 


35 


33 



Date of Ariival of New Wheat 

At tide-water each year since first production and 
price: 

Year. Month. Price. 

1859 June 14 $t 40 to $2 00 

1800 July 3. 1 50 to 1 ss 

1861 Ju'y 24 1 50 to 1 62 

1862 July 11 1 62 to 1 65 

1863 July 25 1 50 to 1 60 

1864 .July 9 280 to 295 

1865 June 12 2 20 to 2 23 

1866 June 25 1 50 to 1 60 

1867 J une 17 1 55 to 1 70 

1868 June 18 1 90 to 2 00 

1869 June 15 1 40 to 1 45 

1870 June 9 1 70 to 1 80 

1871 June 23 230 to 237 

1872 June 10 1 80 to i 85 

1873 June 7 (at Vallejo) 1 75 to 1 80 

1874 June 11 1 65 to 1 87 

1875 June 2 (at Vallej ) 1 25 to 1 67 

1876 June 9 (it Oakland). .. . 175 to .... 

1877 June 2 (at Vallejo) 240 to .... 

1878 June 13 1 70 to .... 

1879 June 20 1 65 to .... 

1880 I une 24 1 00 to .... 

1881 June 7 1 25 to 1 40 

1882 June 6 167 to .... 

1883 June 19 1 65 to .... 

1884 TJune 30 145 to .... 

1885 June 3 1 42K 

i88-> June 5 1 25 to .... 

1887 June 11 1 86 to .... 

The wheat crop on this coast last year wai 
very large in both Oregon and Washington Ter- 
ritory, being fully 20 per cent more in Oregon, 
and 50 per cent more in Washington than was 
that of 1886. In this State the weather was de- 
cidedly against the crops. There was almost 
an entire absence of heavy dews and fogs in the 
sections; each act an important part, with long- 
continued absence of rains. Before rains did 
come many hundreds of fields were total failures 
in the Sin Joaquin and Sicramento valley 8. The 
following is a tair estimate of the out-turn in 
centals by counties: 

Acres. Yield. 
70,000 180,000 
200, coo 1,950,000 
40,000 300,000 
400,000 2,500,000 
130,000 750,000 
220 cot 910,000 



County. 

Alameda 

Butte 

Calaveras . 

Colusa 

Contra Cost 1 

Fresno 

Humboldt 8.0' o 6n,ooo 

Kern 15,000 151,000 

Los Angeles 150,000 900,000 

Mariposa 1,500 15,000 

Mendocino 15000 100,000 

Merced 150,000 800.000 

Monterey 120,000 57°i 000 

Napa 15,000 100,000 

Sacramento 85,003 700,000 



County. Acres. 

San Benito 30,000 

San Bernardino 3,000 

San Joaquin 260,000 

San Luis Obispo 80,000 

Santa Barbara 50000 

Santa Clara 60.000 

San Mateo 6,000 

Santa Cruz 30,000 

Siskiyou 12,000 

Solano 60,000 

Sonoma 40000 

Stanislaus 



300,000 

Sutter 100,000 

Tehama 100,000 

Tulare 300,000 

Tuolumne 5,000 

Yolo 150,000 

Yuba 30 000 

Ventura 15,000 

Other counties 12,000 



Yield. 
150,000 
12,000 

950,000 
350,000 
150.000 
300 000 
20,000 
200,000 
120,000 
500,000 
400,000 

1,000,000 
850 oco 
850,000 

1,200.000 
30 000 
550 000 

20.000 
50,000 
50,000 



Totals 3,262,500 17,497,000 

Receipts at this port last year were as follows 
in centals: 

California. Oregon. 

Tanuary 958,142 103,650 

February 318,657 77.825 

March 682,200 120,430 

April 678,070 242,640 

May 568,971 181,522 

June 1,081,469 51,900 

J u, y 1.257.539 24,250 

August 1,472,546 44,496 

September 766 873 67,843 

October 246,219 118 755 

November 510,860 102,755 

December 648,703 104.068 



1,240,134 
588,617 
1,189,677 



Totals 9,210,249 

1886.' 15,887,037 

1885 11,853,200 

When it is remembered that California was 
at one time deemed incapable of producing 
wheat, the rapid growth of the industry on the 
coast is one of the most surprising evfdences of 
our progress. The following table gives the 
crop for each year since 1853, that is, since the 
business passed beyond the experimental stage: 

Centals. Centals. 

1,000,0001871 4.500,000 

1,000,000 1872 16,000,000 

1,500,000 1873 15,000.000 

1,750,000 1874 16,500,000 

1,500,000 1875 11,000.000 

1858 2,000,000)1876 15.500,000 

1859 3,000,0001877 9,000,000 

1860 5 300,0001878 16000,000 

1861 2,750,0001879 18,500,000 

1862 4,800,0001880 35,000,000 

1863 3,000,0001881 22,700,000 



1853- 
1854. 

1855. 
1856. 

•857. 



1882 24,000,000 

1883 23,000,000 

1884 33,000,000 

1885 19,000,000 

1886 24,500,000 

1887 17,497,000 



1864 3,000 000 

1865 4,500,000 

1866 8,000,000 

1867 7,500,000 

1868 8,500000 

1869 9,000000 

1870 > . 6,500,000 

Barley. 

The year 1887 opened firm at $1.05@$1.10 
per cental for good to choice feed and $1.15@ 
$1.25 for fair to choice brewing. By the end 
of the month the market advanced 10 cts per 
cental for feed and 5 cts for brewing. The ad- 
vance was due to dry weather and a good ship- 
ping demand. In February rains set in, caus- 
ing the market to advance, which was followed 
by another decline of 10 cts the latter part of 
the month. These low prices brought in buy- 
ers chiefly for shipping, and a slight advance 
resulted, which was lost by a decline early in 
March, followed by a jump of 10 cts, owing to 
a large short interest trying to buy to fill, and 
ako to free shipments overland, so as to take 
advantage of the cut in overland freights. This 
was followed by another advance early in April; 
this time it was 5 cts per cental. Continued dry 
weather, light stocks and a good demand made 
the strong market. With rains, the market for 
feed fell off from 3ii@6^ cts. which was 
followed by an advance of trom 7£ to 10 eta in 
feed and 2^fe5 cts in brewing. From this 
time to the end of May the market settled until 
it was about 5 cts lower all around. June held 
to the same prices. From this time until the 
end of the year the variations in prices were 
very slight, but with a general downward tend- 
ency up to September, from which time to the 
close of the year there were few changes, with 
a fairly steady tone. Under heavy receipts, 
stocks in this city gradually accumulated from 
August to November. Since then they show a 
slight falling cff. The home consumption was 
unusually large — larger than ever before — due 
to more active training in railroad building, 
opening up new farms, hauling lumber and all 
else that went to assist in the building boom in 
the State, but chiefly in the southern counties. 
Another thing also created a larger consump- 
tion: owing to the high cost of hay, more rolled 
and ground barley was fed to stock with cut 
feed. The shipments out of the State, both by 
sea and rail, since the new crop season, were 
very much less than during the like time in 
1886. 

The orop of 1887 was the largest in the his- 
tory of the State, due to the increased acreage. 
The dry weather continued so late in the season 
that wheat seeding in many sections was out of 
the question, »o that barley was seeded as the 
safest crop. Besides this, the low stage of water 
in the rivers allowed of more land being seeded 
to barley. Taking all this as a whole, caused 
the better informed to place last year's barley 
crop at fully 50 per cent over any former 
season. 

The receipts at this point last year were in 
centals as follows i 



California. Orego 

January 60,232 84 

February 46,308 3,366 

March 76,773 266 

April 77,642 200 

May 140,634 809 

June 91,011 122 

J u 'y 223.599 

August 376,948 

September 393,292 

October 269,912 80 

November 172,378 

December 142,746 .... 

Totals 2,071,475 4.927 

Receipts by years from all sources compare as 
follows : 

Centals. 

'876 1,907,058 

l8 77 780,425 

l8 ,78 1.57L954 

1879 1,768,839 

!88o 1,907,058 

■881 1,244,835 

1882 1,548,162 

1883 1,416,468 

l8 84 1,841,145 

•885 1,111,123 

1886 2,095,816 

1887 2,076,402 

The monthly exports of barley from San 
Francisco by sea in 1887 were as follows : 

Months. Centals. 

January 6,6n 

February 9,497 

March 5.632 

April 13,089 

May 6,726 

J une 3L957 

July 12,138 

August 68,275 

September 33.494 

October 48,228 

November 113,952 

December 65,740 

Total 4 T 5.339 

1886 723,648 

188s 185,297 

The overland shipments from the State to 
Eastern cities during the 12 months ending 
November 30, 1887, were 66,850 centals, against 
249,372 centals for the 12 months ending with 
November, 1886. 

The overland shipments during the past year 
were made as follows : 

From Centals. 

San Francisco 1,321 

Oakland 36,366 

San Jose 24,478 

Sacramento 4,685 

Total 66,850 

The shipments by sea in 1886 and 1887 com- 
pare as follows in centals : 
To 18S7. 1886. 

New York 194,972 187,005 

Great Britain 42,670 391,151 

Australia 30,311 

New Zealand 6,593 

Chili 22,004 47. 7 21 

Hawaiian Islands 108,723 89,098 

Elsewhere 10,066 8,673 

Totals 415.339 723.648 

The outlook for 1888 is far from discouraging. 
The stock, to be sure, on January 1ft was nearly 
double that held on January 1, 1887, out then 
prices are lower now, the consumption fully 50 
per cent greater than then, while there will be 
a decided falling off in the average seeded. 
Then again, the crop at the East was light and 
higher prices are expectedlto obtain there before 
the spring months are over. 

Corn. 

Corn does not play an important part in the 
cereal productions of this State, and conse- 
quently our main reliance is on the Western 
States where it is grown at the expense of 
other feed cereals. Last year the receipts at 
this port from all sources aggregated 196.043 
ctls. against 216,909 ctls. in 1886. At the end 
of 1887 the stock in the State was about 12^ 
per cent lees than reported at the end of 1886. 
The crop in this State last year was a full 
average, and of good quality, but the crop east 
of the Ricky mountains was short. Compared 
with 1886 it was about 25 per cent less, while 
the quality as a whole is poor, the bulk not 
being suitable for bread purposes. Aside from 
the short crop, large quantities of corn on the 
cob are reported to be burnt as fuel owing to 
the scarcity and consequent high price of coal. 

Oats. 

Receipts in centals last vear were as follows: 
Californian and east, 172 802; Oregon, 223 534; 
total, 396,336. In 1S86 they were as lollows: 
Californian, 121,107; Oregon, 369,960; total, 
491,067. The market ruled in buyer's favor 
the fore part of the year under free receipts 
from Nebraska, but when the high overland 
freight rates went into effect prices stiffened 
and remained strong throughout the season or 
up to July, owing to very light stocks, about 
nil in Oregon, to draw from. The crop in this 
State laBt year was quite light and generally of 
poor quality. Oregon and Washington Terri- 
tory had very large crops, fully 50 per cent 
more than tin se of 1886. The quality of the 
grain, too, shows a higher grade, being fuller, 
brighter and generally heavier. Receipts from 
both Oregon and Washington continued light 
up to December, causing a strong market 
to rule, but owing to the known large supplies 
buyers did not anticipate their wants. Pursu- 
ing this conservative policy, as soon as receipts 
began to increase consigners had to make con- 
cessions so as to clean up consignments to save 



50 



f ACIFI6 f^URAIo f RESS. 



[Jan. 21, 1888 



expenses. These concessions caused a gradnal 
weakening in values. The outlook is not of a 
very encouraging character, as the supply up 
North is low, and barley being cheap, oats 
will not be freely taken unless further conces- 
sions are obtainable. 

Rye. 

The receipts of rye in 1887 aggregated 27,804 
ctls. and in 18S6, 24,51 1 ctls., ot which 95 ctls. 
came from Oregon. Rye has never been in 
great favor in this State, consequently the pro- 
duction is light; but with increased immigra- 
tion many have arrived who give rye flour the 
preference over all other kinds, consequently the 
demand was good last year, particularly the last 
three months of the year. This naturally caused 
a strong advancing market. The year closed 
with higher prices paid— £2.50(« §2.75— than ob- 
tained for many years. 

Buckwheat. 

Receipts in 18S7, 229S sacks and in 1S86, 6860 
sacks. Buckwheat like rye is only used to a 
limited extent, and consequently very little 
goes a long way. The crop in 1887 was short, 
causing a stronger market to rule, with the year 
closing on a higher range of values. 

Ground Feed. 
The market for both bran and middlings 
fluctuated considerably during the year, 
prices varying with the demand and receipts to 
a greater extent than for years. Prices held 
up remarkably well, not dropping at any time 
to the average of 1SS6. The strength of the 
market was aue to lessened production and a 
good demand. Receipts in 1887 aggregated 
bran 440.408 sacks, and middlings 101,004 
sacks, and in 18S6 they aggregated bran 464, 
263 sacks, and middlings 138,792 sacks. Ore- 
gon also sent us in 18S7, 35, 101 sacks bran, 
and 81S2 sacks middling* against, in 18S6, 
67,686 sacks bran and 29,617 sacks middlings. 
Ground and rolled barley was used more freely 
in 1S87 than ever before, owing to its relative 
cheapness, and also to its being better for use 
with chopped feed. Prices were governed by 
the price of grain barley. O.her ground feed 
moved in price in sympathy with the grain, but 
not being used heavily, does not cut much of a 
figure. 

The Stock: of Grain. 

The Directors of the San Francisco Produce 
Exchange have submitted the following report 
of the stocks of flour and leading cereals of the 
crop of 18S7 remaining in the State of Califor- 
nia January 1, 1888, and a compirative state- 
ment of previous years : 



j™* * — 5 ~ £ " ^ c & ' r* f. ■* 

to w 4- at ■ o> *j 

8 B 5 i » S 



tC 3 3 3 3 f 
3 r-tS 5 -^ ! 

5 rJi O ■ 



x = 

p ■ 

a s. 
7 ^ 

|f 
,? c 
' w 
. t ss 



? 9 

i m 3 



* 3 

3 o ! 
9 B ■ 



z 3 : 



• > 

• 3 

: « 



B: a 



B o o . 



ti - oi -1 fc l ^ X fc l O O Vi A A 

W ■£> JO -4 S tl M O -J li "J O 'O 

" ; "ic ft be "x '— ■ u *ca "c '■£> 



: o - : 



Cn to 00 Ob V CO >— ' ~-J CD 
m -d"-i ci'x cc'-ii-a cr-i "-i 

o h >- -i u r-, -< jr. CO 'J' 1-1 'O to 
>— <o ~ - d J- t-y- o 
oa'aoV-i b": "en a cc *■ *o 

(J - -J 3 ti "Ji - O * C •• ^ O* 
C - O ; ~ C C — 3 ~ ~ a 



SB 55^9 
; c o r v. v ca 



QD M V) tt ^ Q. " C*. Ct — O* -1 Ci I 

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u u - C */•.- ^.Sjljv 

OS *» "lu 31 "iO i i. — J tC "tO 

k; — r. o -J- -..< ct v = y => » 
— — _ — , — — r~. i~. — • — > — 1 



c *j a u * . ~i 



T. 

J to V* 

VWV tils 



omSo <o j? 

~— 00 "s* "w \c *■ *-I — 
J- - z U — ■*- Ci c o 
MQIOOOOOO COS 



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^- ~ ~ ~Z. j 

c c c: c s -c o 



OC -1 

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coxo — 00*00* 



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jocewaxjs-N.; i^yk « 
i = o c 



, T. i~ •— — ~ • i 



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©: c ^ " ^ ^ 

- : : ; ; 



Hay. 

Receipts in 18S7 aggregate 111,063 tons, 
against 99,442 tons in 1886. Dry weather in 
the early part of the year was against a large 
crop of hay, and as the consumption wai large, 
the large carryover from the crop of 1886 was 
soon gone. The consumption in this State last 
year is estimated at fully 25 per ct nt over that 
of 18S6, due to more railroad building, more 
ac ive teaming and poor pasturage in the latter 
part of the year. Prices kept up throughout 
the year, and, as the demand run on the better 
grades, the supply of choice to extra choice was 
soon exhausted. The ody grades in the market 
are fair to good, but then they are called good 
to choice. The year closed on a higher range 
of values than known for years. It is claimed 
that by the time new hay comes the supply 
hroughout the State will be virtually used up, 



and the new come on a hungry and high market. 
Potatoes. 

Receipts in 1887 compare as follows with 

1S86 in sacks: 

1887. r886. 

California 992.737 965 775 

Oregon 94.659 "3» 82 9 



Totals 1,087,396 1,079.604 

The market ruled strong the forepart of 1887, 
under light receipts and a good demand. The 
quality of the bulk of the receipts was only 
fair. The low water in the Sacramento and 
Sin Joaquin rivers allowed larger areas of Und 
to be planted; and as the weather was favor- 
able to crops, a very large yield was the result. 
Receipts of new and large supplies to draw 
from caused prices to sag off and rule low up 
to December, when prices began to show some 
strength, which was followed by a steady ad- 
vance until the year closed with at from 20 to 
30 per cent higher than ruled in November. 
Oregon has sent of her new crops very little, 
owing to high waters flooding several large 
potato districts. The crop in the Western 
States is about 25 per cent below an average; 
and as good prices rule there, Utah is contrib- 
uting from its surplus. 

Ai new potatoes can be laid down from this 
State in Chicago by from two to five weeks 
earlier than they can be supplied from the 
Southern fields, traioloads were made up here 
to run through on fast time. A rate of 70 
cents for 100 pounds was granted by the rail 
roads and this greatly encouraged the export 
trade. Chicago took the bulk of the new pota- 
to shipments, and as the trains were composed of 
from 12 to 14 cars each, it may readily he seen 
that the business was undertaken on no small 
scale. 

Onions. 

Receipts compare in 1S87 as follows with 

1SS6: 

Sacks. 1887. 1886, 

California '34i°35 114,002 

Oregon 10,714 4 096 



Totals 144,749 118,098 

The year opened on a strong market and high 
prices, owing to light receipts and a good de- 
mand. The market held strong up to the new 
crop arrivals, when an easier turn set in, which 
was followed 'by falling prices as new im- 
proved in quality and increased in receipts. 
Prices ruled low up to December, when they 
began to fluctuate as receipts lessened, but 
with a strong turn reported. The year closed 
on a strong market, with prices about 40 per 
cent higher than ruled in November. Oregon's 
crop was larger on the beaver-dam lands, and 
when our market began to appreciate, receipts 
from that quarter commenced. The quality in 
1887 was good. 

Cabbages. 

The crop in 1887 was quite large and of uni- 
form good quality. More attention was given 
to setting out cabbages, owing to the high 
prices of 1886. As the waters in the rivers 
were low, more land on the river-bottoms was 
cultivated. The first three months of 1887 
prices ruled high, but under a lessening de- 
mand and receipts of new for the home 
trade prices eased off and fell before the 
spring months had passed to low figures, and 
by July 50 cents was the top. Toward Novem- 
ber prices began to appreciate and were fol 
lowed by a higher range of values in Decem- 
ber, owing to large shipping orders outside of 
the State to points on the overland railroads. 
At one time in December hard heads sold up to 
$1 25 and $1.35 per 100 lb) , but fell back to SI 
at the cloee of the year, owing to freer supplies 
coming forward. 

In root and other vegetables, the year's pro- 
duction, prices and general trade were a coun- 
terpart of former seasons, so that a review is 
unnecessary. 

Fruits. 

Horticulture in California is making rapid 
stride*, forcing itself to front rank as a leading 
farm industry. Not only are valley lands found 
adapted to fruit cultivation, but also the foot- 
hills and even higher altitudes. The many kinds 
of climates and soils admirably fit th s State to 
the cultivation of all varieties of fruits, and 
those too, of good size, color, and most excellent 
quality. That this latter assertion is correct is 
witnessed in the heavy shipments to the East 
where ready markets are found, and this in the 
face of heavy freight charges. If freights were 
reasonable the industry would be capable of 
greater expansion. Even as it is there is a won- 
derful growth, owing to the large increase in 
canning and drying. In order to show the quan- 
tity dried and canned, the following tables are 
given. The quantity and variety dried were as 
follows in pounds: 

1887. 1886. 

French prunes 1,750,000 2,000.000 

German prunes 75,000 125 000 

Appl> s, sun-dried 200,000 300,000 

Heaches, sun-dried 1.750,000 75 , coo 

Plums, sun-dried 4 0,000 500,000 

Piars, sun-dried 40,000 50,000 

(Jrapes, sun-dried 6jo,oco 175,000 

ADncots, sun-dried 200,000 150,000 

Nectarine-, sun-dried 100.000 30,000 

Figs, sun-dried 9^,000 150,000 

Apples, evaporated 550,000 500,000 

Apricots, evaporated ( 

Apncots, bleached \ 3.°<>o,ooo 450.000 

Peaches, evaporated, peeled . 500,000 100,000 
Peaches, evaporated, unpeel'd 750,000 200, coo 

Plums, evaporated 50000 85,000 

Nectarines, evaporated 50,000 25.000 



The quantity canned and put up (24 cans of 
2 each in a case) was as follows in 1887: 

Cases. 

Apples 5.500 

Asparagus 5 500 

Apricots 175 500 

Blackberries 25,000 

Cherries 60,000 

Currants 5,000 

Gooseberrie.- 15.000 

Grapes 35,000 

Nectarines 3,000 

Pears rso.ooo 

Peas 25,000 

Peaches 220,000 

Plums 40,000 

Quinces 6,500 

Raspberries 6,500 

Strawberries 15,000 



Totals 10,105,000 5,590,000 



Total 772,500 

The shipments overland of green or raw 
fruits aggregated in 1887, 35,342 850 lbs. This, 
of course, includes grapes. Prices throughout 
the season were gnod for all kinds of fruits, 
with relatively higher prices for prunes and 
plums. Sun-dried fruits are going out of favor, 
audit will be only a question of two or more 
years when they will not be found in market. 
The crop of prunes was very light, but that of 
peaches and apricots very heavy, but the two 
latter were marketed at good average prices. 
The short fruit crop at the East aided no little 
in giving us good markets for our raw, dried 
and canned fruits. In the Rural Prkss of 
December 24th, a full review of 18S7 dried 
t r uits was published, which also gave a good 
idea of the general market for raw fruits, to 
which the writer advises subscribers to refer 
for further infoimttion. 

Estimates of the number of fruit trees now 
growing in Calif< rnia orchards range fiom 9,- 
000,000 to 10,000,000. As there has been an 
immense new acreage added to the orchards of 
the State during the year, it is safe to say 
that the latter estimate is none too high. In 
the foothill districts and in the Sacramento val- 
ley thousands of young trees were set out, 
while in Santa Clara, San Joaquin, Alameda 
and Solano counties the new acreage is very 
great. San Luis Obispo has never cut much 
of a figure as a fruit-growing county, but 00 
the strength of the new coast-line of railway 
being built that way, many trees have 
been planted which will come into bearing soon 
after the time that the facilities for reaching 
the market have been provided. 

Olive-culture is making rapid strides, and 
bids fair to soon be of large proportion". The) 
are now grown in a dizen counties in this 
State. Santa Barbara and Sin Diego have 
been the chief producers, but Placer, Sonoma 
and Sinta Clara are coming to the front as 
olive growers. Last year the olive crop was 
small in all the orchards except those of Sin 
Diego county, where the yield was very good. 
It is believed that there are upward of 100 000 
trees in bearing in California. A great deal of 
planting has been done during the year, es- 
pecially in the Santa Clara valley. 

The orange crop promises to bi equal to 1SS6, 
notwithstanding many large orchards in L .- 
Angeles county were cut up and sold for town 
lots. The number of new trees that come into 
bearing offtet the number uprooted. The crop 
is backward and only a few oarloads were re- 
ceived in this city in December against nearl) 
100 in Ddcember, 1886. The quality of first re 
ceipts are, as a rnle, indifferent; consequently, 
the fruit meets with poor sale. As the season 
advances receipts increase, the quality im- 
proves and the demand grows rapidly. Oiving 
to Florida sending large qutntitiesof her or- 
anges to Europe this seasou, California oranges 
will have a clearer field. The only drawback 
at present appears to be prospective high over 
land freights. The planting of orange trees it- 
extending to about all the counties in the 
State, and under considerable rivalry a higher 
state of cultivation is the rule, which should 
cause better fruit to be turned out. The better 
the fruit and the better the selecting and pack- 
ing for market the higher are the prices real- 
ized. 

Viticulture not only holds its footing in this 
State, but is increasing, with a large number o' 
new vineyards beirjg planted each year, while 
the older established are being improved either 
by grafting new and improved varieties ot 
grapes or else nprooticg the old vines and 
planting the new in lieu. The greater atten- 
tion is being paid to table and raii-in varieties at 
the expense of wine grapes, for it has been dem 
onstrated that with our large and rapid-expand- 
ing trade for raisins and fresh grapes, that 
take the general average, better value is re- 
ceived. The 1887 crop was much less than at 
first estimated. The causes that led to the 
lessened outtuin have been noted in the Rural 
Press at various times. The principal reason 
for the light yield was untimely rains. Prices 
the past season were better sustained than 
for several years past, and at no time war 
there such a glut as several weeks witnessed in 
the fall of 1S86. The East took larger quanti 
ties than unial, while on this coast the in 
creased consumption is placed at 15 per cent 
over any former year. 

Raisins. 

The rapid strides made by California in the 
raisin industry is a source of continued wonder 
to Eastern and European commercial writers, 
as well as to the general trade, who take all 
things for granted without prying into the true 
secrets underlying success. Californians never 
do things by halves, and once get them started 
right there is no fear but the result will 



meet the ideas of the most sanguine enthusiast. 
Beginning with only an experimental few thou- 
sand boxes in 1873, it has grown into more than 
that many hundred thousands, as the following 
table of production shows: 

Year. Boxes. 

l8 73 6,000 

,8 74 9,000 

l8 75 11,000 

l8 70 19,000 

l8 77 32,000 

,8 7 8 48,000 

18 79 65,000 

1880 75.000 

1881 90,000 

1882 115.000 

l88 3 140,000 

'^ 8 4 175.000 

t 88 S 500,000 

1886 703,000 

l88 7 900.000 

Same authorities place the out-turn of 1887 at 
about 800,000 boxes, equivalent to 16,000 000 
lb 1. This the writer believes to be too low, as 
the shipments so far out of the State show. If 
it had not been for un'imely rains the crop 
would have been fully 1 000,000 boxes, if not 
reaching to as high a figure as 1,200 000 boxes 
of 20 R>3 each. It was not until 1885 that Cali. 
'omia raisins came prominently before the 
Eastern consumption, due to three main 
reasons. First, cholera in Spain created 
fears that Spanish raisins would cause the 
spread of that disease among consumers of the 
fruit at the East. Second, the persistency and 

good generalship of Frank S. J n of Wm. 

T. Co'eman & Co., assisted by G. W. Meade of 
G. W. Meade & Co., in keeping that re- 
sult before the public through the press, 
and also their ab'e manner in getting 
Eastern dealers to try California rsisins by sell- 
ing at a low range of values; by this and no other 
way can a new article be introduced. Third, 
the first few years' experience demonstrated to 
packers trading here, and which they were not 
slow to embrace, that the utmo.t care must be 
taken in selecting and picking uniform grades. 
This soon won its way with consumers, »nd 
since then still more care is exercised, as also 
the using of attractive labels and boxes. The 
very best improved machinery is only used, 
while only experienced hands are given employ- 
ment in responiible positions. There is another 
important fact in favor of California raisins, vie.: 
their superior keeping quality. They do not 
get sugared like the Spanish, which causes the 
Utter to be shunned by many in the Eist. The 
imp-ovement in the brands of our raisins sold in 
the Eist was so great during 18S6thata greater 
demand for them than ever was created through- 
out the Eist, and every packer of reliable or 
well known California brands had his capacity 
tf sted to the utmost during the past yi ar. In 
some sections the grapes were not as large as 
desired, and considerable difficulty was found 
in securing fruit to make fancy gra-ief, so that 
a good portion of the product bas been run into 
" loose " raisins. For this class, however, there 
is a great demand. In the larger factories the 
work of raisin packing is almost entirely done 
by steam-power. 

List year's pack of choice grades is about ex- 
hausted, and being well concentrated here and 
at the East, a higher range of values is looked 
for before the spring months end. 

Honey. 

Dry weather in the leading bee districts 
caused an almost total failure of flowering plaLt*, 
which, combined with weather otherwise un- 
favorable for bees, the crop in 1SS7 was quite 
light. The quality also did not average good. 
The crop is estimated as follows in pounnV; 

Honey extracted 1,250 000 

Honeycomb 30' ,000 

Beeswax 30,000 

The season opened in this city at the follow- 
ing prices: 

Choice exiracted honey S'AGh 5% 

Liglil amber to d-irk 4 (5) 5 

Comb honey choice white 13 @ij 

Light ambir to dirk I2j4(g> 8 

As the supplies lessened and demand in- 
creased, values appreciated. The Eist called 
more freely for supplies than ever be'ore, owing 
to a drouth at the West, causing a light crop of 
honey, many districts proving a failure. The 
stock of honey in New York City and elsewhere 
at the East is the lightest known for years, caus- 
ing very high prices to rule. 

So far this winter the weather in this State 
has been against the bees, owing to more or 
less dry followed by cold and more freezing 
weather than experienced since 1854. Of 
course if warm rains followed by warm, 
sunshiny days set in soon, pasturage will im- 
prove and both wild and cultivated flowers 
will be in abundance, so as to give the foods 
all the material required in making and storing 
up honey. 

Butter. 

Although the receips of butter last year were 
nearly as large as in 1886, yet the year closed 
on a bare market and high prices, this, too, in 
•he face of a large carryover of pickled from 
1886 into 1887. The year 1886 was the best 
pasturage season known for years. With food 
abundant and extending well into the year, the 
output of butter was very heavy, and an un- 
usually large quantity wss pickled and packed 
solid. As fresh roll continued in good supply 
with comparative low prices ruling, consumers 
gave it the preference, consequently a large 
stock of pickled and solid was carried into this 
year. The fore part of the year was dry and 
against pasturage, but heavy showers of rain fall- 



Jan. 21, 1888.] 



fACIFie F^URAId f RESS. 



51 



ine in April and May, caused more natural feed, 
and as dairymen bad increased their number of 
milch cows, the output of butter was large, 
causing prices for fresh to rule low. The low 
prices induced free packing, but not so largely 
as in 1886. With dry weather and poor pastur- 
age, also an enlarged demand, fully 30 per cent 
over former seasons, prices began to appreciate, 
and as the output continued to decrease, not- 
withstanding free imports from the E ist, values 
closed the year 1887 very high, fully 40 to 50 
percent over those ruling on December 31, 1886. 
On January 1. 1S87, there were in this city 
in first hands 2846 kegs of pickled and 1300 
oases of fresh roll, and on January 1, 1888, 
there were 315 kegs of pickled and 800 casts of 
fresh roll. B. sides the above at the beginning 
of 1887 dairymen had lower stocks than at the 
beginning of 1888. 

Cheese. 

The output in 1887 was quite large, but 
the southern counties took more direct from 
the dairies than in 1886, and consequently 
the receipts in this city were light. Toe 
remarks about better apply to cheese. The 
market close fully 40 per cent higher on 
Dec. 31, 1887, than on Dec. 31, 1886. 

Eggs. 

Prices ruled fairly good throughout the 
year, and quite high the last two months, 
being from 25 to 40 per cent higher than 
during *;he I ke time in 1886. The consumption 
increased fully 25 per cent over 1886. Like 
butter and cheese, many points draw direct 
from large centers of supply, which lessened 
the receipts iu this city. Taken as a whole, 
the year 1887 was not favorable to chickens, 
although it was good up to the last three 
months of the year, dry weather and poor 
feed bfing against them, with cold weather 
toward the closing days. Oiving to the large 
increased consumption of poultry, with good 
prices ruling, it is claimed by many that there 
will be more eggs set in 1888 than for some 
years past, which will have its effect on the 
egg supply. B;sides, it is claimed that there 
are fewer hens in the State than in 1886. But 
as the East sends us liberal supplies, the mar- 
ket is controlled to a very considerable extent 
Dy overland receipts. 

Dairy Produce. 

The monthly receipts of butter, cheese and 
eggs during 1887 were as follows : 

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Hops. 

The superior quality of the crop on this coast 
in 1886, with short crops at the Eist and in 
Europe, caused a free marketing and at good 
prices. As usual, many growers and dealers 
holding f jr the last cent carried over consider- 
able both on this coast and at the Eist, which 
they have been closing out since at prices con- 
siderably less than were ob ainable the latter 
part of 1886 and forepart of 1887. The crop r-n 
this coast in 1887 was larger than that of 1886 
but the quality was generally poor and irieg- 
ular. Mioy growers were fortunate enough to 
contract their crop at good prices— figures near- 
ly twice as much as obtained at the close of 
1887. Ciops in Europe were large last year, as 
they were at the East, but taken as a whole the 
quality was poor. Dealers and brewers through- 
out the world let the market sink to low prices 
up to December, when they came in, particu- 
larly in Europe, and bought quite freely, caus- 
ing better prices to rule at the close of the 
year. The crop on this coast compares as fol- 
lows: 

1884. 1885. 

Biles. Biles. 

California 4 T , 2 3t 26.183 

Oregon 10 903 7.300 

Washington Ter. . .24,168 17.572 
British Columbia . . . 11 1 48 



Biles. 
28,411 
12,549 
23 794 
60 



1887. 
Bale>. 
36,424 
10 200 
27,400 
95 



Totals 76,407 51,112 63,814 74,219 

In previous yea™ the total crops were as fol- 
lows: 1883. 42,027 biles; 1882, 26,453 bales; 
1881, 17,662 bales; 1880, 15,465 bales. 



Wool. 

Last week's Rural Press contained a full 
statistical review of the movements of wool in 
1887 and also the production by years from 
early days. To this readers are respectfully re- 
ferred for information on the subject. 

The year opened with light supplies and the 
range 12 cts to 15 cts for fair San Joaquin and 
16 to 18 cts for best, Southern Coast 12 to 15 
cts and Northern 18 cts to 21 cts. Prepara- 
tions were made to ship all fall wools Eist, to 
be sold for owners' account. Just prior to the 
Interstate Commerce bill going into operation, 
on April 5th, there was an active demand, and 
the market was cleaned up. During the first 
week of April sales equaled 3000 bales. Then 
came rates of $3.70 to New York and $3.83 to 
Boston, practically prohibitory. So the maiket 
had an excess of dullness. This was, however, 
soon ended, as it was found that the Canadian 
Pacific was a most important factor in the situ- 
ation, as it reduced, or rather fixed, rates at 
$1.50 per 100 pounds for wool in grease, and $2 
for scoured. Large shipments bpgan to be 
made that way, and also by the Pacific Mail, 
etc., and the market became active again. It 
advanced first slowly and alterward more rap- 
idly, until an advance of from 10 to 20 per cent 
was established, after which they settled back 
under poor assortments and discouraging East- 
ern advices. Dealers and shippers, as a rule, 
lost money. The fall clip came on a dull and 
weak market. As the season for fall wools ad- 
vanced, prices shaded off, until a low range of 
values ruled at the close of the year. The 
change in women fashions is being severtly 
felt by growers of second-class wools. Women 
now want finer woolen goods, with more mix- 
ing with silk, the same as obtained from 1875 to 
1879. Coarse wools are neglected. The rea- 
son why the European wool markets are higher 
and American lower is due to finer wools offer- 
ing for sale abroad. With railroad building in 
this State, sheep husbandry is giving way 
to farming, and soon breeding will be carried 
on on farms for the carcass and not for 
the wool, as meat will pay more. The outlook 
for 1888 is bad, as the dry weather has made 
poor pasturage, and as sheep are poor the wool 
will be harsh and lifeless. Even with i in 
proved pasture and better sheep, many flocks of 
sheep will have two grades of wool, with a weak, 
rotten streak between them. Against this buy- 
ers will discriminate. 

Nuts. 

The walnut crop in 1887 was large, as the 
following comparison shows: 

1887. 1886. 

Walnuts 1,500,000 750,000 

Almonds 500.000 600, oco 

Peanuts 250,000 275,000 

The dry weather the forepart of the year 
was against peanuts. The almond crop was 
light, but whether due to the yield to the tree be- 
ing lefs or some orchaids uprooted in Los An 
geles county and the land sold for town lots, is 
an open question. The low prices heretofore rul- 
ing for almonds were against their cultivation. 
But prices having ruled high for soft-shelled, 
will undoubtedly stimulate its culture. Wal- 
nuts sold at good prices throughout the year. 
This is due to the greater favor in which Cali- 
lornian are held. They are gradually but sure- 
ly supplanting the imported. Peanuts met 
with good sales throughout the year, with very 
few changes reported. 

Beans. 

The crop in 1887 was large and of good qual- 
ity, the average being above former years. Re 
ceipts aggregated at this port 458,339 pounds, 
against 320,769 pounds in 1887. Notwi hstand 
ing the large crop, prices tor the new crop 
gained in strength, dosing the year at an ad 
vance on an average of about 40 per cent over 
the opening prices, white varieties showing 
the most marked advance. The almost total 
'ailure of the Eistern crop and a lessened yield 
in Europe, created a strong demand for Cili 
fornian from the large distribution centers 
east of the Rocky mountains. It is claimed 
that although prices are quite high, still they 
are liable to go much higher before the spring 
months roll by. 

Seeds. 

The crop of mustard-seed was large, and in 
consequence dealers, aided by the daily press, 
were enabled tc manipulate the market to lower 
figures than the consumption warranted. The 
Eist drew quite freely throughout theyiar, but 
was enabled to keep values down by giving 
lower quotations through the pre«s than actual 
sales justified. The year closed with a light 
stock, and with the usual spring demand prices 
ought to appreciate. In grass seeds the year 
was unfavorable to free sales, owing to dry 
weather interfering with seeding. On account 
of the drouth in the large grain-growing bolt in 
the Western States the crop of several kinds 
was light, causing higher prices to rule at the 
close of the year. 



GO TO THE OLDEST AND THE BEST. 




LIFE SCHOLARSHIPS. $78. 

No Vacation* Day a-d Evrnino Sjssioxs 

Ladies admitted into all Departments. 
Address: T. A. ROBINSON, M. A,, President. 




Wells.Richardson & Go's 

Improved 

uuer 

Qplor. 

EXCELS 

IN STRENGTH 
PURITY 
BRIGHTNESS 

NEVER TURNS RANCID. 

Always gives a bright natural color, and will 

not color the Buttermilk. 
Used by thousands of the best Creameries and 
Dairies. Do not allow your dealer t» convince you 
that some other kind is just as good. Tell him the 
BEST is what you want, and you must have Wells, 
Richardson & Go's Improved Butter Color. 
Three sizes, 25c. 50c. $1.00. For sale everywhere. 

WELLS, RICHARDSON & CO. 
BURLINGTON, VT. 




Hall's Pulmonary Balsam, 



A superior remedy for Couehs, Colds, Incipient Con- 
sumption anil all Throat and Lune Tronb'es Sold by 
all Druggists for 60 rents. J R G \TES & CO., Pro- 
prietor", 417 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



This paper is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson & Co., 50C 
South lOth St., Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ces— 47 Rose St., New York, and 40 La Sallf 
St., Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Coast— 

"oonh i TViretv WO norrmerc l » IH ' ■ ft. v 



"quick; MEAIi 

Gasoline Stove^. 

No Smoke, No Soot and Absolutely Safe, 

Less Expensive to Operate than Wood or 
Coal Stoves. 

ALBRECHT & SMITH 

Pacific Coast Agents, 

1386 MARKET STREET, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 





SEND STAMP FOR 
80-PAGE ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

of Guns, Pistols, Cartridges, Powder, Shells, Air Guns, 
Hunting Coats, Leggings, Loading Implements, Base Ball 
Goo is, Lawn Tennis, Boxing, Fencing and Gymnasium 
Goods, Dumb Bells, Hammocks, etc. 

Fine Gun work done by first-dags smiths. 
GEO. W. SHREVE, 
525 Kearny Street, Sen Francisco, Cal. 



California Inventors 



Should consult 
DEWEY & CO. 
A M E RICAN 

and Foreign Patent Solicitors, for obtaining Patents 
and Caveats, Established in 1860. Their long experience as 
Journalists and large practice as Patent attorneys enables 
them to offer Pacific Coast Inventors far better service 'han 
they can obtai' elsewhere Bend for free circulars of infor- 
mation. Office of the Mining and Scientific Press and 
Pacific Rural Press, No. 220 Market St.. 8an Francisco 
Elevator, 1'i mnt St 




FOR WINTER AND SPRING. 



After two years' experience I have to announce that there has 
not a single case come to my knowledge where the Woodbury Tree 
Cleanser has not fully and satisfactorily accomplished everything 
that has been promised. 

By reference to a late report from Prof. Klee, I observe he 
states that he has found very good results from it in almost every 
case, and that he has encountered no records of any injury from its 
use. I am informed that it has his recommendation as a thorough- 
going successful and cheap Winter Wash, and it is certainly in- 
dorsed by the leading orchardists in the State. [ Please send for 
their published letters.] 

It has had an unexampled success in exterminating Scale on 
all kinds of Fruit Trees. It is sent all ready for use, and instruc- 
tions which are very simple, are furnished with every package. 

Price 2> l A cents per pound in cases, 80 pounds in a case ; in 
8-pound cans, same price, 15 cents extra for can; 3^ cents per 
pound (10 per cent off) in barrels ; about 400 pounds in a barrel. 

I also make a fine 

ROSIN WASH, 

Containing no Kerosene, perfectly harmless and thoroughly suc- 
cessful. This is the valuable remedy strongly recommended by 
Prof. Klee for the Cottony Cushion Scale or " Icerya." Price % 
cent per pound higher than the Woodbury Tree Cleanser. I also 
manufacture the fine Anti-gumming Farm Machine Oils and gene- 
ral Lubricating Oils. I respectfully solicit correspondence. 

CHARLES J. WOODBURY, 

123 CALIFORNIA STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



52 



f ACIFie l^URAb PRESS. 



[Jan. 21, 1888 



H. P. GREGORY & GO. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR 

WEBBER'S CELEBRATED 




IRRIGATING 

PUMPS. 

Wb also carrt ip stock tup La roust Link op 

MACHINERY 

Id the UNITED STATES, 

Consisting: of Wood and Iron Working 
Machinery. Pumps of every 
description. 

ENGINES AND BOILERS 



A SPECIALTY. 



THE MUSICAL 1888. 

As the musical Rlf Ykar heaves in sight, we greet 
it with the "sound of Cornet" (or any other musical 
instrument, for all of which Oliver I>itguu & Co. 
provide the very best Instruction Book*). 

With the New Year, many new pupils will commence 
to learn the Piano; to them and their teachers we com- 
mend 

RICHARDSON'S NEW METHOD 

FOR THE PIANOFORTE, 

A peerless book, which has held the lead for many years, 
and, unaffecte I by the appearance of other undoubtedly 
excellent instructors, still sells like a new book. Price $3 

CHILDREN'S DUDEM 

(SO cents, S3 per dozen) is filled with happy and bsautiful 
Sunday School Sonos, and is one of the best of its class. 
The newest book. 

UNITED VOICES 

(50 cents, $4.80 per dozen) furnishes abundance of the 
best School Songs for a whole year. The newest book. 

Books tlat Fell EYfrywlere and all the Time : 

College Songs. 60 cents; War Songs, 50 cents; 
Jubilee and Plantation Songit, 30 cents; Min- 
strel S"ngs, new and old, £2; Good Old Songs 
we used ' o sing, $1. 

KINK K 'S COPY BOOK (75 cents), with the Ele- 
ments and Exercises to be written, is a useful book fur 
teachers and scholars. 
■VAny book mailed for the retail price. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., Boston. 



C. H. DITSON & CO., 



Broadway, New York. 



3XTo. 107-$2S.OO. 




MONARCH GASOLINE RANGES 

ARE THE BEST. 
Gasoline Stoves. $5 to $35. Gas Stoves. 75 cents to $35. 
Oil Stoves, 75 ceDts to S30. 
WOOD AND COAL RANGES.— Koval, No. 6, 
•18. No. 7, $20. Pacific No. 6, $18. No. 7, $25. 
Lamps, 20c. to $10. Hanging Lamps, $2 to $20. 
Agate Ware, Tin Ware, and Kitchen Ware at low prices. 
JOHN F. MYERS & CO., 
Opp. Baldwin Hotel, 863 Market St., S. F. 



JOHN T. SULLIVAN, 

Manufacturer of CUSTOM MADE 

Boots and Shoes, 

20 Fourth St., Pioneer Building. 

FACTORY, N. E. Cor. Battery & Jackson. 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Full line of Ladies', Misses' and Children's Fine Shoes. 
Agknts for 

Howell's Men's $3.00 Shoes 

In Button, Congress and Balmorals; Opera and French 

Toes. 8E D FOR TRIAL PAIR. 
CUSTOM HEAVY WORK A SPECIALTY. 



H. M. NEWHALL & CO., 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

309 and 311 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Agents for Growers and Manufacturers. Charterers of Vessels for all Trades. Agents 
for the Mexican Phosphate and Sulphur Company's Products. 
General Insurance Agents. 

Have correspondents in all the chief cities of the United States, Europe, Australia, India, China and the princi- 
pal islands of the Pacific. Purchase goods and sell California products in those countries. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast of NATIONAL ASSURANCE CO., of Ireland; 
ATLAS ASSURANCE CO., of London: BOYLSTON INSURANCE CO., of Boston, Mass. 



THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY. 



PATENT OWNERS OF 



JUDSON POWDER, 

The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stump and Bank Blasting. From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stump, Tree or Root clear 
out of ground at Ubs cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 

As other makers IMITATE our Giant Powder, so do they Judson, by Manufacturing 
a second-grade, inferior to Judson, 
BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO, General Agents, San Francisco. 



NOBEL'S DYNAMITE, 

NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE, 

NOBEL'S GELATINE-DYNAMITE, 

Best and Strongest Explosives in the World. 



Lands for Sale and Jo Let 



A. D. Sharon. Established 1849. S. P. Mit>dlktox 

MIDDLETON & SHARON, 

Real Estate and General 

LAND AGENTS & AUCTIONEERS, 

22 Montgomery Street, 
Opposite Lick House, San Francisco. 

Santi Rosa Office, 310 B St. 
Large tracts subdivided at auction or private sale. 



Gabilan Rancho, 



Containing 7C65 acres, situated near Salinas City, 
Monterey County, is offered for sale. For particulars 
aduress J. C. HOAO, 312 Van Ntsj avenue, or TYLER 
BEACH, San J se.Cal. 



SANTA YNEZ, 

Santa Barbara County, Calilornia. 
THE SANTA YNEZ LAND AND IMPROVEMENT COMPANY 

Is now offering for sale at low prices and upon very moderate terms the choicest of 

Agricultural and Horticultural Lands 

Of the faniou« College Grant, in the aforementioned beautiful valley. The CLIMATE is pcr'ect, SOIL rich and 
diversified, TOPOGRAPHY unusually varied and beautif -1, a park-like growth of Oaks covering the entire valley. 
WATER SUPPLY more than sufficient for irrigation of all irritable lands, and no alkali cither in water or sdiI. 

TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES superior now, and two trunk lines certain to pass through the valley 
within a year. 

43,000 ACRES OF THESE CHOICE LANDS 

Are for sale at from $2S to $150 per acre; terms of payment being one-third cash, one-third in two, balance in three 
yews; six per cent interest on deferred payments. 

To reach the Santa Ynez valley take any transportation line to San Luis Obispo, thence by Pacific r"oa>t Rail- 
way to Santa Ynez or to Santa Ba hara, thence by stage to Santa Ynez. Persons seeking lovely homes or lands for 
o lonies or quickly paying investments, cannot do better than purchase here. For further information refer to 

E. W. STEELE, Manager, Santa Ynez, CaL 

E. de la CUESTA, Agent. Santa Ynez. 

McCLUNG & PRAY, Agents, 325 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 
SIDNEY LACE Y, Agent, Los Angeles. 

COOPER & DREYFUS, Agents, Santa Barbara. 

McCLUNG & PRAY. Agents, San Diego. 



PALERMO LAND & WATER CO. 



GEORGE O. PERKINS. 

c. w. Mcafee 



DIlTECTOnS. 

BENRY wise. 



D. K. PERKINS 



A. S. BALDWIN. 



Subdivision No. 1 of the Palermo Citrus Tract, in the heirt of the Citrus Belt, 5 miles 
south of Oroville, Butte County, Cal., on the line of the Northern California 
Eailroad; Depot on the Tract at the new Town of Palermo. 

FOR SALE IN SUBDIVISIONS OF FROM I TO 20 ACRES 

-A.t 873 per Aero, 

Including FREE WATER for four years to all who settle on the land and Improve before 
July, 1889. Tne land is level and clear wi'h the exception of some giant live and white oaks interspersed 
through tre tract. The soil is a deep, rich, red, gravelly h am and produces the finest i f every variety of fruit. It 
is particularly adapted to the cultivation of the Orange, Lemon, Fljr, Grape. Olive, Peach and .\prioot. 

Water piped throughout the tract. Terms only one-fourth ea*-h, balance in from one to four years at pur- 
chasers' option, with interest at 7 per cent per annum. Lots in Palermo City, 50x150 in size, from $50 to S'2'25 each; 
all streets to be graded and leveled. Maps and further particulars of 

McAFEE BROTHERS, Agents, 10 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

T. B. LUDLUM & CO., Agents, Oroville, Cal. 



WEST COAST LAND CO. 

TEMPLETON, SAN LUIS OBHPO CO., CAL. 

Home of Wheat, Fruit, Wine and Olive; 15,000acres 
sold in past 8 months to 220 settler', representing a pop. 
ulatinn of 1100; 411,000 acres— small subdivisions— aver- 
age. $22.50 an ai re; a cash, balance 6 years. 6 per cent. 
Catalogues and maps free. C. H. PHILLIPS, Manager. 



A NEW COLONY 

On the new extension of Southern Pacific Railroads, 
or, the lands belonging to R. T. BUELL, Esq., near Los 
Alamos, Sa"ta Barbara county, Cal. Parties desiring to 
visit t)ie property now, oan go via San Luis Obispo and 
take the cars from thence to Lis Alamos, thence by stage 
to the Colony. 2O.0OO acres of the best lands in Call 
tornia, subdivided into 20, 40 and 80-acre farms- J20 to 
KjJKJf 8 - INTERNATIONAL IMMIGRANT 
UNION. 401 California St., San Francisco 



GOOD CROPS EVERY SEASON WITHOUT 
IRRIGATION. 

Free by mail, specimen number of " The California 
Real Estate Exchange and Mart," full of reliable infor- 
mation on climate, productions, etc., of 

SANTA CKC/, COUNTY. 

Address, " EXCHANGE AND MART." Santa r'ruz. OU, 




0^1 



Reliable Agents Started in Business Without Capital! 

Write for Particulars. My Agents are making $5, $10, $15, $20, $35, $30 per I>ay 

Selling I kwis' Combination Hand Force Pumps. It makes 3 
cmplete machines. I have agents all over the U' itcd 
StatcM who arc making $10 to *30 per day selling these 
pumps. I give their names and addre.scs in catalogue. To 
introduce it I will send a ■'■ample Pump, ejrpremi paid, to 
an;/ exprenH Nation in the IT. S. for $5.5o. Made of bra's: 
will throw water from 50 to CO f et, and ic'ails for only $6. 
Indispensable for spraying fruit trees. The Potato Hug 
Attachment U a wonderful invention. Thevsell rapidly 
AGENTS WANTED EVERYWHERE. Send at once for illustrated catalogue, price list and terms. Guilds Guar- 
anteed as Represented or Money Refunded. Address LEWIS & COWLES, Catsklll, N. Y. 




mm 



S Yl' 1 iSClL 



CODLIN MOTH WASH, 

WHALE-OIL SOAP, Etc. 

Bv the use of these Washes all insect life reached will be destroyed, »nd all trees washed will show a marked 
improvement in growth and general appearance. For sale by 

ALLYNE & WHITE, 112 & 114 Front St., San Francisco- 

4»\SEND FOR CIRCULAR. ' 



Howe's Scales and Crescent Coffee Mills 

D. N. & C. A. HAWLEY, General Agents, 

Cor. Market, Sutter and Sansome Sts , San Francisco. 



STRYCHNINE! 

STRYCHNINE! 

Farmers who want the PUREST and REST 
Strychnine. SUKK TO KILL Ground Squirrels, 
Gophers, Mice and other anmals Which destroy the 
crops, should spenify " M ALLI VCKRODT'S ST. LOL'IS' 
STRYCHNINE, manufactured by 

Mallinckrodt's Chemical Works, 

ST. LOUIS and NEW YORK, 

— AND — 

SOLD BY ALL DEALERS. 

f5TIn»ist upon having our brand, and allow no sub- 
smr-ri' n of othoK makes. See that our cap and label is 
on the bnt'l»s. 

Well Drills 

for Every purpose 
SOLD ON TRIAL. 

Investment 
small, prof- 
its large. 
Send 80c Jot 
mailing 
large Illus- 
trated Cata- 
logue with 

ill particulars. 

Manufactured by 

GOULDS k AUSTIN, 

167 & 169 LAKE ST. 
CHICAGO, ILLINOi* 

To Dairymen, Fruit-Growers and 
Farmers! 

SITUATION WANTED. 

An experienced man. with wife, wants a situation. 
Understands Dairiing, Irrigating, and General Farming. 
• an give the best of references. Addiess, II. B., Box 
361, San Francisco 




Engraving. 



Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
ing, Electrotyping and Stereotyping 
done at the office of this paper. 



..ill. 



it rata 



BnyionrMWI h a rnkss, worth at retail 
Seiit to examine it.i.l return '' Our r»- <P_*J 
pense. Catalogue free, t nil ai.o hahvi-ss (O., 
wholesale Mlg., 3.5 YVabiuh Ave., Chicago, DC 



I CURE FITS! 

When 1 siiy cure I do not mean merely to stop them for 
% time and then have them return again. I mean a rad- 
run.. I tu.vf mad. -tli,. <Ii^.-;im> ..t l-'ITS KI'IIJ-'PNY 
or FALLING SICKNESS a lii.--l.mc study. 1 warrant 
niy remedy to cure the worst cases. Because others hare 
failed is no reason for not now receiving a core. Send 
U once foi a treatise and a Free Bottle of my infallible 
r.-m.-dy. (Jive Express and Post Office, 
U. U. ROOT, .11. V., 183 l . . . I - 1 . . New York. 



Jan. 21, 1888.] 



pACIFKB RURAL* PRESS. 



53 



Utilizing Flax Fiber. 

The idea of using home-grown flax fiber to 
supplant the large quantities of twine and 
other manufactured articles which are now 
brought here from a distance has been a recur- 
ring subject for discussion for years. Several 
efforts have been put forth to establish factories 
which it was hoped would begin with coarse 
linen manufactures and gradually work up to 
higher and finer products. For some reason 
or other these undertakings have not hitherto 
reached a successful basis, but it is encouraging 
to know that effort is still being put forth, and 
it certainly appears, upon a priori grounds at 
least, that we should have manufactures of this 
kind in profitable working. The latest an- 
nouncement looking in this direction is the 
starting of a twine factory in Eist Oakland ad- 
joining the cotton-mills. The Chronicle gives 
this account of the origin of the enterprise : 

The manager and principal owner, Mr. Bruce, 
was formerly in the employ of the cotton-mills, 
and during a visit to the coast counties saw 
some samples of flix straw which he recognized 
as equal to the best French fl ix, and the idea 
occurred to him that its manufacture into twine 
could be made profitable in this State. Con- 
siderable flax is grown along the coast for the 
seed, which is sold to the linseed oil factories of 
Sin Francisco, but the straw has heretofore 
been thrown away as useless. He interested a 
few capitalists, among them Daniel Suter of 
San Francisco, and the plant for the mills was 
procured. About one dozen machines are now 
in operation manufacturing flax twine, which 
commands a price in California that makes the 
manufacture profitable. Mr. Bruce, who has 
had considerable experience in the flax indus- 
try, as operated in Scotland, states that the 
coast soil, with its damp, foggy climate, is 
peculiarly adapted for flix growth, producing a 
strong and fine fiber. The more fog the better 
for the fiber. The straw, he states, is as valu- 
able as the seed, and farmers may thus make a 
double profit. An acre will produce two tons 
of straw and 1000 pnunds of seed. The straw 
is worth about $12 50 per ton and the seed 2| 
cents per pound, or a gross income of $50 per 
acre. 

We do not vouch for the estimate of crop 
and values. It has been claimed by some that 
the condition required in seed and in fiber by 
the users of each prevented both from being 
utilized from the same plant; that a plant 
which fully matured its seed had gone too far 
to yield the best fiber. We are not practically 
informed on that subject. We know, however, 
that where the flix industry is important, as in 
some European countries, they have different 
varieties of flix, of higher growth than the seed 
flix grown in this State, which are advocated 
by fiber growers. A collection of fiber varie- 
ties was secured some time ago by the State 
University and has been grown from year to 
year at Berkeley. These varieties have already 
been mentioned in our columns, and the seed is 
distributed to those who desire to test its 
growth. We are very anxious to see the flax 
industry located here and desire the success of 
all who may put forth effort toward that end. 



Citrus Windfalls are all utilized in Flor- 
ida by crushing them and extracting the juice, 
which is made into wine and excellent vinegar. 



Thirty thousand sheep owned by Oregon- 
ians are being wintered in the vicinity of Fre- 
mont, Neb. 

There is talk of organizing a Horticultural 
Society in Colusa. 

The Woolly Aphis. 

Walnut Grove, Cal., Jan. 6, 1888. 

Mr. Charles J. Woodbury, 123 California St., 
S. F., Cal. — Dear Sik: Yours of the 3d inst. to 
hand last evening:. In regard to the Woolly Aphis, 
I can only give you my experience. When I came 
here, my apple irees were badly infested with Aphis, 
so I washed them thoroughly to exterminate and 
have not seen any signs of the Aphis since, which 
has been over two years. Yours respectfully, 

L. D. Greene. 

I will remark that I hive known of no case where 
my tree-cleanser has been used as an antidote for 
the Woolly Aphis where it has not been perfectly 
successful. 

Full directions accompany its use. Price, 3^ 
cents per pound in cases, 80 pounds in a case; in 
8 pound cans same price, 15 cents extra for can. In 
barrels, $'A cents per pound, 10 per cent off, 400 
pounds in a barrel. I a'so manufacture the fine 
Anti-Gumming Farm Machine Oils and General 
Lubricating O.ls. 

Address Charles J. Woodbury. 

123 California St., S. F„ Cal. 

Consumption Surely Cured. 
To the Editor:— Please inform your readers that I have 
a positive remedy (or the above named disease. By its 
timely use, thousands of hopeless cases have been per- 
manently cured. I shall be glad to send two bottles of 
my remedy vrkr to »ny of your readers who have con- 
sumption, if tbey till send me their Express aud P. O. 
address. Respectfully, 

T. A. SLOCUM, M. C, 181 Pearl St., New York. 



HOW HE WON. 

William Beach, Hanlan's Conqueror, Tells 
How he D d It. 

The recent exploit of Mr. Willliam Beach leaves 
no doubt that he is the handiest man in the world 
with the sculls. The ease with which he outrowed 
his opponent, the supposed invincible Ned Hanlan, 
shows that in form, stroke and muscular develop- 
m"nt, adapted to sculling, he has no equal. 

Although an Australian by virtue of residence, 
B j ach was born in Surrey, England, in 1851, and 
removed with his parents to New South Wales in 
1854. He was brought up to his father's trade, and, 
while tolling like a young Vulcan in the smithy, un- 
consciously developed that magnificent physique 
which has since brought him world-wide distinction. 
When about 23 years of age, Beach commenced 
rowing on the lllawarra lakes against local competi- 
tors, and from the outset kept winning until gradual- 
ly handicapped out of all races. Following are his 
chief aquitic performances while in Australia: 

December, 1880 — Won Deeble's handic ip, Wool- 
loomooloo bay. 

January, 1881 — Second I'yrmont Regatta, won by 
Pearce. 

January, 1881 — Second National Regatta, won by 
D. M'Donald. 

February, 188 1 — Beat N. McDonald, Parramatta 
river. 

March, t88t — Beat George Solomons. 

May, 1881— Beat Charles Reynolds. 

October, 1882 — Second Punch trophy, won by E. 

C. Laycock. 

December, 1882— Beat T. Clifford, Parramatta 
river. 

January, 1883 — National Regatta, swamped, won 
by Messenger. 

March, 1883 — Nowhere, Grafton RegUta, won by 

D. M'Donald. 

March, 1883 — Won Woolloomooloo Bay Regatta 
prize. 

December 7--Won James Hunt's trophy, Parra- 
matta river. 

April 2, 1883 — Beaten by E. Trickett, champion- 
ship (first timr). 

April 12, 1883 — Beat E. Tricketi, championship. 

April 17, 1883— Beat E. Trickett, championship. 

April 12, 1884 — Beat E. Trickett, championship. 

August 16, 1884 — Beat E. Hanlan, championship 
world. 

March 17, 1885— Beat T. Clifford, championship 
world. 

March 27, 1883 — Beat E. Hanlan, championship 
world. 

December 19, 1885 — Beat N. Matterson. 
November 26, 1887 — B.-at E. Hanlan, champion- 
ship world. 

Mr. Beach's system of training includes a run of 
two or three miles before breakfast, a walk of six or 
seven miles afterward, and a pull over the course. 
After dinner comes another two-mile walk and a 
second pull over the course, during which he rows 
himself right out, eases off, and then pulls again. 
A long walk concludes the day. 

A man under such physical strain, even though he 
be a giant, must often feel the failure of his strength 
to his will, and, powerful though he be, it is not sur- 
prising that Mr. Beach candidly states that during 
his training, previous to meeting Edward Hanlan 
the second time for the world's championship, his 
trainer bought for him Warner's safe curt, and he 
fays: " I was agreeably astonished at the great 
benefit which followed its us?." While in training 
he finds this the best possible aid to a command of 
all his nitural powers, because it does not first gold 
and afterward weaken the system, but acts in perfect 
harmony with nature's laws. 

""" Mr. Beach's experience is confirmed by the expe- 
rience of many thousands of athletes all over the 
world. Under the great physical strain they break 
down and die prematurely, because they have not 
been able to keep disease away from their kidneys 
and liver, whence most diseises originate. Mr. 
Beach recognizes this necessity, and has sagacity 
enough to use the only scientific specific for that 
purpose. He has not only the prestige of victory, 
but lhe prestige of a true scientific method of train- 
ing and keeping up his wonderful physical condition. 
If he did not voluntarily give up the championship, it 
would no doubt be a long time before it was wrested 
from him. 



List of D. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 
Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific States. 

From the official report of U. S. PateDts in Dkwst & 
Co.'s Patent Office Library, 220 Market St., S. F. 

FOR WEEK ENDING JANUARY IO, 1888. 

376,375. — Line Throwing Projectile— J. N. 
Fletcher, S. F. 

376,150.— Speed Chancer— A. Harding, Oak- 
land, Cal. 

376,153. — Cable-Railway Crossing— E. S. 
Holden, S. F. 

376.339. — Belt Shifter and Trainer — F. L. 
Palmer, Berkeley, Cal. 

376.340. — ELtVATOR— F. L. Palmer, Berkeley, 
Cal. 

376,172 —Paving Compound— A. Walrath, 
Nevada City, Cal. 

376,403. — Can-Filling Machine — W. H. 
Wrighi, San Jose, Cal. 

Nots.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewky & Co., in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacifio Coast 
inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates and in the shortest possible time. 



Complimentary Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
quested to examine its contents, terms of sub j 
scription, and give it their own patronage, and, 
as far as practicable, aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription 
rate, $3 a year. Extra copies mailed for 10 
cents, if ordered soon enough. If already a 
subscriber, please show the paper to others. 

Sample It. 

Three select samples and three future issues 
of the Illustrated Pacific States Weekly will be 
sent, postpaid, to any address on receipt of 25 
cents. Office, 220 Market street, 8. F. 



Black Scale. 



December 29, 1887. 
Messrs. Woodin & Little, $oq and j/r Market 
St.,S. P., Cat.— Gentlemen: Referring to Prof. 
Ongerth's Liquid Tree Protector, I desire to say 
I that about two months ago I found quite a percent- 
I age of my olive trees infested with the black scale. 
In some instances the tree was entirely enveloped 
by a b ack smut, while the branches, to the very ex- 
treme lips of the tender shoots, were covered with 
the young scale. I sprayed my irees once only with 
the Tree Protector. The effect was wonderful. It 
not only completely and entirely destroyed the scale, 
but itfeems to have invigorated the growth of the 
tree. It is all and more than all you claim for it. 
Very respectfully, 

Thomas Beck, U, S. Appraiser. 

Do you think of buying a piano ? Then observe 
Kohler & Chase's advertisement of the " Ivers & 
Pond" in this issue. 



Combined Plow-Seeder and Pulverizer. 

Mr. L. B. Ruggles, president of the Traver 
Warehouse and Business Association and a 
farmer of large experience, has been experi- 
menting for some time past on his farm, and has 
finally constructed an attachment to a gang- 
plow which he olaims to be superior to any now 
in use for seeding and the other purposes for 
which it is intended. 

A description of the new invention is as fol- 
lows: The attachment consists of a number of 
drill-wheels, 16 inches in diameter, having a V- 
shaped or cutting edge, set in a wooden box- 
like frame that may be adjusted and hinged to 
the rear of any gang-plow to which a seeder is 
or may be attached. 

There are two drill-wheels for each plow in 
the gang, one to form a drill-row in the ridge or 
center of each furrow, the other in the lap or 
where the furrows meet, thus forming twrce as 
many drill-holes as there are plows in the gang. 

The ordinary gang-plow seeder will be used, 
but transferred to the top of the drill-frame, 
and agitated by the same wheel and method as 
in ordinary gang-plow seeders. A seed opening 
is over the rear of each wheel and the seed is 
conveyed to and dropped in the channels formed 
by the drill-wheels. 

The planter is attached to the rear of the drill- 
frame by steel springs and is a bar the same 
length as the drill frame, beneath which are as 
many curved steel blades as there are drill-rows, 
and each blade catches the ridge left between 
them, turns it back over the seed, presses the 
soil upon it and completes the work. 

The effect of the wheels and planters is to 
thoroughly press, pulverize, level and cultivate 
the soil, and deposit the seed at a uniform depth 
and in rows of more suitable distances. A 
caveat has been filed and steps taken to protect 
the invention by patent. 

Mr. Ruggles claims that there is no better 
time to sow grain than when ground is in good 
condition for plowing; that if plowed and left 
to wait for the drill or seeding at some future 
time it is liable to dry out or be packed again 
by heavy rains; that land well plowed is left too 
loose and porous for seeding and requires press- 
ing down again, and the great trouble with the 
ordinary gang-plow seeding is the ground is 
left unprepared, is loose so the air gets to the 
seed, and the roots, if they start at all, are 
liable to dry out and perish; that the surface is 
uneven, some seed falling to the bottom of the 
furrow where it iB too deep, and some upon the 
surface, where it lacks moisture and perishes or 
makes a feeble growth; that one opening in the 
seeder for each plow is insufficient, as it leaves 
the rows too far apart and too much seed is left 
in one place and not enough in another; that 
seed should be planted at a more uniform depth, 
and experiments prove that it should be not 
less than one nor more than two inches deep; 
that seed should be far enough apart to stool, 
and yet close enough to utilize all the space; 
that after land is plowed it should be again 
pressed down so as to close up the spaces be- 
tween the particles of earth and retain the 
moisture longer, and hence land sown by this 
method will be more likely to make a good 
stand, sure growth and insure a better yield. — 
Traver Advocate. 



Young Men or women who desire instruc- 
tion in penmanship, book-keeping, short-hand, 
type-writing, or other commercial studies, the 
common English branches or modern languages, 
are referred to the advertisement of the Pacific 
Business College, which has now been established 
a quarter of a century. 

Great Sale 'of Horses. — Do not overlook 
the auction sale of horses advertised in this 
issue by Killip & Co., to occur on Feb. 16th. 
Sale catalogues are now ready, and should be 
sent for and studied over by our stockmen. 

Buena Vista Rancho. 

This fertile tract of land, containing 7725 acres, has 
been plutted into 60 farms suitablo for mixed farming and 
fruit growing. It is four miles from Salinas City, Monte 
rcy County, and will bo sold at low prices and liberal 
terms. Address, J. C. Hoag, 312 Van Ness avenue, San 
Francisco, or Tyler Beach. 5an Joso, CaL 



About Stopping This Paper. 

We particularly request any one receiving this 
paper, who does not wish to continue it, or 
who does not intend to pay for it, to send 
written notice of that fact to us. Of course, 
this does not apply to those who for good 
reasons know that the paper is sent to them com- 
plimentary. In sending word to the publishers, be 
particular to note all of the following points: 1st, to 
send it to the P. O. by a trusty hand; 2d, to be sure 
you have a stamp on it; 3d, that it is correctly ad- 
dressed; 4th, that your name is plainly written; 
5th, that you give the name of your P. O. ; 6th, that 
you give the name of the paper (or we should have 
to look over the long lists of subscribers on several 
newspaper.-). If your letter reaches us with any one 
of the above points overlooked, we should have to 
look over thousands of addreises to find your name 
to discontinue your paper. By missing one or more 
of lhe points above enumerated on the part of sub- 
scribers, we are doubtless often blamed (or not stop- 
ping papers when it is impossible for us to do so, 
and in many cases receive no intimation even about 
the matter. 



A Fine Japanese Orange. 

We have tested and are very favorably impressed 
with oranges brought us by H. E. Amoore, of the 
Japanese Tree Importing Co., whose office is at 120 
Sutter street, in this city. 'I he oranges, although 
more than a month from the tree, having been 
plucked rather green in Japan, were of very sweet 
and agreeable fl ivor. The orange is apparently of 
the Mandarin type, and the most desirable we 
have seen. It is named the " Oonshiu. " The 
Japanese Agricultural Association of Tokio says in 
its sixth annual report: 

The " Oonshiu" orange is rf medium size, rather large, 
oblate; rind thin, smooth, deep nran--e color; pulp swett, 
juicy , most delicious, containing hardly any seeds or seed- 
less. It is mostly esteemed for its excellent qualities for 
table me, as well as for being seedier— the best variety 
of Japanese crauges. 

This description seems to fit accurately the sam- 
ples shown us. They were about two inches in di- 
ameter, and we are told they sometimes reach 
three inches. The skin separates easily and cleanly, 
and the fruit must become popular.— Rural Press, 
Feb. 12, J887. 



$500,000 

On Country Real Estate in large and small amounts 
at lowest rates, by A. Schuller, 106 Leidesdorff St., 
room 3. ** 

Lewis' Force Pump and Syringe. — This device 
has met with very large sile and has, we understand, 
given great satisfaction for insecticidal purposes in 
gardens. It is advertised in this issue of the Rural. 



ROOFING! 




z 



Cheapest* bestRoof 

^ I i 111 11 1 11. 




>A#V If! 

AJsfD AJslY CLIMATE.0 

M.Ehret Jr.&Co. 

■ XI SOLE MANUFACTURERS. f>£ ■ 

113 N. 8th St., ST. LOUIS, MO, 

W. E. CAMPE, Agent. 



"PIANOS" 



100 111 llii! New England Conssrvatorr ol music 

In constant 086, Write fordescriptive catalogue & prices. 
KOXIIjISH cfc CIIA8E, 
General Agents, 1 :t - Post St., S. K. 




PIANOFORTES. 

UNEQUALLED IN 

Tone Touch Workmanship and Durability. 

(VILLI A M KMBE «fc CO. 

Baltimorr, 22 and 24 East Baltimore Street. 
Nsw York, 112 Fifth ave. Wasiiinotok, 817 Market space. 



54 



PACIFIC RURAb PRESS. 



Jan. 21, 1888 



breeders' directory. 



8U line* or lees in ' h l« Directory at 50c p«r Hoe per month. 



HORSES AND CATTLE 

COTATB RANCH BREEDING FARM, Pases 

Station, S. F. & N. P. B. R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

SETrJ UOOK, hrceder of Cleveland Bay Horses, De- 
von, Durham, Polled Aberdeen Angus and Galloway 
Cattle. Young stock of above breeds on hand for 
sale. Warranted to be pure bred, re^orde 1 and aver- 
age breeders. Address, Ge«. A. Wiley, Cook Farm, 
Danville, Contra Custa Co., Cal. 

SYLiVESTER SUOTT, Cloverdale. Cal., importer 
and breeder of Jacks; a choice lot of Jacks for sale. 



W. J. MARSH & SON. Dayton, Nevada. Regis- 
tered Shorthorns of choicely bred strains. 



JERSEYS - THE BEST HERD— All A. J. C. 
C. registered, is owned bv Henry Pierce, San Francisco. 



J. H. WHITE. Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder 
of Registered Holstein Cattle. 

R. J. MERKELEY. Sacramento, breeder of Norman, 
Percheron Horses and thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. 

HOLSTEINS— New lot Eastern-bred animals, includ- 
ing Netherlands; Aagifie's and Case Strains. Punch 
for ringing bulls, $1 00 postpaid. Berkshire Swine. 
Catalogues. F. II . Burke, 401 Montgomery St., S. F. 



M. D HOPKINS, Petaluma, Cal. Eastern Imported 
registered Shorthorn Bulls and Heifers for sale. 



SETH COOK, Danville, "Cook Farm," Contra Costa 
Co., breeder of Aberdeen Angus, Galloways and De- 
vons (Registered). Young stock for sa le. 



PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 16 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Registered Holstein and Jersey Cattle. Write me. 



BRADLEY RANCH, San Jose, Cal., brreder 
of recorded thoroughbred Shorthorn Cattle. A choice 
lot of young stock for sale. 



J . R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder ol 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 



J. A. BREWER, Centerville, Alameda Co. Short- 
horn Cattle and Grades. Young stock for sale. 



T. E. MILLER. Beecher, III. Oldest and best herd 
Hereford Cattle in U. S. Cattle delivered in California. 



P. H. MURPHY, (Brighton,) Perkins P. O , breeder 
of Recorded short Hornjand Poland China Hogs. 



POULTRY. 



THOS. WAITE, Perkins, Sacramento Co., importer 
& breeder o' thoroughbred fowls of all leading varieties 

W- O. DAMON, Napa, $2 each for choice Wyandoites, 
leghorns, Lt. Brahmas, Houdans. Eggs, $1. 



H J- GODFREY, Box lsi, San Leandro, Cal. Thor- 
oughbred Plymouth Rocks. Eggs, S2 per 13. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouee and Embden 
Geese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

O. J- ALBEE, Lawrence, Cal., breeder and importer. 

D. H. EVERETT, 1818 Larkin St.,S. F., importer and 
breeder of Thoroughbred Langshans and Wyamlottes. 



CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM, Stockton, 
Cal.; send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 



E. C. CLAPP. South Pasadena, Cal. Light Brahmas 
(Williams-Foot stock), Plymouth Rocks (Kieffer-Conger 
stock). Fowls and Eggs in season. No circulars; write 
for wants. 



R. G. HKAD, Napa, Cal., breeder of the choicest va- 
rieties of Poultry. Each variety a specialty. Send for 
new Catalogue. * 

JAS. T. BRO VN, Is Georgia St., Los Angela*, Cal. 
Breeder of thoroughbred Poultry of the leading va- 
rieties. Send for circular and price list. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



R. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer. 
South Down of Long John Wentworth herd for sale. 



KIRKPATRICK &t WHITTAKER, Knight's 
Ferry. Cal.. breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for sale. 



L. D. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys & Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 

E. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Cal., importers 
& breeders Spauish Merino Sheep; ewes £ rams for sale. 



F. BULLARD, Woodland, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanisn Merino Sheep. Premium band ol the State 
Choice bucks and ewes for sale. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal., importer and 
breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds cross-bred 
■ienoo and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale. 



SWINE. 



TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder of 
thoroughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars free 



I. L. DICKINSON, Central Point, Merced Co., Cal., 
breeder of thoroughbred Essex Hogs. Pigs now 
ready for sale. Prices reasonable. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hoga are all 
'oenrded In the American Berkshire Record. 



BADEN FARM HERD 
Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

ROBERT ASHBURNER, 
Bad«z> Station, - Baa Mateo Co., Cal. 



IMPORTANT! 

That the public should know that for the past Sixteen Tears our Sole Business has been, and now Is, 

Importing (Over IOO Carloads) and breeding improved Live Stock — Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrshires, 
and Jerseys (er Alderneys) and their grades; also, all the varieties of breeding Sheep and Hogg. We can sup- 
ply any and all good animals that may be wanted, and at very reasonable prices and on convenient 
terms. Write or call on us. PETER SAXE and HOMER P. SAXE. 

San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 22, 1886. PKTER SAXK & SOX, Lick House, S. F. 



HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN BULLS. 

Not the $50 Kind— We do not breed them. 

NOR CAN BREEDERS AFFORD TO USE THEM 

On animals of High Breeding of great Individual Merit, and 

JQYff backed by pedigrees based on actual performance of ancestry at 
tne pail and churn. We acknowledge no competition. Write for our catalogue or come and 
see and judge for yourself as to the truth of our assertion. Mention the Rural Press. 

SMITHS, POWELL & LAMB, Syracuse, N. Y. 




CHAMPION GOLD MEDAL STUD 
0.00 CLEVELAND BAYS AND ENGLISH SHIRES. 

\J \J \J Our Stalli'ins. mostly imported as Yearlings, are grown on our own farms, and thoroughly acclim- 
ated, insuring the best results in the Stud from the start 

TT #\T glllll *T^T T*TJYTrGV A XTC lic'ng crowded for room, we will make 
XlUliS 1 {(I N "1 JTVl AO I A ll a . KXDKH'MXALLY LOW FKICKS 
To REDUCE OUR HERD OF ISO CATTLE. A grand opportunity to secure foundation Stock at a 
low figure. Send for Illustrated Descriptive Pamphlet, and mention this pa]>er. 

GEO. E. BROWN & CO., Aurora, Kane Co., III. 



THE HOME and HEADQUARTERS 

FOR ALL KINDS OF 

33 IFL I T I » H HORSES, 

Koyal Society Winners In Each Breed. 

gaIjBRAITii nnoTiiEns, 

Of Jauesville, Wisconsin, ha\e imported during the present season over 200 STALL- 
IONS, including 

Clydesdale, English Shire, Suffolk Purch. Hackney, Cleveland Bay, and Yorkshire 
^ Coach Horses. 

More prize winning, high-class stock, imported by u<< than any three firms in America. Superior horses, fash- 
ionable pedigrees and all guaranteed good breeders. Prices and terms to suit every body. Visitors cordially invited. 

GALBRAITH BROS, Janesville. Wis 




atrme .-;i4.,i 



HEADQUARTERS FOR 

Holstein-Friesians i Jerseys 

A choice lot of young Cattle of the above breeds for 
sale at verv low figures Their breeding is A No 1 and 
from the BEST MILKING FAMILIES. Prices and 
QUALITY will suit. ELEVEN YEARS' experience 
on this Coast Correspondence solicited. 

Publisher of "Niles" Pacific Coast Poultry and 
Stock Itook " a new book on su' jects connected with 
successful Poultry and Stock raisiug on the Pacific Coast. 
Price, 50 cents, post-paid. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles. Cal. 




PoJlt^y; e tc Percheron Horses, 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 



SACKRIDER & CH/SHOLM, 



Cor. 17th & Castro Sts., 



Oakland, Cal. 



Number 370 ) 
Elaventh St. i 



OAKLAND, CAL. 



Manufactory of the PACI- 
FIC INCUBATOR and 
BnOODEK. Agency of 
the celebrated silver finish 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabbit and Poultry-i roof 
fences, the Wilson Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Pacific 
Egg Food, and Poultry ap- 
pliwices in great variety. 
A'so every variety of land 
• : *'<*0'v?22S?* and water Fowl, which . 
have won first prizes wherever exhibited Eggs for } 
hatching. The Pacitic Coast Poulterers' Hand-Book and [ 
Guide, price, 40c. 8end 2c. stamp for 60 page illustrated 
circular to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR Co., 1317 Castro 
St., Oakland, Cal. 





The Halsted 
Incubator Co. 

1312 Myrtle St., 
Oakland, - • Cal. 

Price from $80 
up. Model Brooder 
from $5 up. 

Thoroughbred 
Poultry and Eggs 
Send for new Cir- 
culars containing 
much valuable in- 
formation. 




We have a ciioice collection ol imported itigisicred 
Stallions on hand and for sale, unsurpassed for quality, 
breeding and prices. Call and see them, or write for 
further information. 




IMPORTANT! 

To Breeders of All-work Horses. 

FOR SALE! 

A twenty-months-old Stallion Colt; weighs 1300 pounds; 
color, beautiful steel gray; perfectly sound; broken to 
drive single and double, and for style, considering 
eight, mzc and age, perhaps cannot be excelled in the 



THE IMPROVED EGO FOOD. 

Has for more than ten years been the "Standard Poul- 
try preparation.** lt curea every disease arxl makes hena 
lay at all seasons of the \ear. Everybody known it! 
Everybody u*ea it! Ask for it. B. F WfcXLlNUTON, 
Proprietor, alao Dealer in Seeds of every variety, 425 
Washington St., San Francisco. 




JOHN McFARLING, 

Importer and Breeder of 

Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, 

Brown and White Leghorns. 
Pemu Bantams. Light Hrahmas, Pa-'- 
rldge Cocbins, Butt uocbins, Hlar;k Ml- 
norths. Roistered Berkshire Figs Also 
one pen of Langshans di ect from China. 
706 TWELFTH ST., OAKLAND, CAL. 

Large lot of young birds ready for sale; send lor circulars. 



State. Is three-f .urths Norman and one-fourth Bel- 
mont. For further particulars apply to 

G. J. VANDEB VOORT. 

Sunol, Cal. 




IMPORTANT! 
g£ AUCTION SALE 

or 

Standard Bred Trotting Stallions, 

BROOD MARES, 

Colts & Fillies of Highest Type ! 

TROTriNG AMD ROADSTER GELDINGS. 
Cleveland Bays, Saddle and Work Horses! 

Property of SSTH COOK. Esq., 
Cook Farm, Danville, Contra Costa Co , 

TO BE SOLD AT 

BAY DISTRICT TRACK, San Fra'co 

AT 10 A. M SHARP 

THURSDAY, February 16th. 

Catalogues, giving full pedigrees and desc.iptions, 
ready Saturday next, 14th inst. 

KILLIP & CO., Auctioneers. 

NEW IMPORTATION 




OUR IMPORTATION OF 1887 HAS JUST ARRIVED 
from Europe, where II. Wilsey, ssoisted by one of 
the (inn who lesides there, selected the stallions from 
the choicest strains of Eurojie, comprising 

English Shire, 

Suffolk Punch, 

Normans and 

Percherons, 

All of dark colors, from one to four years old, and each 
pedigreed in thtir own country. 

\\> will sell our stallions cheaper than the mme class 
can be bought anywhere else in the U. 8. We import 
to sell. Call and examine our stock. 

Send for Catalogue. 

H. WLLSEY & CO., 

PETALUMA, CAL. 

IMPORTED STALLIONS I 

DIRECT 

FROM 




England. 




Cleveland Bays 

FOR BREEDING 

CARRIAGE and COACH HORSES. 

— IMPORTATIONS Or — 

Seth Cook, Esq., Cook Stick Farm. Dan- 
ville. Contra Costa Co., Cal , and 
Sherlcker Bros., Springfield, III. 
For prices and catalogues apply to or address GEO. A. 
WILEY, Cook St"<k Item, Danville, Cak, SAMUEL 
GAMBLE, 1307 Dolores street, or Bay District Track, 
or to 

KILLIP & CO-, Live Stock Auctioneers, 

22 Montgomery St.. S. F. 




wp 1 



MT. EDEN STUD 

AND HERD OF 

Pure-Bred Clydesdale Horses 

And Holstein-Friesian Cattle 

And their grades. Young stock for sale on reasonable 
terms. Call on or address, 

H. P. MOHR, Mt. Eden. Alameda Co.. Cal. 



^GLADDING, McBEAN & CO. 

J^SEVVER & CHIMNEY PIPE, V 
^ DRAIN TILE, 
gkRCHITECTURALTERRA COTTA EtcJ 
Jf g/ 1358 -1360. MARKET* ST. S.'E / 
^^MANUFACTORY AT LINCOLN CAL. 



Jan. 21, 1888.J 



pACIFie RURAb PRESS, 



DO 



GRANGERS* BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA. 
SAN FRANCISCO, GAL. 

Authorized Capital^ - • $1,000,000 

In 10.000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $624,160. 

Resei-Ted Fund, $26,500; 
OFFICERS 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretory 

DIRECTORS: 

A. D. LOGAN, President Colusa County 

H. J. LEWELLING...^ Napa County 

J. H. GARDINER Rio Vista, Cal 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus County 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara County 

DANIEL MEYER San Francisco 

H. M. LARUE Yolo County 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo County 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento County 

C. J. CRESSEY Merced County 

SENECA EWER Napa County 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 

usual way, hank books balanced up, and statements of 

accounts rendered every month. 
LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 
COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made. 

promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 
DEPOSITS received. 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on demand. 
BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 

and sold. ALBERT MONTPELLIER, 

Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, July 1, lb87. 

HORTON & KENNEDY'S 

FAMOUS 

ENTERPRISE 

Self-Regulating 

WINDMILL 

Is recognized as the 
BEST. 




Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wrought iron Crank Shaft 
with double bearings for the Crank 
to work in, all turned and run in ad- 
justable babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating, 

With no coil springs, or springs of any kind. No little 
rods, joints, levers, or anything of the kind to get out of 
order, as such things do. Mills in use 6 to 12 years in 
good order now, that have never cost one cent for repairs. 
All genuine Enterprise Mills for the Pacific Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look oui for this, as 
inferior mills are beirg offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particulars free. Best .Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept in stock. Address, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before), 
HVEKMOHE, ALAMEDA CO., CAL. 

San Francisco Agency, JAMES LINFORTH 
120 Front St.. San Francisco. 



I,l<;ilTM\<; WELL SINK 
1N<4 MAI HINKRY. Our Ar- 
teaiun Well Kncj elopedia con- 
tains near 700 engravings, illustrating 
and describing all the practical tools 
and appliances used in the art of well 
sinking; "diamond prospecting ma- 
chinery, windmills, ar- 
tesian engines, pumps, 
etc. Edited by the 
"American Well 
Works,'' the largest 
manufacturers in the 
world of this class of 
machinery. We will 
send this book to any 
party on receipt of 25 cents for mailing. Expert well drill- 
ers and agents wanted. Address, The American 
Well Worfaa, Aurora. III*.. IT. N. A. 




J. L. HEALD'S 

AGRICULTURAL WORKS, 

Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers. 

Portable Straw-Burning Boilers & Engines. 

IRON AND BRASS CASTINGS. 

Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

Including Grape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, Wine 
Presses and Pumps, and all appliances u .(in Wine 
Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald'e 
Patent Kntrinc Governor. Etc. 




HORSE POWERS, WINDMILLS, TANKS 
and all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order. 
Awarded Diploma for Windmills at Me- 
chanics' Fair, 1885. Windmills from $66. Horse 
Powers from 850. P. W. KROGH St CO., 61 
Boale Street, flan Francisco. 



MISSION ROCK DOCK 
GRAIN WAREHOUSE, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

75 oon tons capacity. 75 ooo 

I U,WU Storage at Lowest Rates. • <J t \S\J\J 

CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt. 
Cal. Dry Dock Co., props. Office, 318 Cal. St room 3. 



Farmers and Fruit-Growers, Attention! 

To grow large and profitable crops and at the same time to make the farm 
better each year, is the problem for the farmer. 

FERTILIZE ! FERTILIZ E I 

NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATE. 

University of California, Nov. 3, 1886. fertilizer. It is especially well adapted to use in 

Dr. J. Koebio — Dear Sir: I have analyzed your sample California, on account of the predominance in 

of "Nitrogenous Superphosphate," with the " of Phosphoric Acid, which is generally in small 

following result: . supply in our soils. Yet it is desirable that "com- 

M , M . ., . plete" fertilizers be used in our orchards and vine^ ards. 

Soluble Phosphoric Acid 12.90 per cent and yonrs is of that charact er in furnishing 

Reverted Phosphoric Acid 95 Potash and Nitrogen as well. Very respectfully, 

Insoluble Phosphoric Acid 2.83 " K W HILGARD 

Pota'h 2.23 " 

Ammonia 1.87 " Th e value of this Fertilizer consists in the large per- 

NitricAcid 2 95 " centage it contains of Phosphoric Acid— the chief 

The above amount of Nitric Acid'is'equal to 0.85 element of all plant food-in combination with the 

per cent Ammonia, therefore, total of Nitrogen calcu- " eces9 «y quantities of Potash and Ammonia, and 

lated as Ammonia, 2.72 per cent. S tn ? ea9e ,. "' che ?, l "lf 9 , w | " wh,ch " c ?" be "P,? 1 ^; A 

„ M • iT.„„*iii„„_ i* „ ,r„, « . - In ordinary soils the rollowinif quantities wi 1 be found 

V, L t I alUabl ? I Mannre for sufficient: For Wheat, Barley, Corn and Oats, 300 to 350 

^Ihi^,?^ Vonnds per acre. For Grass, Sugar Beets and Vege- 

forn r 5v DR S E A S HN£ DEtt tables, 25^0 to 300 pounds per' acre. For Vines, Fruit 

forma. Yours truly, ^ DR. E. A. SCHNEIDER. Tree9> frQm j pou()d to 5 pound8 each _ For Flower Gar . 

,, . ., t n ft n ■■ t i • dens, Lawns, House Plants, etc., a light top dressing, 

University 01 tailtOmia, College Of Agri- applied at any time, will be found very beneficial. 

cultu I e " FOR SALE IN LOTS TO SUIT, 

Berkeley, Nov. 20, 1886. ' 

Dr. J. Koebio, San Francisco— Dear Sir: I take pleas- °" board car3 at Sobranto, Station of the C. P. R. R., 20 

ure in adding my testimony to that of Dr. Schneider as miles north of San Francisco, at $30 per ton, by the 

to the high quality of the "Nitrogenous Super- MEXICAN PHOSPHATE & SULPHUR 

phosphate" Fertilizer, analvzed by him at your re- _ . _ t ' 

quest. It is a high. grade article, and as such re- co > H - DUTARD, President, room 7, Safe 

turns the user a better money value than a low-grade Deposit Building, or 

H. M. NEWHALL & CO., Agents, 309 and 311 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 

SHIPPING I COMMISSION HOUSE, 



OFFICE, 108 DAVIS STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Warehouse and Wharf at Port Oosta. 



CONSIGNMENTS OF GRAIN, WOOL, AND ALL KINDS OF PRODUCE SOLICITED. 

Money advanced on Grain In Store at lowest possible rales of interest. 
Pull Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited- 

E. VAN EVERY, Manager. A. M. BELT. Assistant Manasrer 



Booth's Sure Death Squirrel Poison 




For Squirrels, Gophers, Birds, Mice, Etc. 

iS'Endors.ed by the Grange and Farmers wherever used.^Jf 
The Cheapest and Best. 

Put up in 1-pound, 6-pound, and 5-galIon Tins. 
Every Can Warranted. 

This Poison has been on the market less than two years, yet in 
this short time it has gained a reputation of "Sure Death,' 
equaled by none. By its merits alone, with very little advertis- 
ing, it is now used extensively all over the Pacific Coast, as well 
as in Australia and New Zealand. 

SEND FOB TESTIMONIALS. 



MANUFACTURED BY 



Patenteajan.23d.18E3. 

For Sale by all Wholesale and Retail Dealers. 



BOOTH & LATIMER, San Luis Obispo, Cal. 

Special Terms on Quantities in Bulk. 



BOOK 



OF BEAUTIFUL SAMPLE CARDS. 

41 trirka in SUeir. v<-> Aut.^r-Bfit Album VvnM. iM Anuamg 



GALVANIZED FLAT RIBBON FENCING, BARBED. 



PRICE, 4i cents F. O. B. CARS. 




GALVANIZED OR PAINTED. 



2 or 4 POINT CACTUS BARB WIRE. TWISTED RIBBON FENCING. 

Special prices quoted on application for lots for delivery at interior points. 

A. J. ROBINSON, Manufacturers' Agent, 

26 Beale St., San Francisco, Cal. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 
rFree Ooacn to and from the House. J. W. BF1CKBR, Proprietor. 



Commission Merchants. 



DALTON BROS., 

Commission Merchants 

AND DEALERS IN 

CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE, 

Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 

308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

[P. O. Box 1936.] 
^■Consignments Solicited. 



ALLISON, GRAY & CO. 

BUCCKSS0R8 TO 

LITTLEFIELD, ALLISON St CO., 

501, 503, 505, 507 and 509 Front Street 
and 300 Washington St., S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 

GREEN and DRIED FRUITS. 

Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 
Wool. 



MOORE, FERGUSON & CO., 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOOR 

— AND — 

General Commission Merchants, 

810 California St., S. F. 



Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

^"Personal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad- 
vances made on Consignments at low rates of interest. 



Geo. Morrow. [Established 1854.] Geo. P. Morrow 

GEORGE MORROW & CO., 

HAY and GRAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

80 Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Or SHIPPING ORDERS A SPECIALTY. ■» 

O. L. BENTON & OO., 

Commission Merchants, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 
Poultry and Wild Game, 65, 66,67 California 
Market, S. F. 43TA11 orders attended to at the 
shortest notice. Goods delivered Free of Charge to 
any part of the city. 

WETMORE BROTHERS, 

Commission Merchants, 

Green and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc. 
Consignments solicited. 413, 415 & 417 Washington St., 
San Francisco. 



EVELETH & NASH, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Eggs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221,223 
225 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 



J. w. WOLF, 



RALPH BROWN. 



W. H. WOLF. 



WOLF, BROWN & CO., 
General Commission Merchants 

And dealers in California and Oregon Produce, 
321 Davis Street, San FranciBCO, Cal. 



P. STEIN HAGEN & CO., 
Fruit and General Commission Merchants 

brick stores: 
408 & 410 Davis St., San Francisco 



WITTLAND & FREDRICKSON, 

Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Green and Dried Fruits. 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. 824 DavlS St., S. F. 



AMERICAN EXCHANGE 

HOTEL, 
319 & 321 Sansome St., San Francisco 

One door from Bank of California. 

The above well-known hotel offers superior 
commodations to parties visiting the city. 
The table is kept at top grade and 
the prices are within the 
reach of all. 

RATES-$1.00, $1.25 and $1.50 per day. 

Free Coach to and from the Hotel. 
CHAS. St WM. MONTGOMERY. Prop'rs 



ON 30 DAYS' TRIAL. 

THIS NEW 




^11 < a Pad diirercnt from aU 
others, is cup shupc. with Self- 
adjusting Hull In center, adapts 
"itself to all positions of the liody, while 
s thebal'inthe cup presses back 
_ tho intestines Just as a per- 
son does with the finger. WKB light pressure 

the HernlaTi held securely da? and night, and a radical 
cure, certain It laeasv. durabloandrheap, S.nthymall 
Circulars free. tCULtSIOM TUl'W CO., Chicago, UJ. 



56 



PACIFIC* RURAb press. 



Jan. 21, 1888 



.S3«H.fflA^KETJ3,Epo*T 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODOOB, ETC 

San Francisco, Jan. 18, i838. 

The past week has been very unsatisfactory. Cold 
weather, mixed with cold, piercing winds, froze the 
ardor of the most entliusiasiic dealers in produce, 
but at the close the weather shows signs of reform- 
ing, and if a good genuine change for the better 
sets in, then more trading is apt to follow. Under 
appropriate headings elsewhere in this department, 
the effects of the weather are enlarged on. The East- 
ern and European wheat markets continue to rule 
strong. To-day's cable is as follows: 

Liverpool, Jan. 18. — Wheat — Holders offer 
moderately; new No. 2 winter, 6s ad and steady; 
do spring. 6s ad and steady. Flour, supply good at 
9s 4S and firm. Corn, supply good: spot, 4s ud 
and steady; Jan., 4s 1 id and steady; Feu.,45ii}$d 
and steady; March, 5s and steady. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 

Chicago, Jan. 18 — 1 p. M. — Wheat, easy; cash, 
705^0; Feb.. 76K; May. 83c Corn, firm; cash, 
48c; Feb.. 48 1-8; May. 53!*. Oats, steady; May, 
33 9-16. Barley, nothing doing. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, Jan. 16. — The condition of wool ex- 
hibits only its late plodding movement. Stock sold 
at given prices has frequently favored fellers in qual- 
ity, while Pennsylvania and West Virginia lots have 
had undoubted concessions. Carp-t grades had a 
fair inquiry, Sales— 5000 lbs spring California, 14 
(S20C; 65,000 lbs fall and spring do, 17(0)200; 12,- 
000 lbs scoured do, 40(01420; 25,000 tbs No. 1, 42c; 
Eastern Oregon. I9@22c; 5000 tbs scoured, 4754c; 
10,000 lbs fine do, 6oe; 5000 tbs blood combing, 
37c; 10,000 lbs quaner-blood combing. 36^0; 20,- 
000 lbs X and XX, 31(832 J^c; 10,000 lbs unwashed 
combing, 28c; 25,000 tbs Tenitory, I9@23c; 19,000 
lbs fall Texas, 1 7@ 19c ; 5000 Its scoured do, 47 Kc; 
25,000 lbs do, 40(0:480; 10,000 lbs super pulled, 35 
@36c, and 220,000 lbs domestic, 9000 lbs Noils, 20,- 
coo lbs foreign and 155 bales do on private terms. 
The imports of foreign wools since December are 
9750 bales. 

Dried Fruits. 

New York, Jan. 17.— All evaporated fruits are 
held to rates after the heavy exportation of light in- 
terior stocks. 

Raisins are firm in a jobbing way. Two- 
crown, $1.45®!. 55; three-crown, $1 75(81.85; three- 
crown Londons, $2.20(0)2.25* strictly fancy layers 
and absorbed Valencias are firm at $6(8)7.25; Sultan, 
$7® 10. 

California Products in Chicago. 

CittCAGO, Jan. 14. — California dried truits are 
steady. Some small sales have been made, and 
there is a trifle more inquiry, but the mov ment is 
still light, Peaches, sun-dried, in sacks. $ lb, li'/i 
(5)i2^c; peaches, evaporated, unpeeled, in sacks, 
$ It), I4^@t6c; dodo, unpee'ed, in boxes, # lb, 
I5@t7c; do do. peeed. in sacks, $ lb, 22j4c; dodo 
do, in b ixes, $ lb, as@28c; apricots, sun-dried, in 
sacks, $ lb. i2'A@i3-; apricots, evaporated, in 
sacks, $ tb, I4K@t6c; plum*, in sacks, J? tb, 12K 
@I3':; prunes, small, jj) lb, 8@toc; prunes, fancy 
large, $ lb, I4@r4'4c; nectarines, according to 
quality, in sacks, $ lb, i6@i8c; raisins, loose Mus- 
catels, box, $t 45<Sji.6o; raisins, London layers, 
$ box, $2.05(0:2.20. 

Hops — Choice grides are ruling steady, and the 
small improvement lately noted is maintained. Com- 
mon qualities remain firm aud dull. Prices foi choice 
grades were slightly bet'er. Th-re is a moderate, 
light trade, and some hops are being exported. The 
trade is almost entirely in choice qualities, common 
grades being still dull. Choioe Pacifies, 12(64140; 
common to prime, 8@I2C. 

Beans remain steady and firm. Scarcity of off wr- 
ings on the open market prevents anything of im- 
portance being done. California, according to 
quality, $2-3C@2 35. 

California strained honey, 7(0)90. 

In dried fruits, the market is stagnant, but ho'd- 
ers are confident of better prices in the future. The 
srock here is light and also at the East, and as soon 
as the spring trade sets, the supply on this coast 
will soon be absorbed. 

Raisins are dull, but being well concentrated with, 
light stocks on this coast, holders think prices will 
go higher when the retail trade begins to buy again. 
Choice raisins are very scarce. Eastern advices re- 
port that the market is cornered and a higher range 
of values expected to rule. The prime movers in 
the advance are said to be W. T. Coleman & Co. 
of this city, who operated through their New York 
and Chicago correspondents. The stocks of choice 
at the East are light. 

Local Markets. 

BAGS— The market is quiet, although there are 
signs of a combination, but how succes-ful it will 
prove, no one can prrd'et. Calcnttas June-July 
delivery are quoted at 7'A@7%c, latter combination 
price. 

BAP.I.EY— Contrary to the bears' expectations, 
the market has ruled very strong, particularly for 
choice grades, which were (reely taken for the East, 
lully 25 jo tons being purchased. The consumption 
of feed is quite large, and as receipts are only mod- 
erate, stocks are being reduced. On Call, trading 
was more active in futures, but the fl actuations were 
slight. At to day's Call, the following sales are re- 
ported. 

Morning Session: Buyer season— 100 tons, 91c; 
200, 89M1C; 1000, 89HC; 2300, 8g'Ac May— 200 
tons, 860 $ cil. Afternoon Session: Buyer season 
— 6jo tons, 89KC; too, 89 1-8; 300, 89c; 100, 887-8; 
600, 88 K. Seller season— too tons, 82^; 100, 
82 # |? ctl. 

BUTTER— Th» market continues to be cleaned 
up. Receipts are light, but owing to the hi^h price, 
dealers take sparing y. Eastern shipments of solid 
are delajed by the snow. 

CHEESE— The market is very strong, under light 
stocks and light receipts. 

EGGS — The market eased off, but at the close is 
stronger. Many Eastern arriving ate frozen. Re- 
ceipts of Californian arc light. 



FLOUR — The market shows more trading, but 

prices do not improve. 

WHEAT— Choice grade wheats are getting 
scarce, and will probably go still higher if reports 
are correct that a very large number of fields seeded 
last year w ill have to be reseeded as soon as the 
weather moderates. In options, trading was tair 
during the week, with a fi m tone at the closing. 
The following are the reported sales made on Call 
to-day: 

Morning Session: Buyer season— 800 tons, $1.46; 
500, $1.45%; 1400, $1 46 1-8 t* ctl. Afternoon S. s- 
sion: Spot, season's storage paid— 200 tons, $1.37; 
100, $1.37 1-8. Buyer sea>on — 200 tons, $t.46J-i; 
15 JO, $1 46; 100, $1 45?i t? ctl. 



[COIIMI'NICATRD ] 

Matket Iuf irmation. 

Receipts of Domestic Produce. 

The following are the receipts of the principal 
items of California produce at San Francisco from 
the beginning of the harvest year to date, compared 
with tlie corresponding period in the previous har- 
vest year: 

July 1 '86 'o July 1 '87 to 
Jan. 15, '87. Jan. 14, '88. 

Flour, qr. sks 2,672,550 1.984746 

Wheat, ells 9,305,121 5,104,959 

Barley, ctls 1,803 7 ,a 1.601.449 

Oats, ctls 108,069 130,881 

Potatoes, sks 574 633 7^.6,661 

Corn, sks 57.691 129,208 

kye, sks 14 382 14.518 

Buckwheat, sks 4.7'7 742 

Beans, sks 367 862 333 395 

Bran, sks 286.782 271,434 

Hay, tons 62.902 71958 

Salt, tons '4i333 10,080 

Wool, bis 45 085 38,830 

Hides, No 63,763 56,213 

Raisins, 20-tb boxes 127,863 97.673 

Quicksilver, flasks 9 259 '7.796 

Hops, bis 12,397 14.26S 

The reci ipts of certain articles of produce from 
Oregon, Washington Territory and other distant 
points, for ihe same period, compaie as lo.lows: 

July 1 '86 to July 1 '87 to 
Jan. 15. '87. Jan. 14, '88. 

Flour, sks 53i ou 9 '45 134 

Wheal, ctls 296.837 568,322 

Barley, ctls '.693 75 

Oats, ctls 201,131 «33- 6 95 

Corn, oils 56,447 '2, S9-> 

Wool, bales 9 1 '58 7254 

B'an, sks 27.918 38,290 

Hops, bales 753 252 

Hides, No 19,186 10.740 

Potatoes, sks 41,726 6,906 

Cereals. 

H. Kains Jackson writing to the Far mer s and 
Chamber of Agricultural Journal, London, says: 
•' I he weather of December and the weather ol Oc- 
tober have this year seemingly changed place. Oc- 
tober was so keen and cold that the demand (or 
lood went up to a winter rate at a bound, while 
December has been so mildly autumnal and so very 
like an ordinary wet Ociober that food consumption 
has dropped back into autumn figures just as it 
should have been urging forward to a midwinter 
maximum. The effect of this weather, transforma- 
tion has been to slacken the markets in their tend- 
ency to advance, and even within the last le* days in 
some small degree to reverse it. The fir^t lortnight ot 
December has also been remarkable lor a 
very heavy importation, but, as will be seen 
from figures la er on, this importation is balano d 
by news of moderate quantities on passage and 
moderate expected shipments for some weeks to 
come. The level of value for wheat is still 
not much above 31s. per qr., but there is 
now very little in the market fur which under 30s. 
h accepted. This is a decided change for the belter 
Irom earlier in the autumn, when Ihere was a good 
deal of English, Russian, and Indian wh»at at 29s , 
and even at 28s. per qr. Flour has likewise un- 
proved a little in mean value r.otwithstand ng large 
autumnal shipments fiom the United States. The 
price of maize is maintained at the advance to which 
it was brought about a week ago. The current 
price is now 25s. 6d. , and wilh n-w crop shipments 
beginning in America, a lurther improvement is not 
deemed likely." 

The tr>tal visible supply of wheat in the United 
States and Canada, exclusive of the Pacific coast, 
amounted on January 1 to 69.780,000 bushels, 18,- 
ooo.ojo busnels less than were reported one year 
ago. There are 5,500,000 bushels less held in Min- 
nesota, Dakota and in northern Iowa and wctirn 
Wisconsin; 7,400,000 less in the region bounded by 
Chicago, Omaha, Quincy, St. Joseph, Kansas City 
and Leavenworth; 7,000,000 less in Indiana Ohio 
and Michigan, and 1,600,000 less at the Atlantic 
ports. 

The total stocks of wheat flour at principal 
points of production east of the Rocky mountains 
in millers' and jobbers' hands (warehouses) on Jan- 
uary i was about 2.036,000 barrels, about the same 
as a year ago at tint date, one-seventh more than 
two years ago, and double what the s'.ocks were 
three months ago. 

From the Eist there is a dearth of news so far 
as regards crops. '1 he extreme cold weather and 
blizzird vi-its appear to keep farmers bu-y keeping 
warm and also k -cping their live-stock alive, let 
alone attending to anything else. 

The Eastern wheat market has been q iiet, 
very strong, cold weather apparently having inter- 
fered with trading. 

Oregon advices report that in some sections where 
the yuung wheat plant was unprotected, fears are 
expressed that much damage has been done and re- 
seeding be a necessity, but then the writer has seen 
such reports put out in Oregon and prove ground- 
less, Unless thawing and freezing pr. ceded the se- 
vere cold snap, when, of cour.-e, the loss was heavy. 
1 he Oregon wheat market is reported strong, par- 
ticularly for choice grades. At last mail advices, 
the tonn lge loading wneat had a carrying capacity 
of about 50,000 short tons. 

Letiers coming to hand from the largest agricult- 
ural di-trics report th at on the best farming land 
the cold w>aiherhad ki leJ the plant, and that re- 
seeding had to be done as soon as the weather mod- 
erated. The cold strong winds of the past week are 
said to have sapped the moisture out of the ground, 



necessary to ke-p the roots of the young, besides 
freezing them. To insure crops of wheat it is neces- 
saiy to have the grain all seeded by the middle of 
Feoiuary in several of the largest wheat-growing 

counties. 

The wheat market shows continued growing 
strength, under a steady demand, light offerings, 
higher markets abroad and low rat s of charters 
here. The market's strength is not due to the daily 
press, for their articles alwa)s appear 10 be in the in- 
terest of buyers. The supply of choice grades is 
running light, necessitating buyers to bid an advance 
so as to secure desirable piroels. Parcels of both 
shipping and milling were sold the pistweekat 
from 1 5»@2j^c per cental over the daily published 
quotations. 

Bar.ey holds strong with a large increased con- 
sumption reported. The stock in this city is re- 
duced very considerably. Much of that in the 
warehouses is held liy brewers and large consumeis, 
who think the maike-t is quite low. Choice grades, 
bright, plump and heavy of bailey, are noi in free 
suj ply. The co d, dry weaiher, no doubt, has much 
to do with the market, not only increasing >he con- 
sumption, but by creating fears of a lessened seed- 
ing. 

Corn is under good control, with all coming in 
offt ring below the pool's price quickly take n. The 
supply in the State is light, while the January con- 
sumption compares favorably with other years. 

Oats are barely steady. Puget Sound and Ore- 
gon continue to feed the market too freely for the 
market's good. There is considerable warehoused, 
and with any increased receipts, some shading in 
values is not at all unlikely. 

Both tye and buckwheat are strong at quotations. 
Feedstuff. 

The cold, dry weather has increased the demand 
for both bran and middlings, and, as for that, 
ground barley also. No grass necessitates keeping 
mere cut feed at the dairies and on firms where 
stocks are belter cared for than where they are al- 
lowed to shift for themselves. Cracked corn and 
leedmeal are stronger. 

The supply of hay is running light in the country, 
owing to the cold weather, causing more feeding so 
as to save stock that have been allowed to run down. 
In this and neighboring cities, the consumption is 
larger. The market is very strong for all grades. 

Fruits. 

Considerable quantities of the Oregon apples be- 
ing received are in bad condition, owing to their 
having been frozen. The market is very dull, due 
to cold weather. Eastern apples are not in the best 
of c ndition, and have a wide lange. 

Oranges are not coming in freely, but the market 
is dull and heavy, owing to the cold weaiher. With 
warmer weather, quite a demand is expected to set 
in. The writer is unable to hear of any serious loss 
by the cold weaiher. 

Lemons are in free supply, but limes are in mod- 
erate stock, with a fair demand ruling. 

Live-Stock. 

The market shows continued strength for both 
bullocks and mutton sheep. There appears to be 
a growing scarcity of choice conditioned, and with- 
out milder weather and warm rains soon, further ap- 
preciation in values will rule. The loss put by 
stockmen and husbandmen the past fortnight, owing 
to cold weather, followed by piercing, cold winds, 
is hard to ascertain. Good authotilus place it for 
the Mite at large at from two to five per cent, with 
about 3'-$ per cent being a lair average. They a so 
say that il cold rains are experien jed, or if cold 
weather continues the next two weeks, the loss will 
be very heavy, as the supply of feed is running short 
in many sections. Hogs have made another move 
up. closing strong at the advance, under light offer- 
ings and a good demand. In milch cows and 
horses, nothing is being done, the cold weaiher and 
high cost of feed operating against the market. 

The following are ihe wholesale rates ol slaugh- 
terers to butchers: 

BEEF— Extra, 8"4@9c; first grade, grass fed, S(a 
@8)ic$lb. ; second grade, 7<£7'Ac; third grade, 6(a, 
6Kc. 

MUTTON— Ewes, 7@7'A<~; wethers, 7M@8c. 

LAMB— Spring, 15® 18c. 

VEAL— Large, 7(aj8c; small, 8@9C. 

V'ORK. — Live hogs, 5 'A@sYt c ,or heavy and me- 
dium; hard dressed, 7#(aj8)ic per lb; acorn fed. 5® 
5#c; dressed. 7@7Ac; soft hogs, live, 4@5C. 
On loot, one-third less for grain or stall fed, and 
one-half less for stock running out. 

Vegetables. 

Continued cold weaiher, with piercing cold winds 
thrown in lor a few days, was far Irom allowing gar- 
den work, and any stray vegetables 1h.1t were leli un- 
protected must have been ruthlessly killed. Ihe 
culd has set vegetables back fully one month, even it 
the weather moderates within the next few days. 

This mirket will look to the more southern coun- 
tries for early vegetables, and as freights are high, 
prices will be correspondingly high. 

Previous to the last few days of cold weather, 
heavy shipments of cabbage were made East. The 
market with us rules very strong at full prices, wilh 
an advance looked for soon. 

In root vegetables there is nothing new to report. 

Considerable quantities of the potatoes received 
lately were more or less frozen, and had to be sold 
for the best figuns obtainable. Choice, well con- 
ditioned potatoes are firm, and meet with a good 
market. 

Onions are very strong. Many cut onions are be- 
ing put on the market, and as thev are offering lor 
less money han the other, are taken by near-by con- 
sumers in preference. With milder weather a bet- 
ter demand and better prices for choice are expected 
to rule.' 

Miscellaneous. 

Very few changes were made in poultry the past 
week. The market closed firm at quotations. 

Game has come in more freely, ciu=ing lower 
prices to rule. 

B ans are in light stock and firm, although the 
demand is slow at the close. 

In seeds, there is nothing new to report. 

Ihe stock of wools has been largely reduced, 
owing to free purchases by scourer: and also free 
shipments to the East before the advance in over- 
land freights. Coar>e and defective wools are dull; 
but firm, clean, lively wools can find ready buyers. 

In hops, the market is reported dull, and this, 
too, in the face of an improving market at the East 
and in Europe. 



The tonnage movement compares with last year at 

this date as follows: 1888. 1887. 

On the way 325.200 216.093 

In port, disengaged no.530 72.140 

In port, engaged 38,439 46.474 

Totals 474.i°9 334.7 7 

To obtain the carrying capacity, add 60 per cent 
to the t ,nnaee. 



Domestic Proatio*) 



Extra choice In good package* fetch an advance on top 

quotation!), while very poor grade* , e |l less than the f 



quotations. 

. ).-»•>» AM) PEAS 

Bayo, otl - i ■ <i 1 - : 

Butter 

Pea. 
Red 
Pink 

Large White 
Small White 
Lima 

Fid Pees.blk eye 2 00 a 2 
do green 1 50 I 




Wednesday, Jan. 18 1888. 

Paper suell 15 @ - 

Braill I] n 12j 

Pecans 10 >< 16 

Peanut* 4 6 

Filberts 10 <» II 

Hickory 5 6 

POTATOFH. " 

3 4D 3 65 Burbank 1 10 1 40 

2 45 2 75 Early Rose Ml (a 1 ou 

ii CuffeyCove 80 1 10 

"i Petaiuma. 75 a 1 i 



Tomalefl 1 01) & 1 10 

65 § 70 
75 @ 00 

- « - 

— m — 

87J@ 1 10 



SO 



do .Nil.. 1 . <a 2 00 

BKoom ''nRN. lRiverr»di 
Soutb'u!>erU>u..50 10 @75 10 Jersey Blues... 

North'i, per ton.. 50 00 <f 75 00 IKuniooiut 

CHIUOKV do Kidney... 

California. t| 7 Peaehblows. . . . 

Herman 7 8 8 k,ailt> 

DAIRY PRODUCK, ETC do Oregon.. 

butter PeerleM 

Cal. fresh roll, lb. l.'jtt 47; *alt Lake 
do Fancy br'oda 47y3 

Pickle roll — <g 

Firkin, new — d§ 

Eastern 221 3 

CHIlal 
Cheese. Cal , lb.. 15® 
Eastern style... 14 <9 
to os 

Cal . ranch, doz.. 

do, store 

Ducks 

Oregon 

Eastern 

FKET> 
Rran. ton 17 10 01 

Feedneo! 20 00 rais Oo Snipe, Eng., doi. 

Ur d Barley ton. 2i> 00 00 I do Common.. — at 

Bay 11 00 cotl'J 00 I Doves. — 

Middlings 2v 00 g:l 5J l<ua 1 1 75 S 

Oil Cake Meal. 20 50 «t2s N I Rabbits 1 Ou -a 

Straw, bale. . . it) SI 0) Hare ..a 

FLOUR Venison — • 

Eitra. City Mills 4 00 @ 4 25 PROVISIONS 
no Co'ntry Hills 3 75 4 00 Oal. Bacon, 

Supernoe 3 25 « 3 5J Heavy, lb 10 

GRAIN, h MJ I Medium Ill 

Barley, feed, ctl. 85 a 92j Light llkl 

do Brewing.. 1 00 1 15 Extra Light . . l.j t 

Chevalier I IB 8 1 SO Lard 9 A 

do Coast... '.i.)0 1 15 Cal SmokedBeef I'i^ 

Buckwheat 1 15 'a 1 50 Hams, Cal 12(0 

Corn, White.... 1 SI <t I 4u , do Eastern.. 14 <a 

Yellow 1 • i . ; HEEDS. 

Small Round. 1 <o - Alfalfa. 8 

Nebraska 1 20 (fl 1 30 Canary. , 



00 « 1 05 




Sweet 1 75 2 40 

- I POULTRY AN J) UAMK 

- Hens, doz 5 50 8 00 

37) Roosters 7 00 010 00 

Broilers 6 00 8 50 

17 Ducks, tame. . 10 00 ft 12 00 
17 I do Mallard.... 4 00 4 50 

do Sprig 1 50 2 00 

'leese, pair 2 00 I 60 

do Goslings ... - 

Wild. do. 2 50 

Turkeys, lb 16 

do Dressed.. 18 
rurkeyFeathers, 
tail and wing.. 



4 F0 
19 
20 



Oats, milling ... 1 55 'a 1 1 Clover red 11 

Choice feed 1 45 la 1 47i White 

do K"-)d 1 4) fa 1 4.^; Cotton 

do fair 1 30 1 37 j Flaxseed 

do black 1 25 (a 1 40 Hemp 

do Oregon Italian RyeGraas 

Rye 2 25 3 00 Perennial 

Wheat milling. Millet, German. 

Gilt edged.. I s 1 47} do Common. 

do 'hoioe 1 4" 'it 1 42 Mustard, white.. 

do fair to good 1.7; If. Brown 

Shipping choice 1 4" " 1 42; Rape 

dogood 1 3 J« 1 oi Ky. Blue Grass. 

do lair 1 30tg 1 371 3d quality .... 



HIDES 

Dry 12Jb) 

Wet salted 5|3 

HONEY, ETC. 



Beeswax, lb 
Honey in comb. 
Honey in comb, 

fancy 

Extracted, light, 
do dark. 

HOPS 

Oregon 

California 

ONIONS 

Pickling 

Red 



21 I 
16 @ 



sweet V. Or 

Orchard. 

Red Top 

Hungarian. . . 

Lawn 

Mesquit. 

Timothy . 



19 I TALLOW 

7 1 Crude, lb 2 i 

6i Berined 8 i 

WOOL, KTO. 

15 ' FALL-1887 

15 Humboldt aud 

Mendocino ... 15 < 

— ISacfo valley 12* 

iFree Mountain. 



Silv.rskins 1 5" «t 2 111 N hern defective 

Cut I 00 1 25 3 Joaquin valley 



NUTS— JobBIN. 
Walnuts, Cel.. ft) 8 
do Chile 8 
Almonds, hdshl 5 ^ 
Soft shell. 12 



do mountain. 
10 Cava'v A F't i'II. 
— Oregon Eastern. 

7 I do valley 

13 Southern Coast. 



Frails and VegtjiaDlea. 

Extra choice In good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor gr<des»sell less than the lower 



notations. 
Apples, bx com.. 50 75 

do choice 1 CO 1 50 

Apricots, lb — - 

B inanas. hunch. 2 50 5 00 
Blackberries, ch. — — 
Cant, loupes cr. — — 
Cherries whit bx - — 
ao bNck bx... — — 
do Royal Ann.. - — 
Cherry plums... — — 
Cral .apples 



Wednesday, 

F.KB, I. " t. 

Nectarines 

do evaporated 
Peaches, 
do pared, 
do evaporated. 
Pears, siiceu 

do qrtd 

do evaporated 
PtumP, evapo'ed 
do unpitted. . 



Jan. 18, 1888 



Cranberries 10 00 (a 12 Ot Prunes. 

Currants ch 

Gooseberries lb. . 
Fi-s. black bx... 

do white bx. . . 
Grapes, white. . . 

do black 

do Boee Peru. 

do Mu-cat 

do Tokays .... 

Isabel 

Wine, Zinfandel 
do Mission.... 

Limes, Mex 

do Cal. box . . . 
Lemons, Cal., bx 1 75 




- ■ 



— I do Frenob .... 

— or — Zante Currants 

— (3 - RAI8INB 

— © — iDehesaClus, fey 3 25 3 53 

— (4 — Imperial Cabin- 

— —I et. fan y.... 2 00 2 25 
Crown London 

Layers, fey. . 1 80 2 00 
do Loov Mus- 
catels, faucy 1 80 2 00 
do Loo e Mus- 

— I catels 1 60 1 75 

i — Cal. Valencies.. 1 60 1 80 
i - i do Layers . 1 50 1 61 
4 00 do Sultanas. .. 1 60 1 75 
do Sicily, box. I 00 S 50 Driel. saoks, lb. 5 6 
do Australian — - Fractioi s come 25, 50 aud 75 
Nectariues l>ox. — — cents higher for halves, quar- 
Orauges. Com bx 1 2i ■ 2 25 ters ami eignths. 
dot'ho ce. ... 2 iO 2 60 VEGETABLES, 
do NavcLs 3 00 4 50 Artichokes, doi. 



do Panama 

Peaches, bx 

do bask 

Crawfords, bx 
do hskt. . 

do choice 

Pears bx 

do choice — - 

do Bartlett, bx — - 
Pe r s i ro m o n s, 

Jap, bx — 

Pineapples, doi. 2 00 4 5 

IMums tb - @ 

Pomegranates, b — 

Prunes lb — 

(Juinces bx — 

Raspberries ch.. — 
Strawberries ch. — 
Waterme ns, 100. — 
DRIED FRI'lT 



Asparagus bx 

— do ex fa cboi :e — — 

— Okre, dry, lb... 15 20 

— do gretn bx. . . --0 — 

— Parsnips, ctl 1 50 

— Peppers, dry S>. . 10 

— do ^reen, box — 

— Pumpkins pr tou — — 

— Squash, Marrow 
fat, too 10 00 013 00 

— I do Bummer bx — — 
String beans It.. . — — 
TomeMe* box ... Crt — 

do choice — — 

Turnips ctl 75 



Apples, siloed, ft. 

do evaporated 
lo quartered . . . 
Apricots 

do evaporated 

Hlaok berries 

i .1 trou 18 at 

Dates 9 

Figs, pressed.... S 



4 
9 
12 
8J5 
14 
121 * 



Beets, sk 

- Cabbage, 100 lbs. 

- Carrots, sk 

- Eggplant, %» bx. 
.Garlic, ft. 

6 Green Corn, cr. 

10 do sweet cr. . . 

13 do large box . . 

I ■ r. ... l'eas, tb.. 

It. Sweet Peas tb. .. 

15 lettuce, doz.... 

25 Lima Beans lb.. 

In Mushrooms, ft)., 

6 Rhubarb bx.... 



75 i 
1 00 i 
40 i 



1 25 
1 00 



- - 



Jan. 21, 1888.] 



f ACIFKB f^URAb PRESS. 



57 



Female Overseers of the Poor. — With ref- 
erence to the movtmeut in favor of electing 
women as poor-liw guardians in Lmdon this 
winter, the Pall-Mall Gazette says: The ideal 
to be aimed at is a board composed of equal 
numbers of both sexes. It is no wonder that 
the poor detest the poor law when the boards 
which stand in loco parentis to the pauper are 
almost exclusively male. If our poor-law ad- 
ministration is to be natural and humane, the sex 
of our mothers and sisters must be as largely 
represented on boards of guardians as it is in 
our own families. 



PACIFIC COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

[F irnlshed for publication in this paper by Nslhon Go ROM, Sergeant Signal Servioe Corpa. U. 8. A ] 



Choice wheat is selling at Elmira as low as 
$1.20 to $1.23, and a great deal is being shipped 
at these figures from the warehouses. 



Op hides and tallow the United States pro- 
duces $82,949,207 worth. Russia follows close 
after with $81,000,000. 



Ongerth's Tree Protector. 

Woouin & Little, Agents. 509 and 511 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal. — GENTLEMEN: In reply 
to yours of the 29th ult. , as to effects o( your Liquid 
Tree Protector on the tree you treated lor me last 
April, 1 would say that where the wash was applied 
the insects of all sorts are certainly killed. The 
wash is still on Ihe tree, and the bark under it shows 
a healthy and lively appearance. I was afraid for 
awhile that owing to its gummy feeling and appear- 
ance the pores of the bark might be closed to the ijreat 
detriment of ihe tree, but so far I am glad to say 
there have been no indications of any ground for my 
fears. 1 am so well satisfied of this that I shall en- 
tirely paint the trunks and larger branches of all my 
trees with yuur preparation this winter. 

I would add that your Grafting Compound is the 
best preparation I ever saw for covering wounds on 
trees, and it is apparently not affected by any sort of 
weather. Yours very truly, 

R. D. Fox, 
Proprietor Santa Clara Valley Nurseries. 
Sail Jose, Dec. 5, 1887. 



Galbraith's Horses. 

A new importation of horses just arrived in splen- 
did condition, brings our stock up to about 200 
stallions, nearly all of which are from two to six 
years old. of choice bn eding and highest individual 
merit. Our new illustrated catalogue is now ready, 
and will be cheerfully sent free of charge to all ap- 
plicants. 

At the great American horse show held at Chi- 
cago in November, our stock won no fewer than 28 
premiums, including first prize for Clydesdale stall- 
ions, four years old or over; first, th rd and fourth 
prizes for EnglUh Shire stallions, four years old or 
over; first, si-cond and fourth prizes for Eng ish 
Shire stallions two years old; first prize for Cleve- 
land B y stallions, two years old; first prize for pony 
st Ulions, and grand sweepstakes premium for best 
draft stallion of any breed. 

Inspection of our stock cordially invited. 

Galbkai 111 Bros. 

Jancsville. Wis., fart. 4. '888. 



From Seaboard to Seaboard- 

Editors Press: — A few weeks since we reported 
sales of Cleveland Biy stallions for California, later 
to Arizona, and now comes North Carolina with a 
call for a carload. One of the largest pi inters 
and real estate owners of North Carolina pur- 
chasing of us the grand young C. B. stallion, 
Ferdinand, with enough mares and fillies to fill a 
car. These together with the Shire stallions Talis- 
man, 318 (4723) to Chas. Westrup of this State, 
and Loid Bvron 329 (4S43) to a company of It 
Danish finners in WesUrn Nebraska, the Cleveland 
Bay stallions Warlock 52 to W. E. Wood of Ne- 
braska True Briton T44 to G. R. Humphrey of 
Iowa, IsVngfisher to P. ak & Dawson of Illinois, 
Endymion to J. R. Nation and C. F. Cranor of 
India.ia, constitute our mo-t recent sales. 

Gf o. E. Brown & Co. 

Aurora, III., Jan. o, tSSS. 



Our Agents. 
Our Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, bv asBistins 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send nom 
but worthy men 

F. B Looas— Santa Clara Co. 

Joun G. H. La.mi'adius— San Benito Co. 

G. W Ikoalls— Arizona Territory. 
William Pool— Fresno Co. 

Wm. Wm.kinso* — San Joaquin and Stanislaus Co.'s. 
A. F. .Iewrtt— Tulare 'to. 

E. H. S' Iiakkkle— P acer, Sacramento. El Dorado Co.'s. 
C. E. Williams— Yuba nil Sut-er Co.'s. 

H. G. Huston — Montana Territory. 



Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber whe 
does not want it, or beyond the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him not, fail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card (costing one cent onl) ) will suffice. We will 
not knowingly send the paper to any one who does not 
wish it, but if it is continued, through the failure of thi 
subscriber to notify us to discontinue it, or some Irre- 
sponsible party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
demand paymcntfor the time it is sent. Look oarbkulla 
at ti?* lvbkl <»n voitr papkr. 



FINE CARPETINGS, 

RICH FURNITURE, 

ELEGANT UPHOLSTERIES. 

CHAS. M. PLUM & CO., 

UPHOLSTERING COMPANY, 

1301 to 1307 Market St., cor. 9th, S. F. 



Shorthand, 



BUSINESS 
COLLEGE, 

24 Pest St, S. F 

S«ad for Cm;'«i 
Penmanship, Typewriting, Book keeping. 






Portland . 


Red Bluff. 


Sacramento. 


S. Francisco 


Los Angelee 


San Diego. 


DATE. 


5' 


1-3 

1 


3 

d' 


Wea 


to 

5' 


1 


B 


Wea 


a 


Tem 


it 
a 


Wea 


- 

g 

B 


1 


33 
5' 




H 
5' 


Tem 


B 


9 
» 


a 


Tem 


4 

5 


j Wea 


Jan. 12-18. 






g. 


CJ* 




•o 


P* 


ET 




V 


a 


S- 




■p 


0. 


b- 




■d 


p. 


& 




■a 


a. 


V 
















<J) 
















a 








a 








<B 


Thursday , 


.30 


42 


SW 


Fr. 


.00 


40 


s 


CI 


.00 


46 


N 


CI. 


.00 


49 


N 


Cl 


.00 


52 


E 


CI 


.00 


56 


SE 


Cl. 


Friday 


.02 


14 


NE 


CI. 


.00 


42 


Nw 


Fr. 


.00 


46 


W 


Cy. 


.01 


46 


Nw 


Fr. 


.00 


54 


E 


Cy. 


.00 


56 


SW 


Cl. 




.00 


14 


E 


CI. 


.00 


28 


N 


01. 


.00 


SO 


Nw 


01 


.T 


37 


SE 


CI 


.01 


52 


SE 


Cl. 


.00 


54 


w 


01. 




.00 


8 


NE 


CI 


.00 


28 


N 


CI 


.00 


30 


Nw 


01. 


00 


31 


NE 


CI 


.00 


48 


NT 


Cy. 


.00 


52 


NE 


Cy. 




.00 


6 


E 


Cy. 


.00 


30 


SE 


CI 


.T 


34 


E 


Cj 


.00 


40 


NE 


Fr 


.00 


52 


NE 


CI. 


.00 


52 


W 


Cl. 




.50 


20 


N» 


Cy. 


.T 


40 


N 


Fr. 


.T 


36 


N 


Fr. 


02 


41 


E 


Fr 


.00 


54 


W 


Cl. 


.00 


56 


w 


Cl. 


Wednesday.. . 


.03 


20 


Nw 


CI. 


.00 


44 


N 


Fr. 


.00 


40 


N 


Cy 


.00 


4b 


SE 


Cy 


.00 


62 


N 


Cy 


.00 


60 


Nw 


Fr. 


Total 


.32 








T 








.T 








.03 
















.00 









Explanation.— Cl. for clear; Cy., cloudy; Fr , fair; Fy , foggy; — indicates too small to measure. Temperature. 
Wind and weather at 12:00 M. (Pacific Standard timel, with amount of rainfall in the prtcsding 24 hours. T indicates 
trace of rainfall. 



Imported Stallions 

FOR SALS. 




Theo. Skillman, the pioneer importer, has 
just arrived with another choice lot of Stall- 
ions, consisting of the celebrated 

SUFFOLK PUNCH, 
FRENCH COACH, 
NORMAN and 

PERCHER0N 

HORSES. 

He has at his stable horses that received 
prizes in their native countries, and also first 
premiums at Siate and Dislrict Fairs of Cali- 
fornia. These are a very superior lot of horses 
and will be sold as cheap as the same grade can 
be had in any part of the world, with cost of 
transportation added. For terms address 

THEODORE SKILLMAN, 

Petaluma, Cal. 

OfCatalogue on application. 

^GWi^tEEFwiRE FEHCET 




The best Farm, Garden, Poultry Yard, Lawr.^ 
School Lot, Park and Cemetery Fences and Gates! 
Perfect Automatic Gate. Cheapest and Neatest 
Iron Fences. Iron and wire Summer Hous is, Lawn 
Furniture, and other wire work. Pest Wire Stretch- 
er and Plicr. Ask dealers in hardware, or address, 

SEDGWICK BROS.. Richmond. Ind. 



MEMORY 

Wholly unlike artificial Mystems. 
Anv hook lt-arnefl in one rending;. 

Recommended by Mass Twain, Richard PrtoCTOn, 
tbe .Scientist, Hons. W. W. ASTOli, Judah P. BENJA- 
MIN, Dr. Minor, Ac. Class of lull Columbia Law stud- 
ents; two classes Of 2110 each at Yale ; 4011 at University 
of Penn.Phila.,4iH)at Welleetey College, and three large 
classes at Chautauqua University Ac. I'roapectnsPOST 
ruEEfrom PROF. LOISETTli. 237 Filth Ave.. N. Y. 



CARDS 



AGENTS LARUE NEW STYLE SAMPLE BOOK 
of (loli I I Icv. U'l Ivlv'r Hi. Men Vioio C:,rcl9.Scrup 1'ict. 
ures. Fun. Escort an.l Trun.par. i.l Car,l» >viil, mreiil'i 
falioulBl for i SoitUnp. Ill NES 4 CO., Cahu, O, 



H.H.H. 

HORSE UNIMENT. 




TTHE H. H. H. Horse Liniment pnts 
„ new life into c'.ie Antiouatod Horse I 
For the last 14 years the H. H. H. Horse 
Liniment has been the leading remedy 
among Farmers and Stockmen for the 
cure of Sprains Brnises, Stiff Joints. 
Spavins Windfalls, Sore Shoulders etc. 
ind for Jjamily Use is without an equal 
jpr RhermafaBm. Neuralgia. Aches, Pains 

I 1 > r,lls " s . , ,' utsall< ' Hpr '' linsof all characters 
Ihe H. H. H. Liniment has many imita- 
.:oiir. and we caution the Public to eoa 
that the Trade Mark " H. H. H." is on 
?very Bottle before pnrchasini". For sale 
iworywhere for 50 oentu aud $1.00 t»oi 
Bottle. 

For Sale by all druKKists. 



WINCHESTER HOUSE. 

44 Third Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

This Fire-p-oof Brick Building is centrally located, in 
the healthiest part of the city, only a half block fron. 
the Grand and Palace Hotels, and close to all .Steamboat 
and Railroad Offices. 

Laundry Free for the use of Families 

HOT AND COLD BATHS FRES. 

Terms, Board and Room, $1.00 per Day 

And upward. 
ROOMS WITH OR WITHOUT BOARD. 

FREE COACH TO THE HOUSf 
J. POOLEY. 




1 * FOREST \mL 



Catalpa Spcciosyi, 

White Ash, !■ • 

Larch, Pines, Spruwa, 
Arbor Vitais, etc., etc 
»' Catalpa Spcciota Seed. 
Forest and Evergreet 
Seeds. f 

R. DOUGLAS & SON, 

Wautiegan, IIL 



BEST TREE WASH. 



" Greenbank " 9S degrees POWDERED CAUS- 
TIC SODA (tests 99 3-10 per cent) recommended h\ 
the highest authorities in the State. Also Common 
Caustic Soda and Potash, etc., for sale by 

T. W. JACKSON & CO., 
Manufacturers' Amenta, 
104 Market st and 3 California St.. S. F 



LOOK 



AGENTS . 

^nd farmers with no experience make nn 
lionrduringspureiini . J.Y. Ken von , fjlens Falls, 
W. \ ., made Skis or, dar. $?<»:50 one week, 
bo can you. .Proofs nn<l eatnloeue free. 

J. K. suiii'Aiu & Co., Cincinnati, O. 



UNFERMENTED WINE. 

Made from Zinfandel grapes. Put lip In <|iiart and 
pint bottles. Price, 06 per dozen quart ho'tles; $4 pei 
dozen pint bottles. Orders can he filled through thih 
office or b> II. MILLS & SON, I akevillc, Cal. 



PERGHERON HORSES. 

FRENCH COACH HORSES. 

More Imported and Bred than by any otbor Eight Establishments. 

511 PURE-BREDS Now Actually on Hand. 

Experience ami Facilities Combined for Famishing' Beet Slock of Both Breeds 
art Re as ena Die JPrlees. - 
Separate Cataloaues for each brcctl, With history of same. Say which is wanted. Address 

M. W. DUNHAM, Wayne, Du Page Co., Illinois. 




ORANGE and LEMON. 

All the leading varieties of Orange and Lemon Trees. Genuine Washington (Riverside) Navels, Mediterranean 
Sweet, Jaffa, Malta Blood, Homassasa, Parson Brown, etc. Unshiu on Grapo fruit stock, Tangerines and Manda- 
rins. 

In Lemons, Villa Frnncha, Sicily and Eureka, Sweet and Sour Seedlings in any quantity. 
Catalogue and price list free. Address 

H. L. WHEATLEY, Altamonle Nurseries, Altamonte, Orange Co., Fla. 



The WHITE IS Klh» 

FOR FAMILY USE, 

Dressmaking, Tailoring and Gen- 
eral Manufacturing. 



IN ITS GREAT RANGE OP WORK IT 
STANDS WITHOUT AN EQUAL. 

THE LIGHTEST RUNNING, 

THE MOST DURABLE, 

THE FINEST FINISHED, 

THE BEST SATISFYING. 

WHITE SEWING MACHINE COMPANY, 

108 & HO POST ST.. S. P. 



This space is reserved for the 
NEW HOME SEWING MACHINE 
COMPANY, 725 Market St., Ban- 
croft History Building, S. F., Cal. 





PUNNING 



IT STANDS AT THE HEAD! 

'—IP 

DO NOT FAIL to SEE THE " DOMESTIC " 

Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 

It is the leader in practic.il progress. Send for | rico list 
to J W. EVANS, 29 Post St, S. P. 



FIRE OF LIFE 

A MAGIC CURE 

— FOR— 

Rheumatism, Neural- 
gia, Fnbumonla, Pa- 
ralysis, t- sthm», Sci- 
atica, Gout, Lumbago 
and Deatness. 

Everyh idy should have it. 
G. d. BURNETT, Agt 

327 Monttromrrr St., S F. 
Price, $1.00. Sold by all Drue- 

t;ista. tfgrcall and see 
DR. CHAS. ROTO ELL. 
Oinca, 426 Kearny St., 
San Francisco. 




UTTON GRINDER 




15000 



Machines in actual use 
\testiiying to its merits. 

Can be carried Into Held m-d nltachcd in Mowing 
Machine Wheel. Xtuv liesciipllve Cat&j0ff ue tree. 
HICCANUM MANJF'C. CORPORATION, 

Bnoowuon u> R. H. ALLRN * CO., 
I N9 Wutcr Kt.. N. V. Main OUlec, llleeunum. OoDB. 



bPRAY PUMPS. 

Now is the time to buy. Do not waste money on poor 
pumps with leather valves, hut buv the"CiIMAX 
SPRAY PUMPS," the only pump having all its 
|)->ris made ol non-corrosive metal, and the very 
best Spray Pump in tho market. 

Send for circulars and ptices. Hose furnished to 
farmers at wholesale prices. 

CAL. FIRE APPARATUS M'P'G CO.. 

18 California St.. S. P 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half yea* ending December 31, 1887, the Board 
of Directors of tho German Savings and Loan Society 
lias declared a dividei.d at the rato of four and one-half 
(4J1 per cent per annum on term deposits, and three 
ind thrie fourths (3j) per cent per annum on ordinary 
deposits, and payable on and after Tuesday, the 3d day 
of January, lbSS. By order 

GEO. LKTTE, Secretary. 



MYERS' SLIP SHARES 

FOR SALE BY 
D. N. & O. A. HAWLEY, 
2 &I4.Sutter[St., cor.'Market.lSan. Francisco 



58 



PAClFIS RURAb PRESS. 



[Jan. 21, 1888 



?eeds, Hants, ttc. 



NAPA VALLEY NURSERIES. 

Established 1878. 

Fruit Trees, Grapevines, Resistant Grape 
vine Stocfc, 

And everything to be found in a first ' lass Nursery; 
the following new fruits, obtainable only at these Nu 
ries: 

Clyman —Earliest and finest shipping Plum. 
Ulatls— Earliest and finest shipping Peach. 
California Advance — Earliest and best Cherry. 
Purity— Most beautiful, white, canning Cherry. 
Black Mastodon— Largest black Cherry known. 
Ceutennial— The finest keeping and shipping, light 

colored Cherry. (This variety is now cultivaUd 

throughout the State; to be safe, however, it is best to 

prooure it from headquarters.) 
Commercial — The largest Almond. 

Send for catalogue and price list. AM stork unirri 
gated and free from disease. LEONARD COATES, Napa 
City, Cal. For County Rights for a new and valuable 
Fruit Drier, address as above. 



GUM AND CYPRESS TREES. 

All Fresh, Healthy, Hardy Stock, Regularly 
Transplanted in Boxes hy Hand. 

Monterey CypreM. 6 to 10 inches high, of 110 trees 
per box. at £2 per 100, or $19 per 1000; (in larger spaces), 8 
to 12 Inches blah, of 70 trees per box, at 5<2 per box or $25 
per 1000; or 12 to 15 inches, of 50 trees per box, at $1 per box 
or 835 per 1000. Seedlings, 2 to 4 inch 6s (slow grown), at $5 
per 1000; transplanted thick, 4 to 6 inches, at $10 per 1000. 

Monterey Pine*. 4 to 6 inches of 100 trees per box 
at $2.50 per box, or $22.60 per 1000; 6 to 8 inth.es of 5ii tre s 
per box at $3.50 per 100, or $30 per 1000. Acacia Melanoxy- 
lon, 15 to 20 inches of 35 trees per box at $1 75 per box. 

Blue limit, 6 to 10 inches of 100 trees per box at $1.50 
or $14 per 100. lu larger epaces, 10 15 inches of 7l) trees 
per box at $1.50 per box, or $19 per 100 '; 15 to 24 inches of 
60 trees per box at $1 50 per box; 2 to 3 feet of 30 per box at 
the rate of >5 per luO. Also large straight sacked or bulked 
Gums, 6 to 15 fet-t, at low rates. 

IJ. S. stamps will be taken for sample boxes. AH trees 
will be delivered promptly and in g od condition, free to 
shipping points. Send all money orders, postal notes or 
drafts to 

GEO. R BATLEY, 
Box 106. Berkeley, Cal. 



CoXrS 

/JL, NEW 

Catalogue 

r ry p of 



FOB. 1888. 



«"0ur New Catalogue for 1888, mailed free on appli 
cation, contains description and price of Vegetahle, 
Flower, Grass, Clover, Tree and Field Seeds; Australian 
Tree and Shrub Seeds; native. California Tree and Flower 
Seeds, Fruit Trees, and many new novelties introduced 
in Europe and the United States. 

THOS. A. COX & CO., 

411, 413, 415 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



Orange Growers, Look Here ! 

J. VILLJNGER'S 
Covina Nursery ! 
150,000 ORANGE TREES 

One y ar old from the seed. Absolutely the finest plant 
in Southern California Will he carefully budded from 
the world's most famous varieties. 
For particulars apply to 

J. VILLINGER. 

Covina. Cal. 



SAN LEANDR0 NURSERY. 



FINE ASSORTMENT or tub LEADING VARIETIES CP 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

The Hardy White Tuscany, Hardy Yellow 
Tuscany, Clingetone Peaches. 

LARGEST PEACHES IN CALIFORNIA.. Splendid 
flavor; good shippers; excellent for canning. 

Gum, Cypress, Pine and Pepper Trees in boxes. Flow- 
ers and Shru s. 

fcjr'AI 1 tree* grown on new, rich soil, w'thoat irriga- 
tion, and are positively free from insect pe>ts. 

G. TOSBTTI, 
San Leandro, Alameda Co , Cal. 



FOR SALE. 



Grapevines and Cuttings, 

OLIVE TREES and CUTTINGS. 

RlPARIA SEED. 
Apply to CLARENCE J. WETMORE, 
204 Montgomery Sr., 8. P. 



John Saul's Washington Nurseries 

Our Catalogue of New, Rare and Beautiful Plants for 
1883 will be ready in February. 

It contains list of all the most beautiful and rare 
Greenhouse and Hothouse Plants in cultivation, as wtll 
as all novelties of merit, well . rown and at very low 
prices. Every plant lover should have a copy. Orchi ls 
— A very large stoc'* of choice East India, American, etc. 
Also, catalogues of Roses, Orchids, Seed's, Trees, etc. 
All free to applicants. JOHN SAUL, 

Washington, D. C. 



West Side Nursery, Los Gatos. 

Situated on the hills west of Los Gatos. Orange, 
Lemon and Lime Trees. Strawberry Guavas and Date 
Palms. Citrus Fruits only. 

N. E. BECK WITH, Prop'r. 



JAPANESE and CHINESE FRUIT TREES, 

PERSIMMONS, CHESTNUTS, AND PLUMS. 

We are in receipt of a new, superior 

chinssx] r» n: a. o dee , 

Color of flesh blood-red, flavor delicious, skin smooth. Further information on application. A fine lot of rare 
Japanese Seeds and Bulbs. Our stock of Vegetable and Garden Seeds is offered very low. Send lor Catalogue. 

H. H BBROER & CO. (Established 1878), 
Proprietors GEO. F. SILVESTER SEED HOUSE, 315 and 317 Washington St., San Francisco, Cal. 




SURP LUS STOCK. 

CHERRI ES— 5000 Royal Ann and Black Tartarian. 
5000 Bartlett Pears. 

5000 Plums, Coe's Golden Drop, Kelsey's Japan, 

Washington and other good sorts. 
Also some Apricots, Peaches and Apples. 

1000 Camellias in pots and open grounde. 25,000 Cypress transplanted in boxes. lOOO Cypress, 
2 years old. 1 0,000 <; uiiih. Blue and Red, in boxes. 2000 Lmirus Tinus. iSOOO Palms, 
1 year old in pots. 1500 Pines, 2 year old. 2000 Peppers, pot grown. 25,000 
Koses. Also an immense assortment of Pot Plants and Flowering 
Shrubbery at bedrock prices. Address 

GILL'S HSTTTIFLSZEIFHES, 

Twenty eighth Street, near San Pablo Avenue, OAKLAND, CAL. 

Send for Catalogue and Price List. 




Healthy 
Vigorous 
PLANTS. 

DELIVERED 
FREE BY MAIL 

idorn your Homes 



A few SHRUBS, a Bed of ROSES, 
CLEMATIS on the VERANDA 

Hj^A will work a com plete change in your premises 

PRICES LOW. JUST READ! 
1 4 Continuous Flowering Roses $ | . 

•ZS Everhlooming Rosea, including Prin- 

t^*& cess Beatrice , Sri. 00. 
E.fll 1 dream Cnrnations, nil different, in- 
cluding Mrs. Clereland ml.00. 

14 Fairy flowered ClirysnntlicmnmM* 
from the wonderland Japan — SI .00. 
10 magnificent IJeconiuw, scarlet, white, pink 
and crimson flowered, with ornamental varie- 

eaterl foliaee ! they succeed with all 81.00. 

Plants and Seeds of all kinds. 

CATALOGUE FREE. It Will Please You. 

No exaggerated Descriptions. Exact facts about every 
tested variety. Address 

HILL & CO., RICHMOND, INDIANA. 




HandBook ^iis 

^ for the ^ AND GARDE N-'^ 
WS&W^ REQUISITES 



W. W. RAWSON & CO. 

34 South Market Street, Boston, Mass. 

Importers and Glowers ol Garden, Field and Flower Seeds. 



B. K. BLISS & SONS, formerly of New York. 

Our Urjre and prafuaely illustrated Catalogue for MB baa 

bran made still more it tractive by tin- addition of a richly iltu- 
miaalfd cow-r, heautifal colored plates, anil nUfMHHtt lifelike 
illoSCrataOIlBOirare and beautiful flowers urn 1 choice vegetables, 
including many novelties of rare merit will ba mailed free to 
Customers of last yen r. and to nil others, upon receipt of Ten 
Cents, which will he refunded with first order. B. k. KM,... 
eurvivnm* partner of B. K. Blisa & Sons, is n-'W with us, and 
rc&pectlully solicits the patronage, of former customers, 
. . W. Rawson, 25 C«nt8. 
SUCCESS IN MARKET GARDENTrv Q and Vegetable Growers' Manual, by W. W. Raw a on, Practical Market 
Gardener. The most instructive work of the kind ever published, full of important information to market gardeners, and to all 
growers of vegetables in large or small quantities. 200 pages, fully illustrated, sent post-paid, bv .nail, upon receipt of fi.no. 



NEW BOOKS ON GARDENING. 

CELERY^ AND_ ITS jDUXTIVATJpN. by W. 



CHOICE ALFALFA SEED 

In Lots to Suit. 

Orangcrs' Business Association, 

108 DAVIS STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



Warranted Seed. 



SEED , 



I have founded 

my business on 
tile belief that 

! public are anxious to get their seed lirectly from the 
grower* Raising a large proportlo i ol my seed enables 
?^nie to warrant Its freshness and pui lly, as see my Vege- 
table and Flower Seed Catalog ,ie for 188S, FliKK 
for every son and daughter of Adam. II is 
liberally illustrated with engravings uiade directly 
from photographs of vegetables grown on my teed 
m». Besides an immense variety 01 standard 6eed, you 
will find In It some valuable uew vegetables not found in 
jv other catalogue. As the original introducer of the 
Eclipse Meet, Burhank and Early Ohio Potatoes, Hubbard 
quash, Deephead Cabbage, Cory Corn, and a score of other 
luable vegetables. I Invite the nitrnnago of the public. 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Harblehead, Mass. 



SEEDLESS OONSHIU ORANGE TREES. 

Over 40,000 received this season; from 2 to 5 feet high, showing fine new growth. Pear Stock (100,000 com- 
ing shortly). Every kind of 

Japanese Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Etc., Etc. 

£3Ti 'ir uiars on application. Correspondence invited. All orders and inquiries command prompt attention. 

JAPANESE TREE IMPORTING CO., 120 Sutter St., San Francisco. 




URPEE'S 

SEEDS. 



FARM ANNUAL FOR 1888 

Will be Kent EE to all who write for it. It is a 
Hnndhomp Book ol 128 pp., with hundreds of 'llus- 
tmtions. Colored I'lai »■>. and tells all about the 
BEST GARDEN, FA It 31 and FLOWER 
Seeds* Bulbs, Plants, and Vuliinble New 
Book* "n (inrdeii Topirs. It describes Rnre 
Novelties in VE<iETABI,FSaud FLOWERS of real value, which can- 
not be obtained elsewhere. Send address on a postal for the most complete Cata- 
logue pub- 
lished, to 



ML ATLEE BURPEE & CO. PHILADELPHIA, PA. 




ELk. /EN PACKETS FOR 23 CENTS 

CHOICE FLOWER SEEDS 

F0I- ^ C in Postage St amps or money, we will 
COCt send bj mail one pkt. each of the fol- 
lowing rare and Vitluablt- Seeds: astmin. Dwarf 
French Boguet. mi*ed. l*ALv\Ins, perfection, tine 
doable. UIA.M ill >. Double Diadem Pinks, all varie- 
ties. (ilANT CElf .MAN PANNIICS. PBTCHIA, 
large flowering PHLOX IIKIHIIOMIII, grfinditlnra, 
very rare. TEKBENA, all fire shades. NEW ZKKKA 
, ZINNIA, bright colors. A Splendid Everlasllnft Flower. 
The beautiful yfonn FIower,thernostelegantcIiml: 
" mm DOES I>E Jto, (Cape Gooseberry) excellent for pies; 
tslstyear from seed. 1 1 pkts. 25c. 5 collec'B for Si 

lirectioQS for culture. Our hrnntlfnl 08 pp. Catalogue arrompm 
each order. Aiidro, SAMUEL WILSON. MecbanlcTlllc, Buck. to. PC 




RANCHO CHICO NURSERY. 



Large and Select Stock of 



Fruit, Shade & Ornamental 



Grown Without Irrigation, Clean, Well- 
Rooted and Free from Insect Pests. 

Full Line of Choice Grapevines. 

Stock of French Prunes and Apricots 
exhausted. 

Catalogue and piice list sent on application. 

JOHN BIDWELL, Proprietor, 

Chico, Cnl. 



ORANGE TREES 

AT HALF PRICE. 

I am now prepared to furnish fine, lartte, first class 
Orange Trees for the season of at the f jllowing 

prices : 

Per 100 trees. 

Washington Navels, June buds 9 ®0 

Washington Navels, 2-year-old buds 100 

Mediterranean Sweets, 2-year-old buds 76 

Sour Stock Seedlings, 4 years old 30 

Indian Kiver Sweets, " " 60 

Cnshlu of Japan, 2-year-old buds, smaller trets 60 

And other varieties cheap. Send for circulars. 

ALSO, FIRST-CLASS 

ORANGE AND VINEYARD LANDS, 

From $150 to $300 an Acre, 

With First-Class Water Mights. 
Reference, Riverside Banking Company. 

J. H. FOUNTAIN. 

Riverside, Dec, 1S87. 



French Prunes for Sale. 

1000 TREES! 

5 to 7 feet high, nicely rooted, at $20 
per 100. Guaranteed true to name 
and free from disease. Owing to 
their extreme scarcity, an immediate 
order would be necessary to secure 
them . Address 

H. W. PECK, 

Laurel Dale Nursery, Healdsbur?, Cal. 

ORANGE TREES. 

Plant Trees Grown in Your Own Section. 

They do much better than others brought from a 
dib tan ce. 



THE ALOHA NURSERIES, 



Penryn, Placer Co., 



California, 



Offe rs a large home grown stock of Orange Trres, Cali- 
fornia Fan Palms and Pepper Tree', Limes, Dates, etc , 
at prices to suit the times. 

FRED. C. MILES, ManaBer. 



SORGHUM 

A little book that every farmer ought to have 
is the "Sorghum Hand Hook" for 18SN. which 
may be had free, by addressing The Blymyer 
Iron Works Co., of Cincinnati, O. Sorghum is a 
very valuable crop for syrup-making, feed, and 
fodder, and this pamphlet gives full information 
about the different species, best modes of culti- 
vation, etc. Send and get it and read it. 

ROOT GRAFTS AND SEEDLINGS 

or 

Apple, Pear, Cherry, Plum. 

Write fcr Pricks. 
BLOOMING TON (PHCENIX) NURSERY, 

SIDNEY TUTTLE & CO., Prop'rs, 
Established 1S62. Bloomirgton, Illinois. 



s 



IBLEY'S TESTED SEED 



('iTAi.nctrt Frrb* Coniali 
ell the latest novelties and sti 

varieties uf linrden. Field and ' 
r yriower Bead! (iardenen e* 
where fchnuid consul! it nefore 
purchasing Stock" pure and fresh.pnees reasonable. 
Address lliriim **il»luv A Co.. 

KocliL'ster, V V,, <-■■ i'liicauu. Ills* 



S 



FRUIT TREES FOR SALE. 

2000 Tradegy Prunes and other choice vnrieties. 
6000 Celebrated Early Apricots. For prHe address 
O. W. WA rSON, 
Turner Hall, Sacramento Co., Cal. 



Bartlett Pear Stock for Sale. 

5000 Bartlett Pear Trees, one and two years old, for 
ale at bed-rock prices; special rates to dealers. 

H. B. MUSCOTT, San Bernardino, Oal 



Jan. 21, 1888.] 



f AClFie I^URAb PRESS. 



59 



160 ACRES NURSERY! 1,500,000 TREES AND VINES! 

W. M. WILLIAMS & CO.'S 

SEMI-TROPICAL AND GENERAL 

— =NURSERIES^- 

Fresno, Cal. 



We would respectfully call the attention of the public to our very complete list of Nursery 
Stock for the enBuing season, consisting of a full line of all the Standard Varieties of 

APPLE, PEAR, PLUM, CHERRY, PEACH, APRICOT, NECTARINE, Etc., Etc., 

BESIDES A LARGE STOCK OF THE GENUINE 

WHITE ADRIATIC FIG, 

Guaranteed, and the NEW LYONS CLING PEACH. We have an immense stock of ROOTED 
VINES, oomprising 86 varieties. We carry also a full line of CITRUS FRUITS, well grown 
and warranted free from all pests and true to label. 

43"Send for Catalogue and address all correspondence to Fresno, Cal., Box 175. 



FRUIT TREES. ™* FRUIT TREES. 

THOS. MEHERIN, 

■ AGENT 

O fl.LIPOR.NIA. KTTJR.SEFIY COMPANY, 

NOW OFFERS THE LARGEST STOCK OF 

FRUIT TREES, GRAPEVINES, OLIVES, SMALL FRUITS, Etc r 

Ever offered on the Pacific Coast at verv low rates. Samples on hand at below address. 

SEEDS. SEEDS. SEEDS. 

We also offer at lowest rates a large and fresh stock of 

GRASS, CLOVER, VEGETABLE, FLOWER, and TREE SEEDS, 

All of which are thoroughly tested before being sent out. Large stock of Ornamental Trees and Plants, Bulbs, 
Roses, Magnolias, Palms, etc., constantly on hand. 

P. O Box 2059. THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery Street, 

Priced catalogues mailed free on application. Agent for California Nursery Co. in San Franci c co. 



STOCKTON NURSERY 

Established 1853. 

ADRIATIC and SAN PEDRO FIGS. 



French Walnuts, Home-grown Oranges and Roofed Grapevines. 

Illustrated Catalogue and Price List for the seaeon of 1887-88 free to all sending for them All Trees, Vines, 
etc., guaranteed free from Bcale and other injurious pests. A certificate of inspection furnished to all. 
A full line of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Vines and Hothouse Plants. 

E. C CLOWES, Proprietor 

(Successor to W. B. WEST), 

Stockton, Cal. 



DUANE WESTCOTT. 



F. B. WESTCOTT. 



Westcott Brothers, 



"WESTCOTT STANDARD," 

HARDY NORTHERN-GROWN SEEDS, 

FROM MINNEAPOLIS. MINN., 
Will be a Special Brand of Seeds Guaranteed by us as Good and Reliable. 

406 and 408 SANSOME STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Correspondence solicited from Merchants, FarmnrR and others All kinds of Seeds, Lawn Grass, Plants 
and Bulbs always in Stock. 



FANCHBR CREEK NURSERY, 

Fresno, Cal., 

OFFERS THIS SEASON FOR SALE A FINE ASSORTMENT OP 

FRUIT c*3 OH.KT-A.lVtESN'T-A.ILi TREES. 

SPECIALTIES ; 

WHITE ADRIATIC FIG. SAN PEDRO FINEST TABLE FIG. JAPANESE FRUITS, 
OLIVES, POMEGRANATES, MULBERRIES, TEXAS UMBRELLA 
TREES, and also a fine collection of PALMS, YUCCAS, 
ROSES, and OLE ANDERS. 

Send 10 cents in stamps for a sample of the dried and cured Adriatic Fig. Fall catalogue now ready. AddresB 
all letters to P- ROEDING. Fresno, Cal. 

GRASS, CLOVER, VEGETABLE, 

TREE AND FLOWER 



ORANGE AND LEMON TREEb 

In Large or Small Lots, both Wholesale and Retail, 

Cheaper than Ever Before Offered on this Coast, 

AT THE 

CAPITAL NURSERIES, 

SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



These Trees ar^ all budded with the very best known varieties and are true to name find free from insect pests. 
We also have an immense stock of all kinds of Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees, Vines, Plants, etc. In fact 
everything in the nursery line at lowest market rates. Also a complete assortment and large stock of Field, 
Garden aud Flower Seeds at lowest market rates, either wholesale or retail. Our Seals are all tested before send- 
ing out. 

Send for Peed and Tree Catalogue. Call, if possible, and see our stock. Special rates (very low) given on large 
orders. Correspondence toli ited. Address all communications to 



W. R. STRONG & CO., Sacramento, Oal. 



460 ACRES. 



INCORPORATED 1884. 



CALIFORNIA NURSERY COMPANY 



TREES 



FRUIT & SEMI-TROPICAL. 

GRAPEVINES, SMALL FRUITS, ETC 

Largest Stock on the Pacific Coast ! 

SPECIALTIES: 

PLUMS, PRUNES AND APRICOTS, ON MYROBOLAN STOCKS. 

Facilities for Packing and Shipping to Distant Points are unsurpassed. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE. Address 

CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO.. Niles. Cal. 

JOHN ROOK, Manager. 



JAPANESE 

"UNSHIU" ORANGE TREES. 

Kinkan, Bushinkan, Satsuma, Canton Hybrid, Oaidai and Kinokuni, 

ALL FREE from Scale, 3 to 5 feet high, Healthy and Bushy Trees at LOWEST PRICES. 

3000 CAMPHOR TREES. 1000 ROOTED GIANT BAMBOOS. 

ORIENTAL IMPORTING CO., 520 Front St., S. F. 




Alfalfa, Grass, Clover, Vegetable, 
Flower, Fruit, and Seeds of every 
variety. Special low rates for 
quantity. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 
Seeds and Improved Egg Food, 

435 Washington. S*.. San Francisco. 



FRESH STOCK. 



LOW PRICES. IN LOTS TO SUIT. 

CATALOGUES ON APPLICATION. 

TRUMBULL & BEEBE, 



419 & 421 Sansome Street, 



SAN FRANOISOO. 



E. J. BOWEN'S SEEDS. 

ALFALFA, 

ONION SETS, 

GRASS, 

CLOVER, 

VEGETABLE and 

FLOWER SEEDS. 

Large Illustrated Descriptive and Priced Seed Cata- 
logue, containing valuable in'ormation for the Gardener, 
farmer, and Family, mailed FREE to all applicants. 

Address. E. J. BO WEN, Seed Merchant, 
815-817 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

NEWCASTLE EARLY APRICOT, 

Earliest in Cultivation. 

HANDSOME AND GOOD FKEESTONE. 

Good Shipper and Productive. 

All kind > of Fruit 1 rees and Small Fruit Plants. Send 
for Catalogue. 

C M. SILVA & SON, Nurserymen, 
Newcastle, Cal., or Lincoln, Cal. 



VITIS CALIFORNIA SEEDS. 

Five pounds and over, 81 per pound; less than five 
pounds, 81.50 per pound. 

Vitis Caiifornica seedlings. Phylloxera Proof. 



P. 0. Box S. 



*10 per 1000. 

C. MOTTIER. 
Middletown, Lake Co., Cal. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

Established 1858. 

A general assortment of healthy FRUIT TREES, VINES 
and SMALL FRUITS, grown without irrigation, free 
from Scale Bug and warranted true to name. 

Apple Trees in assortment, Crawford's Early, Orange 
Cling, Sal way and other kinds; Roval and Blenheim 
Apricots on Myroholan stocks: Bartlett, Beurre Hardy, 
Beurre Clairgeau, Howell, Winter Nelis and Easter 
Beurre Pears, Cue's Golden Drop or Silver Prune and 
other Plums and Prunes in assortment. Rockport, 
Black Tartarian, Napoleon and Ceuteunial Cherries; 
Nut-hearing Trees; Grapevines, etc. 

Prices fu. nished on application. Address, 

W. H. PEPPER, 
Petaluma, Cal 



100.000 

RARTLETT PEAR TREES, 

The best kind for Shipping and Canning, 
General assortment of all kinds of 

FRUIT and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Including 

ORANGE and LEMON TREES. 

Also, a large stock of imported Fruit Tree Seedlings, 
Apple Pear, Myroholan Plum and Mazzard Cherry. 
Send for prices. Address, 

J. T. BOGUE. 

Marysville, Cal. 

Formerly of Martinez, Cal. 

ROOTS AND CUTTINGS 

Of the following varieties FOR SALE: 

Cahernet Sauvignon, Cahernet Frank, Tuinturier, 
CMrlgmne, (Riparia, for Rtsistants), Mataro, Grenacho, 
Trousseau. 

Also Trees andCuttings of the true Whito Adriatic Fig. 

M. DENICKB, 
Del Monte Vineyard and Orchard, 
Fresno, Cal. 



g ySh^Cuns - 2flfaff>^Revorvers f 

fOT J', ice J.ixt. aunWorka,PitUbnxffh.75*V 

r 1 1 tj <-'A m>*. :■■> t. ot icrap plcturei, one checker 

plini 1 "-'"!. and [org* sample 1 <i bidden name 

■ -wll ca-ds and agenta' outfit. All only 2c. C'ai-itai. 
Card Co., Columbus, Ohio. 



60 



PAClFie RURAb PRESS. 



[Jan. 21, 1888 



BAN FRANCISCO : , 
Junction Market, Fine and 
Davis Streets. 



BAKER & HAMILTON. 



SACRAMENTO : 
Nos. 9, 11. 13, and 15 
J Street. 



MANUFACTORY : Benicia Agricultural Works, Benicia, Cal. 



EASTERN OFFICE : 88 Wall Street, New York. 



IMPORTERS, MANUFACTURERS. AND DEALERS IN 



HARDWARE AND AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

GKEjUVC seed sowebs. 






No. 1, Weight, 130 lbs. $k0. 

' This Machine is juo with a Chain and Bevel 
jear. It is the one we have sold for jears, and 
has given tiie best satisfaction of any broadcast 
seeder yet invented. 



No. 2, Weight, 154 lbs. $22.50. 

Runs with Chain and Belt Giar. The advantages 
gained on the bevel gear are smoothness of movement, 
noiseless while running, durability of the fast running 
parts, and the evtnness with which it sows the grain. 



No. 3, Weight, 164 lbs. $25. 

Runs with all Gears. This machine is preferred by many to 
the others whioh run by Chain. The feed valves and distiibutor 
are the same as in the ethers. 



We have manufactured the GEM SEEDERS for a number of years, and they have given better satisfaction thin any other Broadcast Seeder in the mirkft. Tliev throw the seed 
horizontally ir stead of vertically (as in all old-style Seeders), and thus save a large portion of the grain. Where sold they have uever failed to give satisfaction. ARMSTRONG'S PATENT 
FORCE FEED is attached again this year, and is considered by those who have uted it, a great improvement. 

THE GENUINE GEM SEEDERS are manufactured exclusively tor us at Benicia. SEE THAT OUR NAME IS ON THEM. 



ACME PULVERIZING HARROW, CLOD CRUSHER & LEVELER. 




DON'T BE DECEIVED BY WORTHLESS IMITATIONS. 

All genuine bear Trade-Mark, have Steel Clod Crushers, Double FLEXIBLE 
Gang Bars and the Improved Style, also has 

ADJUSTABLE REVERSIBLE COULTERS. 

Which when worn may be turned end for end, thus giving double the amount of 
wear. Works the entire surface of the ground. No other 
Harrow combines these points. 

Sizes: 3 to 12 Feet. With or without Sulky. 

Illustrated Pamphlet Free. 

DUANE H. NASH, So'e Manufacturer. 

MILLINGTON, MORRIS COUNTY, NEW JERSEY. 

SOLD EY : 

BULL & GRANT FARM IMPLEMENT CO., San Francisco and Los Angeles, and 

ST AVER & WALKER. Portland, Oregon 



FER TILIZ ERS! 

Feed the Land and it Will Feed You. 



Fertilizers lessen the necessity for irrigation, increase the yield, 
improve the quality of crops, and keep the soil in a 
strong, healthy condition. 

Special Fertilizers for all Crops. 

THE CALIFORNIA BONE FERTILIZERS ARE CHEAPER THAN 
BARN-YARD MANURE. 

Owing to the gratifying success our product has met wi'h during the past season, we fee 
greatly encouraged in offering our Fertilizers, and can guarantee our patrons that our former 
standard of excellence will be fully maintained. 

Send for circulars, with price and full information, to 

California Bone Meal and Fertilizer Co., 

XXG CATjIFOHNIA ST,. JS^VISJ" FRANCISCO. 



THE "BOSS" ROAD MACHINE. 




FOR BUILDING ROADS, MAKING DITCHES, LEVEES, Etc. 

Is strong and durable, of light draft and of great strength. Just the thing for farmers in 
opening ditches through their grain fields. Sold by 

THOMAS D. P001E, State Agent, 

1S06 San Antonio Avenue, Alameda, Cal. 




Vol. XXXV.— No. 4. 



TWENTY-FOUR IE ID I TIL OUST. 

SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 28, 1888. 



$3 a Tear, In Advance 

Single Copies, 10 Ots. 



Scenes in San Jose and Vioinity. 

As attention turns this week to San Jose as 
the point where the American Horticultural 
Society holds its first California meeting, we 



Observatory increases as that princely dona- 
tion of the late James Lick is now almost ready 
to be finally bestowed upon the people of Cali- 
fornia through the Regents of the University 
as its custodians. The great telescope is practi- 



above the sea and 13 miles distant from San Beach, and but a short distance further to the 
Jose on an air line. The road is full of pictur- left is the main street of San Jose, which runs 



esque beauty, and bids fair to be well traveled 
not only by the throngs of tourists, but by the 



at right angles to the street on which the court- 
house is located. This main street is a notable 



most famous astronomers of the world, for 1 one, for toward the west it continues into the 




ON THE ROAD PROM SAN JOSE TO MT. HAMILTON 



A SHADY NOOK ON THE MT. HAMILTON ROAD. 





SANTA CLARA COUNTY COURT-HOUSE, SAN JOSE. 



THE CALIFORNIA FAN PALM IN A SAN JOSE GARDEN. 



give on this page a few of the hundreds of in- 
teresting views which the Garden City and its 
environs afford, i In former issues we have had 
scenes in orchards in the important Santa Clara 
district and reproductions of famous pieces at 
the citrus fairs held there during the last two 
years. At this time we have two scenes in the 
picturesque region through which the approach 
to Mt. Hamilton leads, and two views in the 
city. Interest in Mt. Hamilton and the Lick 



cally finished. Its objective, three feet in di- 1 
ameter, has already assaulted the heavens, and 
as soon as the minor fittingB are complete, the 
formal transfer by the Lick trustees will be 
made and Dr. E. S. Holden, ex-president of the 
University, will assume charge as director of 
the observatory. The visitor to Mt. Hamil- 
ton passes eastward over 26 miles of well-built 
road, built by the county of Santa Clara, to 
reach the observatory, which is 4300 feet 



every facility is to be given them, according to 
Prof. Holden's plan, to profit by the peerless 
lenses of the Lick telescope. 

The Santa Clara courthouse, of whioh a view 
is given, is a substantial and well-planned 
building, situated opposite St. James' park, 
a very pretty breathing-place in the center of 
the city. Our view includes, just to the left 
of '.he courthouse, the Sc. James hotel, owned 
by the well-known farmer-landlord, Tyler 



Alameda— the "beautiful way "—planted with 
shade trees years and years ago by the old 
padres, which connects San Jose with her beau- 
tiful sister town, Santa Clara. The same street 
continued eastward from San Jose reaches to 
Alum Rock, a beautiful park just at the base 
of the hills, and thence also leads out the famous 
roadway to Mt. Hamilton. 

Another pretty scene shows twin palms, pop- 
ular ornamental plants in many of our towns. 



62 



f ACIFI6 f^URAb PRESS, 



[Jan. 28, 1888 



C[0RRESP0JMDENCE. 

Correspondent* are alone responsible for their opinions. 



California's Phenomenal March. 

Editors Press:— It is but a few years since 
California was considered, by the residents of 
the Eastern States, as an isolated portion of the 
country, valuable for its enormous production 
of gold and silver, but otherwise of compara- 
tively slight importance, and certainly not des- 
tined to become the home of wealth, refinement 
and culture, and the garden spot of the United 
States. 

For a time numbers of those who had taken 
up their residence in thia favored State occa- 
sionally returned to their old homes, and, full 
of honest pride for their adopted State, would 
describe something of its natural advantages; 
its balmy, healthful climate and beautiful 
scenery, not surpassed on any portion of the 
globe; its wonderful y fertile soil, capable of 
producing five crops of hay or two crops of 
corn in a single season; strawberries from April 
to January; profitable crops of fruit at three 
years from planting; beets weighing from 50 to 
80 pounds each and yielding 40 tons to the 
acre; big trees, from 10 to 32 feet in diameter, 
etc.. etc. 

While these facts were related in all sincer- 
ity, they were, nevertheless, too much for our 
Eastern friends to "swallow," and the reputa- 
tion of Californians for truth and veracity suf- 
fered accordingly. 

Gradually, however, there came a change. 
Occasionally parties from the East came here 
for a few months' sojourn, in search of health 
or pleasure, and upon their return home gave 
expression to their opinions of the Golden State, 
and these opinions, coming from disinterested 
parties, attracted attention and created a de- 
sire among our friends beyond the R)ckieato 
learn more about California. The number of 
these visitors rapirlly increased, and then came 
the great excursions of the Knights Templar, 
the Odd Fellows and the Grand Army of the 
Republic, and these thousands of reputable 
people, returning to all parts of the Union, re- 
lated what their eyes had seen upon these golden 
shores, and California's claims could no longer 
be gainsaid. 

Hence it is that the mighty human stream 
now pouring into California was not set in mo- 
tion by Californians interested in creating 
"land booms," but by disinterested Eastern 
people who had visited us and returned home 
with a report that California was indeed a won- 
derful land "flowing with milk and honey." 
Never before in this or any other country hag 
been witnessed a tide of immigration similar to 
that now pouring into California. Throughout 
the length and breadth of the Eistern States is 
being taken up the song: 

" We are coming, California, three hundred thousand 
more, 

From Mississippi's winding stream, and from New 

England's shore; 
We leave protectors lor our ear?, our arctics and our 

muff, 

We leave our overcoats of fur ani tons and tons of 
stuff; 

We're bound to have the climate of that great Pacific 
shore, 

We arc coming, California, three hundred thousand 
more. 

"If you look up all our valleys « here the harvest 

ought to shine, 
You'll see our sturdy farmer-boys fast forming into 

line; 

They're tired of the stony soil, of snow, and rain, and 
sleet, 

The city merchant joins the throng, he's tired of the 
heat. 

The bl zz»d shrieks behind us, we skuTy on before 
We are coming, California, three hundred thousand 
more." 

Between September 1st and December 15;h, 
there were brought to California over the various 
transcontinental lines upward of 54,000 persons, 
and the tide continues undiminished. Large 
numbers of the throng are men of wealth who 
come to establish beautiful homes in this land of 
sunshine, and to invest in mercantile or manu- 
facturing enterprises, or in securities second to 
none on the globe, viz., California lands. Thou- 
sands of our new-comers are sturdy farmers in 
middle life, who, by years of untiring industry 
and economy, have managed to acquire a com- 
petence, and have concluded to leave the enow, 
and ice, and blizzards of the East and come 
where they can live in comfort and till the soil 
twelve months every year. 

Who can estimate the future of this great 
State, enjoying, as she does, more of nature's 
gifts than any other spot on earth, and popu- 
lated by these thousands of intelligent, wide- 
awake, well-to-do people. The imagination is 
not capable of producing a brighter picture than 
California will present '25 years hence. 

Already may be seen a wonderful change. 
What were formerly 1 irge stock and grain 
ranches thousands of acres in extent 
have been subdivided and converted into 
general farms, vineyards and orchards. 
Lively, prosperous towns are springing up all 
over the State, and the character of their public 
buildings, churches, schools, business and gen- 
eral improvements indicates a degree of pros- 
perity never before witnessed in any part of the 
Union. The southern portion of the State was 
the first to feel the beneficial effects of this 



"moneyed immigration." This was due, in 
great measure, to the impression that only in 
"Southern California" was to be found the 
glorious climate of which we boast. 

The development in that portion during the 
last three years has indeed been wonderful, 
almost beyond comprehension, but it is no long- 
er confined to any one section, and it is well 
for California that it is not. The tide has rolled 
steadily northward, until now it has reached 
the extreme head of the great Sacramento val- 
ley, at Shasta's feet, a distance of more than 
1100 miles, and still our new friends find them- 
Eelves within the great citrus belt, and enjoy- 
ing the same average temperature throughout 
the year experienced in the southern portion 
of the State, the mercury never falling below 
> 22° above zero, and very rarely reaching that 
point. While from earlier attention to the in- 
dustry, the southern counties are naturally fur- 
ther advanced in the production of citrus fruit.'-, 
yet Northern California's recent citrus fair has 
conclusively proven her claims in this partic- 
ular. 

She also enjoys advantages in the way of an 
abundance of good timber and a rainfall so 
plentiful as to obviate the necessity for irriga- 
tion; and last but not least, an additional and 
almost unlimited market for htr fruit produc- 
tions has been opened up by the recent comple- 
tion of the California & Oregon railroad, mak- 
ing all rail communication with Oregon, Washing- 
ton, British Columbia, Idaho, Montana, and 
Dakota, all of which will be large buyers of 
Northern California fruit. 

We travel over our beautiful State and we 
find everywhere unmistakable evidences of un- 
paralleled prosperity, and as we recall the Cali- 
fornia of only ten \ ears ago, we are forced to 
exclaim, wonderful ohange ! And yet Califor- 
nians have really no reason to be surprised. 
We have had this same wonderfully fertile soil, 
this same unapproachable climate, ever since we 
crossed the Sierras or entered the Gulden Gate. 
We know, beoause we have seen it throughout 
the State, that our valleys and foothills, when 
properly tilled, will produce fruit crops netting 
from SI 00 to $400 per acre, and general farm 
crops far in excess of anything ever seen east of 
the Rockies. We know beyond a doubt that 
California is to be the fruit orchard of the 
world. Within her borders may be grown in 
wonderful profusion nearly every variety known 
on the face of the earth. Oranges, lemons, 
olives, figs and pomegranates, as well as the 
hardier fruits, are grown from San Diego on 
the south to within a few miles of snow-capped 
Shasta on the north, nearly the entire length of 
the State. 

Our soil produces from 5 to 13 tons of grapes 
and from 7 to 12 tons of prunes to the acre, 
while orchards of walnuts, oranges and olives 
yield in some cases, when in full bearing, from 
$500 to $1000 and even more net profit per 
acre. • 

What wonder, then, that our lands are 
sought after? We have many of us cultivated 
the rocky hills of New England, and know by 
experience what it is to labor all summer to 
provide food and fuel for the coming winter, 
and we are able to appreciate in a measure, at 
least, the manifold advantages possessed by Cal- 
ifornia and only awaiting development by the 
thousands now coming and the hundreds of 
thousands which are sure to follow. California 
is already the wealthiest State per capita in the 
Union, but her present prosperous condition is 
only the shadow of what we shall see a decade 
hence. Her march is only just begun. With 
her climate and her soil, and with the class of 
immigration which we have described pouring 
in in such numbers, she will continue on her 
course until she has far outstripped everyone of 
her sisters of the Union. God speed her ! 

G. W. H. 



Njtes on San Mate:) County. 

Editors Press :— The county of San Mateo 
is set off from the southern portion of San Fran- 
cisco by Act of the Legislature consolidating 
the city and county government of San Fran- 
cisco in 1856, and organized into a separate 
county government. While one of the smaller 
counties in area in the State, there is perhaps 
no other county having such a variety of soil, 
climate and scenery. The northern and coast 
portion is within the fog belt, and among the 
richest and most productive portions of the 
State for vegetables, cereals, natural grasses 
and the hardier fruits. As a butter-making 
section it is unexcelled by the dairy region of 
Point Riyes. For the production of vegetables 
this section is unrivaled by any part of the 
United States. A great many carloads of veg- 
etables have been sent East from this section 
during the last two years, and shipments will 
be greatly increased this year. So immensely 
profitable is this new industry that a large part 
of this section of the county would undoubtedly 
be diverted to this use if the facilities of the 
proposed coast railroad were available. This 
section, which a few years ago was held at 
small figures, bids fair to become the most val- 
uable land of the State. The time is not far 
distant when thousands of carloads of fresh 
succulent vegetables will be sent away from this 
region E ist in January, February, March and 
April to grace the tables of our Eastern friends. 

The mountainous portion of the county is 
largely covered by magnificent forests of red- 
wood, oak, laurel and madrono. These for- 
ests, though furnishing employment to a great 
many woodmen, are still largely unbroken on 



the western elope of the Coast Range. Here 
are opportunities for homes for thousands of 
people who love the stately grandeur of mount- 
ain scenery and the silent, primeval forests. 
But it is on the flats, hills and mountain range 
facing the east and sheltered from the trade 
winds, bathed in summer's eternal sunshine, 
that the greatest immediate changes are about 
to take place. From Milbrae southward no 
more charming country can be found in any 
part of the world, with a climate unexcelled, a 
soil unsurpassed, a variety of scenery to suit 
all fancies. This favored section challenges all 
others in regard to its numerous advantages. 
The natural suburb of the metropolis of the 
West, the only point which can be reached by 
land, it is indeed surprising how it has been 
neglected so long while other sections having 
few of its advantages have become densely pop- 
ulated. This has perhaps grown out of the 
indisposition of many large land-owners to di- 
vide up their estates and partly because the 
transportation company for some reason has 
maintained higher rates of communication to 
this section than to others equally distant; but 
all this now seems to be undergoing a decided 
change. 

The transportation company is reducing 
its rates, the land-owners are cutting up their 
land at very moderate prices. We are of 
opinion that the next three years will work 
such wonderful changes in this favored section 
that the old residents will scarcely know their 
surroundings. 

This section has heretofore been particularly 
the homes of millionaires, too numerous to 
mention. This section wai a favorite home of 
I. C. Woods, W. C. Ralston and Milton S. 
Latham, three men whose histories were so 
strikingly similar, possessed of keen, penetrat- 
ing intellects, coupled with great activity, 
achieved pre-eminent success in early life, yet 
met with great reverses and closed their lives 
in sadness, if not in despair. They will all be 
remembered kindly and sincerely, lamented so 
long as the old residents live. 

For beauty of location, a genial and healthy 
climate with pleasant surroundings, it wonld be 
hard to find a place more eligibly located than 
San Mateo, Belmont, the new town of Phelpa, 
or Menlo Park, while for business and manu- 
facturing no place can exceed the facilities af- 
forded by Redwood City. A large part of the 
county is, and must always be, tributary to 
her commercial, mechanical, and manufacturing 
enterprises. This town has water and railroad 
facilities connecting her with San Francisco and 
other towns, while she haa hauled to her 
wharves tan-bark, wood, lumber, grain, and 
other articles which should enter into her manu- 
factures and mercantile enterprise. When we 
view the advantages of her location we can but 
feel surprised that she has not a population of 
20,000 instead of 2000. 

For fruits, including oranges, lemons, limes, 
figs, olives, nuts, and grapes, a large part of 
San Mateo county, east from the summit of the 
Coast Range, is not excelled by many of the 
great fruit belts of the State, while the sheltered 
parts of the coast side are particularly adapted 
to apples and peara. Old Resident. 



HORTICULTURE. 



Mission or Pioonolini Olives. 

Editors Press: — The comparative value of 
the Miaaion and Piccholini varieties waa dis- 
cussed at the Santa Rosa convention, where 
Mr. Butler eaid: " I would give the preference 
decidedly to the Mission. While thereaare not 
many more on the Mission, the Piccholini are so 
much smaller, it gives a decided advantage to 
the Mission." • 

My opinion about that is quite different. I 
never heard it proved that the Mission will 
have more berries than the Piccholini, but know 
some facts to the contrary. At the place of Dr. 
Clark here are two eight-year-old trees, a Mis- 
sion and a P.ccholini, standing only 15 feet apart, 
and having had always the aame care. Last 
season -the Mission yielded 49 pounds of berries 
while the Piccholini gave 03 pounda. Tbia 
aeason the Miesion had hardly any fruit, while 
the Piccholini waa considered more loaded than 
last season. On the whole place the Missions 
yielded a fair crop last aeason, though the Piccho- 
linis had more. This aeason the Miasions bore 
hardly any fruit, and, in apite of that, the 
whole crop waa about 30 per cent more than 
laat aeason. 

There is another big advantage for the Piccho- 
lini. Dr. Clark onmm«noed to gather the ripe 
Piccholinis in 1887 on November 1st; the Mis- 
sions be gathered just before Christmas and tben 
they were but three-quarters ripe. Thia late 
ripening, I think, will interfere with the growth 
of the next year. 

I expressed this opinion a few days ago to 
Judge C. A. Tuttle here. *' Well," he answered, 
" thia will account for a fact which, bo far, I 
cnuld not explain. I have on my place two 
Mission olives, one of which had a fair crop last 
year, while the other had only few. Thia year 
it is juBt reversed. The poor one of last year haa 
a good crop, while the other one has hardly any 
berries." The judge picks his olivca when they 
are dead ripe, that ia, in February, and is fond 
of eating them then, as they are, because they 
have loBt all bitterness. 

Ellwood Cooper had a a-nall crop thia aeason, 
though all conditions for vegetation were very 



favorable. Might not this interference be the 
reason of the smaller crop ? Haa he, perhaps,, 
also remarked that only every second year the. 
crop will be a good one ? 

Mr. Cooper said about his Miaaion olives: 
" We take everything off; pick all the olives on 
the tree — green, red and purple." On the Pic- 
cholini I never have noticed a different state of 
ripeness, neither in Italy and France nor in 
this country, and I am pretty sure I would 
have noticed it if there had been any. 
I am convinced that the oil of the green olive 
is different from the oil of the ripe one; per- 
haps it is better in quantity or quality, bat 
very probably it is not as good. With the Pic- 
cholini we can wait till the berries 
are in that Btate of ripeneaa which will 
yield the best oil; with the Mission we can not, 
if we do not choose to have two gatherings. 
There i8 one advantage of which I have heard in 
favor of the Mission: that it will take the graft 
easier. It ia very probable that among the 
40 or more known varietie8 of olivea there ia a 
better one than either Piccholini or Miaaion, 
and it ia possible that when we have found this 
out in a few years we would like to graft. But 
I do not certafnly know that it is so very 
difficult to graft the Piccholini, and then it is 
uncertain also whether we shall find any very 
fine new variety with which it would be profit- 
able to graft large trees. Therefore I shall give 
the preference to Piccholini as long aa no other 
kind has proved itself to be decidedly better. 

In crushing there appears another difference. 
The large berries of the Mission often slip from 
under the approaching rolling-stone, while the 
smaller berries of the Piccholini are more 
densely packed together and cannot escape it. 
The result is that even when with the Missions 
the stone ia kept rotating a longer time, still 
some whole berries will be found in the pulp, 
out of which the oil could not be expressed, 
while the Piccholinis all are crushed. 

I would like to answer a few "Olive Notea," 
which are contained in the S. F. Merchant of 
January 6, 1S88, p. 87. 

" In dry aoil a hole 2J feet deep and six or 
eight feet square should be dug." If the corre- 
spondent had advised to dig a hole 16 feet 
square, the distance of the trees being 32 feet, 
it would have been better. I plow first the 
land at 1< ast three timea, the last time with 
three horses, about 20 inches deep; then I dig a 
round hole three feet in diameter, that eight 
holes may be dug to one hole of the correspond- 
ent. This will cost me leas, and, I am sure, 
give better satisfaction. 

" Either set out the trees immediately after 
the first rain or wait till February or March. 
In either case the ground is warmer than when 
the tree ia planted in midwinter." For thia 
very reaaon it ia best to put out the trees when 
the ground ia cold, provided that it ia not frozen 
and no froat is to be expected. Every tree will 
be hurt least in transplanting when its vegeta- 
tion is at a rest. The olive will grow in Cali- 
fornia for 11 months and stand still only for 
one month. During thia period even the amall- 
est twigs will show only ripe wood, and the lit- 
tle sucking root* will not grow. If the trees 
are transplanted later, tbey have already com- 
menced to grow again and the young sprouts 
invariably will wither in apite of the beat care. 
Therefore the best time for transplanting is right 
after the cold spell. 

"Twenty- five or 30 pounds of berriea make 
a gallon of oil." It takes Dr. Clark here 54 
pounda, but he doea not preaa out the oil of the 
third quality. So far we have not heard it 
proved that less than 40 pounds are needed to 
one gallon of oil. 

" I'he olive ripens here in November and De- 
cember, and the tree is perfectly free from dis- 
ease. " About the ripening of the different 
kinds, we have spoken above, and when Mr. 
Cooper has to spend $1 and $lj per tree to fight 
the scale, I think this a fact well worthy to be 
mentioned. 

In column one, page 87, the Merchant says: 
" It is a great mistake to presume that the 
olive can be grown on a barren soil withont 
fertilizes." In column two: " It is an estab- 
lished fact that olivea thrive and grow the beet 
in the rockieat and moat sterile placea." There 
U no doubt that every tree will grow better in 
a good aoil than in a poor one, but what might 
be a good soil for an apple tree is a poor one 
for a peach. I have seen in Italy the finest 
olives three and four feet in diameter growing 
out of the very rocks on steep hills, where cul- 
tivation could not be thought of; and the same 
can be seen here with oaka, and where an oak 
will grow an olive will grow also, sure enough. 

Part of my land is what by moat people 
would be called a very'poor land. On a ateep 
hill with a southern elevation the plow hardly 
scraped the surface, laving bare the bedrock 
often at two inches. But this bedrock slate 
with vertical layers can be broken with the 
plow, and when exposed to the air will rot 
very quickly. There are now, after three 
yeara' cultivation, not many placea where the 
plow is not going into the beam; beaidee, the 
plants will sink down their roota between the 
strata and alwaya find the necessary moisture 
without irrigation. The olivea and vinea on 
thia hill are aa splendid as I have seen them 
anywhere, whde oranges, lemona and most of 
the deciduous trees except nectarinea and wal- 
nuta make a poor growth. 

What we want to advance the cultivation of 
the olive ia not small talk and private opinions 
of reporters, but facta and reaaona given by ex- 
perienced ranchera who are not afraid to put 
their names to what they have written. 

Auburn, Jan 9, 1SS8. F. Closs. 



Jan. 28, 1888.] 



pACIFie I^URAL> pRESS. 



H[he "Vi^eyaf^d. 



Grape Pruning. 



Editors Pkess:— In the Rural of Jan. 7, 
1888, appeared an article on grape-pruning by 
Geo. F. Waters of No. 8 Beacon street, Boston, 
Mass. In this article Mr. Waters states in 
italic that in pruning, as in everything else, ex- 
perience teaches. Just how any one can gain 
experience in grape-pruning at No. 8 Beacon 
street, Boston, Mass., is hard to understand; 
yet Mr. Waters' article reads as if it were writ- 
ten by one who has his knowledge more from 
experience than from theoretical book-learning; 
and it is not so much to deny Mr. Waters' 
statements as it is to give my experience in 
what Mr. Waters calls bud-pruning that I be- 
gin this article. 

Bud or what is here called "summer prun- 
ing" is a system very generally advocated in 
this State. Some 12 or 13 years ago I summer 
pruned a strip of about ten rows of grapes for 
a trial. This was done when the canes were 
about three or four feet long, and they were 
cut back so as to leave about two-foot canes. 
I do not remember what effect this summer 
pruning had on the quality of the grapes; but 
when pruning the vines next winter I noticed 
that the pith of the canes in those ten rows 
was of a blackish-brown color, and the wood of 
a peculiar nature, and it lasted several years 
before these vines made as healthy a wood as 
the vines not treated in this way. 

A year or two afterward a neighbor "of an 
experimenting turn of mind," while going 
through these vines discussed the subject and 
treated one of the healthiest vines he could 
find to a thorough summer pruning, and the 
grapes on that vine partly sunburned or mil- 
dewed and the balance were of inferior size and 
color. 

Again, a few years later, after a late rain, I 
wanted to give a certain piece an extra culti- 
vating, and cut the ends off the canes to make 
room for the horse and cultivator to pass, and 
again I noticed the same effect, namely, want 
of size, sugar and color in the grapes and a rot- 
ten condition of the wood. 

I have also noticed the same thing in several 
other vineyards where summer pruning was re- 
sorted to, and also several times when cows 
came in the vineyard and topped off some of 
the first vines in their path. 

That a growing cane suddenly cut off dar- 
ing the thriftiest part of its growth should be- 
come sickly seems to me so logical in itself as 
not to need explanation, and any one who has 
paid the least attention to growing plants in 
general must admit that by continued severe 
cutting during the growing season any plant or 
tree could easily be killed. 

It is claimed by men who have given the sci- 
entific part of grape culture more study than I 
have, that although before ripening a bunch of 
grapes may contain nearly all the material for 
perfect grapes, this material is in a different 
state and must first flow with the sap through 
the leaves, and there undergo the necessary 
changes and then descend again to the cluster, 
which becomes perfect and ripe as soon as all 
the juices in the cluster have passed through 
this natural laboratory. 

That the leaves are needed to form perfect 
fruit can be seen by going through a vineyard 
about the time grapes begin to ripen. When- 
ever a vine has, through any cause whatever, 
lost its leaves or only produced imperfect ones' 
the grapes will be found to lack color and sugar' 
and no amount of letting them hang on the 
vines will ripen them. 

This can best be seen in a vineyard of which 
the soil has become too dry by insufficient cul- 
tivating. In such a vineyard the only perfact 
grapes are found on vines with perfect green 
leaves, while the grapes on other vines hanging 
in the full glare of the sun will, "all opinions 
to the contrary notwithstanding," never ripen. 
Pinching. 

Some grape-growers who believe in summ-,, 
pruning try to remedy the evil by pinching „„I 
only the very tender little top. If this b j 
the growth of the vine will not be c' JL j c ' 
the expanding leaves take up t' - ,t ' aKe <*> *s 
week or so, after which time ' fo L r a 

start out to grow, and the p , '*T rM Dr . a nches 
fruit buds forming for ne- " ,y dan « e L r " that 
so as to sprout, in whi^ *' year may be forced 
sentamees from v ^ CaBe the vine will pre- 
two or three yep r ftioh '* wlU , take a P rune r 
vine. The fr *° extract a decent-looking 

the top wi 1 ' -rtker effect of this pinching out 
compact be *° make the young growth more 
the v : ^' th tne ' eaves nearer the center of 
in ' ' >ut as cra P es will mature just as well 

-ne hottest sunshine as in the shade, 30 long 
-•a the vine is healthy, and as besides I have 
noticed that during blooming grapes will set 
much better on clusters hanging outside where 
the dew and fog can dry off from them than 
they do on clusters in the middle of the vine 
where the blossoms will sometimes not become 
dry till hours after the sun comes out, I do 
not think that either pinching or cutting the 
top out of growing canes can be beueficial in a 
single case, with the exception of young vine*, 
which are apt to grow such long and heavy 
canes that the wind would break them off If 
they were not shortened. 

In returning to Mr. Waters' article, it will 



be seen that what Mr. Waters says experience 
teaches is not just how to benefit a vine by bud- 
pruning, but rather how much a vine can be 
injured without quite killing it. Some vines 
would die unless a few leaves were left beyond 
the clusters, while others will even succeed in 
dragging out a miserable existence if no leaves 
at all are left beyond the clusters; but Mr. 
Waters forgets to mention a single reason in 
favor of mutilating a vine in this way, unless 
it be that afterward there will only be little 
foxes to cut off instead of long canes. 

There is not another important industry in 
this State conducted in such a happy-go-lucky 
way, or about which so many erroneous opin- 
ions prevail, and as new-comers are constantly 
trying to obtain information on the subject, I 
believe a 

Few Hints on Grape Pruning 
Will be appropriate. Some seem to think if 
they can only secure an Italian or a Frenchman 
and turn him loose in the vineyard with a 
saw and pruning-shears they have done all 
that is necessary. Many of the worst pruning 
jobs I have overseen were done by some of these 
Italian woodchoppers who did not know a thing 
about viticulture except how to stow away 
large quantities of the wine when it was red. 

One of the first supposed principles in prun- 
ing vines or fruit trees of any kind is to make 
them bear. This may be the object in old vine- 
yards on the other side of the Atlant'c. The 
problem here is more how to so prune that the 
grapes produced shall be of good quality and 
the least possible amount of strength be wasted 
in producing superfluous wood. 

Propagation seems to be the one object for 
which all living organism strives. It is a well- 
known fact that plants of all kinds, when ap- 
proaching the end of their existence, will spend 
their last efforts in trying to propagate their 
species, while on the other hand a young, 
thrifty plant will abstain from bearing so as to 
reach its greatest possible size, as a future field 
for reproduction. 

If seeds only were desired, the result to work 
for on grapevines would be to keep them as 
near dying as possible. But as the desired 
covering of the seeds is more of an artificial 
than a natural product, the object is to keep 
the vine in as thrifty a condition as possible for 
developing the fruit, and yet not so thrifty as 
to prevent fruit buds from setting. 

•4. By i watcning a voun 8 sprout on a grapevine 
it will be seen that at each joint is a growth 
capable of becoming a cluster under the neces- 
sary circumstances. On young vines these 
growths take the form of tendrils, while 
ou old vines the first ones produced 
will be large clusters and the balance tendrils, 
which on some varieties will again form small 
clusters in June, which make the second crop 
grapes. I have seen exceptional cases where 
the first clusters formed this way would gradu- 
ally grow smaller till there were as many as ten 
in succession, the first one a good, large bunch 
and the last one a mere tendril with four or 
five blossoms on it; but the rule is that each 
young sprout comes out with two large clusters 
on the first joints and no more. 

Some varieties of grapes have a capacity of 
producing clusters on all sprouts, whether start- 
ing from old or young wood, but most varieties 
will only produce fruit on sprouts starting out 
of the large buds found on one-year-old canes, 
while the small buds found near the joints of 
the two and one-year-old wood, as also all buds 
on old wood, will be barren. 

Again, some kinds of grapes produce clusters 
which average two pounds in weight, while 
others only have half-pound bunches. These 
are the varieties generally pruned short, and 
requiring the most care. Most of the long- 
pruned varieties have an instinct for prolong- 
ing their own life, which they follow by vary- 
ing the size of their bunches according to how 
hard they have been taxed the year before; but 
the smart viticulturist gets even by leaving 
more buds as the bunches grow smaller. 

Wow in pruning the first thing to do is to 
make up your mind how much grapes your vine- 
yard can produce to the acre. Some vineyards 
have been known to bear 20 tons to the acre, 
K ! o, avera 8 e « a generally admitted to be 
aPjut 3i tons, Winemakers insist on from 18 
to 23 pi! oent of sugar; if the grapes test below 
18 tiiey have been allowed to overbear; if they 
ceat above 23 the vines did not bear as much as 
they could. It may happen that some grapes of 
the raisin varieties test sweet enough, but have 
only formed canes from six inches to a foot in 
length; this is another sign of overtaxing the 
strength of the vines. It may also happen that 
three-fourths of the grapes are sunburned. This 
only happens when the roots cannot furnish 
moisture for all the grapes on the vines, which 
is another sign of over-producing. Mildew is 
more a result of general debility caused by over- 
production the year before, although a vine 
loaded with more grapes than the roots can find 
either food or moisture for is much more sub- 
ject to mildew than a vine not so situated. 

How Many Buds to Leave. 
After having decided what amount of grapes 
your vines can bear, say ten pounds to the vine, 
" which would be the average with vines 
planted eight feet apart," it would only seem 
necessary, for the two-pound cluster varieties, 
to leave one spur with one small and two large 
fruit buds, but if this were done the result 
would most likely be that the thrifty growth of 
the sprouts on that spur would prevent the fruit 
buds from setting, and the extra amount of saps 
in the vine not being able to all go into the 
three sprouts, would burst out on different 



places and form black-knot. With varieties 
producing half-pound bunches this danger 
would be obviated, but grapes do not always 
set well. In case of a shower of rain during 
blooming nearly all blossoms open at that time 
would drop off, while grapes already set keep on 
growing, and the closed buds will not open till 
atter the rain is over. If, however, the rain 
keeps on for a week or so, all buds will drop off 
and a whole vineyard may not yield a pound of 
grapes, but this rarely happens in California, 
inere are several other causes which may pre- 
vent grapes from setting full, for which reason 
it is better to leave two or three or four times as 
many frmtbuds as is required. There is, however, 
a limit to this amount, as conditions 
climatic or otherwise," which would prevent 
a vine from bearing 10 pounds of grapes on 20 
fruit buds, would also most likely prevent such 
a result on 100 buds. After pruning a vine so 
that it has 10 or 15 or 20 fruit buds left, " on 
vines which set well 10 would be enough, while 
on others it would be safer to leave 20." It 
will be seen that vines of some varieties will 
hardly put forth a single sprout beside the 
ones from the fruit buds, while others will be 
covered with over 100 suckers. On vines 
which make the most suckers I have noticed 
that all these sprouts together would make 
such a close mass of leaves as to complete! y 
hide all blossoms, and these would, in case the 
weather was inclined to be only slightly damp 
not get a chance to dry off for days at a time' 
and consequently not "set. This can be pre- 
vented by pulling out all suckers before bloom- 
ing and also by leaving the spurs longer, so as to 
spread out the vine a little more. 



Suckering. 
That these suckers must be taken off is ad- 
mitted by all, but very few growers go further 
than to pull off the ones at the base of the vine 
although some take off all sprouts starting out 
of wood older than one year, and a great many 
do not touch their vines between pruning and 
grape-picking. Still, this suckering is one of 
the most important parts of grape-growing. 

Although it is my experience that grapes will 
not mature well if the tops of the canes are re- 
moved tc such an extent as to leave practically no 
foliage beyond the clusters, I also know from ex- 
perience that all the leaves on the bearing cane 
are sufficient for the purpose, and that the re- 
moval of all sprouts except the ones wanted 
for bearing is a great saving of the strength of 
the vine. I have personally removed at times 
as many as 100 long, heavy canes in winter 
pruning from vines which had not been suck- 
ered during summer. If grapevines were only 
intended for a year or two, this would, per- 
haps, not be so detrimental, but when it is tak- 
en into consideration that vines are expected 
to live for hundreds of years, and that scien- 
tific viticulturists tell us that the growing of 
wood, which is completely removed from the 
vineyard, is a greater drain on vines than the 
fruit production, it will be seen that every 
ounce of wood allowed to grow unnecessarily 
is simply taking that much off from the exist- 
ence of the vine. 

I have seen many vines die off, and again 
sprout from the ground, where I am as sure 
as any one can reasonably be that the only 
cause was general debility occasioned by over- 
production of either wood or grapes. 

The time required for removing all superflu- 
ous sprouts is no excuse for not removing 
them. It is a great deal easier to remove 
them when it can be done with the fingers than 
it is to cut them off later with shears and 
saw. 

The greatest trouble is to find hired help to 
do it as it should be done. It requires more 
study and a better knowledge of the general 
principles of pruning to do this as it should 
be done than to prune in winter, as a vine 
properly attended to in summer leaves the 
pruner no choice whatever in any respect as to 
which canes he will keep, his only work be- 
ing to judge how many buds he will leave on 
each spur, and occasionally to cut off a cane 
which is getting too far out in the row away 
from the stump. 

The proper time of the year to remove all 
superfluous sprouts and grapes is after the 
grapes have set and are about the size of heavy 
shot. I have never yet seen anything which 
would make small grapes drop off the bunches 
after they were once set unless it were physical 
force, a heavy frost, or some similar disaster; 
and any one who has had a little experience 
can tell just as well how many pounds of grapes 
his vines will yield when the grapes are first set 
as he can when they are ripe. 

One trouble in this thinning out is that the 
canes with the heaviest bunohes will always be 
found to grow out of the last bud on the end of 
the spur, and after instructing a man so that 
he will know how many canes with how many 
bunches to leave on each vine, he will invari- 
ably leave only those extreme canes eo that the 
vine will each year spread out several inches in 
all directions and would soon stop up the rows 
so as to prevent cultivating. Just here is 
where the most judgment is required, so that 
when a branch begins to grow out too far, a 
sucker without grapes on it is left as near the 
body of the vine as possible, which will be the 
fruit-bearing wood for next year, when the 
branch must be removed at the place where 
this cane sprouts from it. 

Where a branch runs too far out and no cane 
is left, the branch can bp cut eff in winter, 
leaving a three or four inch stub from which 
sprouts will invariably start, one of which can 
be kept by the summer suckerer; but the or 



dinary hired man will be very apt to pull them 
all off unless he is very careful. 

Pruning Systems. 
In this article I have avoided advocating any 
of the different systems of pruning in vogue 
and which have each and all been so clearly 
proven the only and the right system of prun- 
ing by their respective defenders or inventors " 
as the foregoing remarks apply to all of them 
1 ior myself consider them a mere matter of 
taste. I have never yet seen a style of manipu- 
lating pruning-shears so as to make vines bear 
more than the strength of the soil and the at- 
mospheric conditions would permit. I remem- 
ber a case of a professional pruner who came 
along with knife instead of shears, who showed 
me how to prune one vine so that it would 
bear /5 pounds of grapes; the next vine he could 
allow only 45 pounds. It was a good year for 
grape*, and in picking I put all the grapes from 
the Vo pound vine in a small bucket, and the 
45-pound vine also had a small bucketful. 

In my opinion, the main object in pruning is 
to leave the right number of fruit buds and to 
keep the vine in the shape required according 
to the rules of your own pet system. If I were 
to make any choice it would be in favor of 
pruning varieties which set only under favor- 
able circumstances with long canes and easy- 
setting varieties short, but as this would sub- 
ject most climbing varieties to short pruning 
and several varieties of table grapes to long" 
pruning, it would seem a hopeless undertaking 
to get any one to think this the right way. 

In finishing I will only once more say that in 
my opinion nearly all the diseases of grapevines 
are caused by exhaustion, and that by allowing 
vines to overbear grape-growers only help to 
kill the gnose that laid the golden egg. 
Forest vil/e, Sonoma Co. L. C. Cnopius. 



JI[hE jEflELE). 



The Watson ville Sogar Factory. 

The Pojaronian gives notes of the progress of 
the new sugarie at Watsonville, which will in- 
terest many of our readers: 

W. C. Waters, architect of the Western 
Beet Sugar Co., is here this week and has in- 
stituted active work on the factory tract. For 
two weeks past teams have been hauling gravel 
for the concrete foundation and sand for use in 
making mortar. Mr. Waters has had Mr. 
WetheriM boring for water near the factory 
site, and at the same time has been able to de- 
termine the character of the land for a founda- 
tion. The borer passed through a deep stratum 
of stiff yellow clay, and Mr. Waters feels much 
pleased at the discovery, for he considers it an 
excellent stratum on which to rest the founda- 
tion. The soil above the stratum will be taken 
out for an area sufficient for the factory site. 
When this has been done a concrete foundation 
of at least two feet in thickness will be put 
down. From this foundation the brick walls 
will arise to a hight so as to be even with the 
floor of the freight cars when on the side track 
at the building. Also upon this foundation 
will be built the brick piers to serve as bases 
for the iron posts that are to support the upper 
floors. After this work is done the concrete 
will be covered with dirt to about the hight of 
the brick walls, and after this dirt has been 
well tramped down in the construction of the 
factory it will be covered with bitumen flooring 
even to the top of the brick wall. 

The dimensions of the buildings have been 
somewhat changed since our previous report, 
and it is now settled that the main building 
will be 28xG5 feet, two stories high at the ends 
and 4^ stories high, exclusive of tower, 
in the middle. Above the brick walls the 
building will be of wood and iron, with corru- 
gated ircn roof. The beams and girders will be 
of iron, and the building will be so constructed 
that the pressure of the immense weight of ma- 
chinery will be greatest at the center and 
graduated therefrom. About 24 feet from the 
main building, and of about the same ground 
dimensions, will be the boiler-house and stor- 
age-room. Between the two buildings will run 
the main railroad switch. The boilers, 10 in 
number, are now being made in San Francisco. 
The evaporating plant was shipped from Ger- 
many on the 2d inst. Adjacent to the factory 
will be a large cistern Hi teet in diameter and 
20 feet deep, with concrete sides, from which 
the water for the factory (about 2,000,000 gal- 
lons daily) will be pumped. It is supposed 
that this cistern can bo supplied from small 
wells bored from the bottom. A fire-pump 
will be ready for use at any time, and the fac- 
tory will be well supplied with hose. The 
office will be located at the corner of the Peck- 
ham lot, where there is now a dwelliDg-house. 
Adjoining it will be the weighing scales, and 
extending therefrom to the factory will be 
three immense beet sheds or bunkers V-shaped. 
Kich of theee bins will be about 000 feet long. 
Under each will be a concrete ditch, into which 
the beets will drop and be swept by water to 
the factory, and from thence taken to the cut- 
ting machines. 

The factory will have a capacity of 700 tons of 
beets per day, but for the first season it is not 
expected to handle over half that amount daily. 
Mr. Waters feels confident the factory will be 
ready for operation* before September 1st. 
The beet sepd was shipped from Germany on 
December 13th, and is expected to arrive be- 
fore the end of the month. 



64 



fACIFie 



ral> press. 



[Jan. 28, 1888 



JpATF^ONS OF JJuSB/tNDRY 

Correspondence on Grange principles and work and re- 
ports of transactions ol subordinate Oranges are respect- 
fully solicited for this department. 



The Debris Evil. 

The text of the bill "for the investigation 
of the mining debris question in the State of 
California," introduced in the U. S. House of 
Representatives by Hon. Marion Biggs aod re- 
ferred to the Committee on Mines and Mining, 
is as follows : 

" He it enacted bv the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives of the United States of America in Con- 
gress assembled, that the Secretary of War is hereby 
authorized and directed to detail three officers from 
the Engineer Corps of the United States Army as a 
commission for the purpose of making a thorough 
examination and investigation of the mining debris 
question in the Slate of California, and for a com- 
plete eximination and survey ol the injured river 
channels, its tributaries, and lands adjacent thereto, 
with a view to their improvement, and to devise some 
plan whereby the conflict between the mining and 
farming section may be adjusted. And that the sum 
of $io,ooo, or so much thereof as may be necessary, 
is hereby appropriated, out of any money in the 
treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the purpose 
of carrying into effect the provisions of this Act, the 
said sum to be expended at the discretion of the 
Secretary of War; the said commission to report as 
early as practicable to the Secretary of. War the re- 
sult of their investigation." 

The word " its " above itilicised, should evi- 
dently be " their." 

Iu the course of a long editorial on the bill 
the Marysville Appeal remarks: "There is 
just one good thing in this bill, and that is the 
clause providing for ' a complete examination 
and survey of the injured river channels, their 
tributaries and the lands adjacent thereto, with 
a view to their improvement.' An appropria- 
tion for such examination and survey would be 
all right, and is, in fact, highly desirable. But 
no investigation of the ' mining debris question ' 
is called for — there is no such ' question.' The 
only debris question that ever existed was long 
ago settled in the courts. A debris evil rt- 
tnain8 in the choked condition of certain river 
channels, as the result of past hydraulic min- 
ing, and this Congress miy properly attempt to 
remedy by engineering, at the same time pro- 
hibiting, under severe penalties, the continu- 
ance or resumption of such hydraulic mining as 
caused the mischief. * • * 

" The interests injured by hydraulic mining 
have no reason to apprehend unfavorable re- 
sults from the investigation called for by the 
Biggs Debris bill. The more fully the facts of 
the situation are brought to the attention of 
Congress, the more hopeless the case of the hy- 
draulickers will appear. Bat the passage of 
this Biggs bill, as a whole, would be decidedly 
objectionable, for the reason that such a re- 
opening of the subject would tend to make out- 
side capital shy of investment in the region lia- 
ble to be injuriously affected by the resump- 
tion of hydraulic mining. Strangers would 
perceive the extent of the injury caused in the 
past, and would be fearful that ignorance or 
corruption at Washington might result in the 
general resumption of hydrajilic mining and the 
infliction of further injury. They would say : 
'The question is still unsettled, and we can- 
not, as home-seekers, afford to take any 
chances.' And some such fear would likewise 
be apt to creep over the people of the valley 
and paralyze progress as hydraulic mining did 
in the past. 

" The people of the valley have fought their 
own battles, and have paid dearly for the se- 
curity they have gained. That security should 
be left undisturbed, and Congress should con- 
fine its efforts to the improvement of the rivers 
and the punishment of hydraulic miners who 
may be proved responsible for further damage 
to the channels.' 1 



Lodi had her installation exercises on the 
18th, conducted by the Worthy Master of the 
State Grange, aided by Sister C. P. Allison. 
The Sentinel of above-named date says: " Mr. 
OverhiBer, who has recently returned from an 
extended tour through the Eastern and South- 
ern States, was welcomed home by the Grange, 
the members of which are old-time friends of 
his. At the conclusion of the installation cer- 
emonies the members partook of a feast which 
had been prepared by the good sisters of the 
Grange. The collations served by the Grange 
are always ' something extra,' and this was no 
exception to the rule." 



Thmescal Grange had a very pleasant meet- 
ing last Saturday. W. M., Overhiser of the 
State Grange gave a highly entertaining account 
of his recent trip Eastward. The tariff question 
was discussed by Bros. Thos. Paulsen of Oregon, 
Amos Adams, W. C. Blackwood, S. T. Coulter, 
and S. Goodenough- Two applications were 
made for membership. 

Bho Flint, Worthy Lecturer of the State 
Grange, is up and doing. He writes the Pat- 
ron that he will go to Merced on Wednesday of 
this week to help them confer the third and 
fourth degrees upon a class of 12 and in- 
stall officers, and is to be in Auburn the 28tfa 
to do the like for Eureka Grange. 

Woman Suffrage. — Gov. Semple signed the 
bill, whose passage we noted last week, giving 
the ballot to women in Washington Territory. 



Shiftless Farming. 

The Territorial Enterprise had some obser- 
vations and reflections the other day intended 
specially for Washoe county, Nevada, but sug- 
gesting wholesome hints for dwellers in many 
another region. Readers may make their own 
application of what we quote: 

A reporter, while in Reno last week, noticed 
several ranchers buying at the stores such arti- 
cles as butter, eggs, ham, bacon, potatoes, 
wheat for chicken-feed, and other articles that 
can be raised abundantly and profitably 
throughout the valley. Inquiry of the store- 
keeper revealed a wretched and shiftless con- 
dition of things on the part of the ranchers. 
They raise scarcely anything but alfalfa, and 
this they sell in the stack, principally to Cali- 
fornia cattlemen, who, in fact, make about all 
the profit represented in the alfalfa by loading 
it inside of their cattle's skins. 

To a man up a tree all the poetry of farm life 
is knocked into a cocked hat in contemplation 
of the fact that their fresh eggs come from the 
store and they have to drink black coffee or 
use condensed milk, but such seems to be the 
case with Washoe county farmers. 

It would seem that with such a market as 
Virginia City affords that Salt Lake stale eggs 
would be at a happy discount, but it is lament- 
able to say that they are not, and if a man 
wants to buy a chicken Within a radius of 30 
miles of the city, he is politely referred to Mor- 
mondom. 

That there is a big field in Washoe county for 
men who will follow farming right "up to the 
handle " is a self-evident fact, and they will 
get along without plasters and mortgages on 
their farms, too. 



Presentations at Santa Rosa. 

The Republican of Jan. 19th makes friendly 
mention of recent doings among Sonoma county 
Patrons. We quote the greater portion of its 
account, as follows: 

Saturday was a day long to be remembered 
in the annals of Santa Rosa Grange. The oc- 
casion was the installation of officers in their 
respective offices for the ensuing term. P. M., 
Nelson Carr of Bennett Valley Grange having 
been invited to act as installing officer, per- 
formed the ceremonies, ushering the newly 
elected into their respective stations to exe- 
cute the government of the Grange. 

After these ceremonies were concluded, the 
Grange dinner with all its bounty, as prepared 
by the matrons and maids of the Order, was 
awaiting the members and a few invited guests, 
The appetites. of all were fully satisfied, and it 
was found that the proverbial twelve ^baskets- 
ful were still remaining. 

As a testimonial of the high regard in which 
the Grange held its Worthy Master, E. W. 
D3vis, with appropriate words C. E. Gamble, 
in behalf of his fellow-members, presented him 
with a beautiful gold scarf-pin, which was ac- 
cepted with an apt reply by the surprised re- 
cipient. The secretary, Miss Martha Lums- 
den, was presented{with Shakespeare's works in 
appreciation of her valuable services, also call- 
ing forth a well-delivered response, notwith- 
standing the young lady was genuinely sur- 
prised. 

Our Country not for Anarchy. — We find 
this terse paragraph among our clippings nn- 
credited, but it can go on its intrinsic merits: 
11 There is no room in America for anarchists. 
They should not be allowed to parade the streets 
of great cities as they do, and make speeches in 
defiance of our laws. This is, and should be, a 
free country; but the right of a lawless people 
to organize for the purpose of tearing down our 
institutions and abolishing all right to the 
ownership of property, is entirely beyond the 
meaning of personal or political liberty." 

Danville Grange purposes celebrating the 
birthday of Washington. It is a good idea, 
which other Granges will do well to catch, thus 
to do special honor to his memory and improve 
the occasion for arousing a patriotic and 
humane ambition in the breaBts of our young 
men and women. 



Bennett Valley Grange's Meetings, on 
the 1st and 3d Saturdays of every month, are 
always well attended, enjoyable and instruct- 
ive. Bro. J. B. Whitaker adds to this the 
cheering news that they have a class of six to 
initiate February 4th, and invites all Patrons in 
good standing to be there at 10 a. m. 



Tue officers of Woodbridge Grange were pub- 
licly installed on the 17th by Worthy District 
Lecturer, J. D. Huffman, Bro. Wm. Treadway 
assisting. After this business had been duly 
attended to, a fine collation and an hour of so- 
cial converse were enjoyed. 

Enterprise Grange had installation exer- 
cises on the Tth, Bro. G. W. Hack of Sacra- 
mento clliciatlng and adding some good sugges- 
tions about the work. They also conferred the 
•i rst degree on a class last Saturday — so writes 
Bro. Geo. Wilson. 



Petition to Congress. 

At the last meeting of Temescal Grange the 
following petition was signed by all but two of 
the members present : 

To the Honorable the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States: 
Your petitioners, citizens of the State of California, 
most respectfully, yet urgently and solemnly, protest 
against any legislation by which any reduction will 
be effected in the tax now imposed by law on the 
manufacture, importation or sale of either spirituous 
or malt liquors or tobacco. 

Other Granges are invited to cut out this 
form and paste it upon suitable writing-paper 
or copy out a similar petition, secure as many 
signatures as possible, and send them to the 
secretary, Mrs. Nellie G. Babcock, North Tem- 
escal, Alameda Co., Cal., to be forwarded to 
Washington. 

Grange Elections. 

Notk. — The Secretaries of Granges are reipies'ed to for- 
ward reports of all election and other matters of interest 
relating to their Onega and the Order. 

Elk (1 rove.— James Caples, M.; J. S. William- 
son, O.; Wilis Doty, L.; John D. Hill. S.; Frank 
Graham, A. S.; Mrs. McConnell, C ; F. Stelter, 
T.J Mary Kerr, Sec; John Winkelman, G. K.; 
Ruth Le Boyd, Ceres; Nellie Andrews, P.; Hat- 
tie Caples, F.; Mrs. Hill, L. A. S.; Happie Fos- 
ter, Org.; Z. L. Garwood, Trustee. 

San Joaqi in County Pomona. — [Corrected 
list.]— T.C. Shaw, M.; S. Ferdun.O.; SisterS.L. 
Aldrich, L.J C. W. Norton, S.; R. l'ixlev, A. S.; 
A. A. Gurnnsev, C; F. M. Smart, T.; J.D. Huff- 
man, Sec; C. P. Allison, G. K.; Sister Alida 
Allison, P.; Sister C. W. Norton, F.; Nellie 
Hatchings, Ceres; Sister J. D. Huffman, L. A. S. 

Two Rock.— S. L. Barlow, M.; W. Church, 
O.; Sister E, C. Hinshaw, L.: C. Nisson, S.; J. 

C. Purvine, A. S.; Sister S. Q. Barlow. C; W. 

D. Freeman, T.; A. P. Martin, Sec; S. H. 
t 'lmrcb, G. K; Sister I.. Martin, P.; Sister M. 
H. Doss, P.; Minnie Church, Ceres; Sister J. 
C. Purvine, L. A. S. 

SorTii Sctter's officers for 1888 are nearly 
all new. This Grange appears to be prosper- 
ous and hopeful. 



Grass Valley Grange meets every Satur- 
day night, weather favoring, and is gaining 
new members besides welcoming back into the 
fold many who belonged to the Order years 
ago. 



The Tariff. 

Editors Press :— In the Press of 14 th inst., 
W. H. Aiken makes the following affirmation : 
The policy of protection to American industry 
has been steadily maintained since 18G1, and a 
change in that policy, which is now threatened, 
means a large and permanent reduction in the 
wages of American labor and of capital invested 
in manufacturing. The value of a protective 
policy to this country can be clearly demon- 
strated. 

Now, I deny that the policy of our Govern- 
ment has been such as to foster the general in- 
dustry of the country, or that a change in that 
policy threatens a large or small, permament or 
temporary, reduction in wages of the American 
laborer, or of capital invested in manufactures. 

But upon the contrary, the policy (or the 
efftct of the policy) of the Government during 
this period has been such that labor has re- 
ceived less than it would under free trade, and 
that the laborer will receive the maximum of 
wages under a policy of minimum restriction 
upon foreign commerce. 

Now, this is affirmation against affirmation, 
neither of which in my opinion has any real 
value. Nor do I consider the long list of 
authorities he quotes but little better, for a 
number of reasons, one of which is that many 
of these men have under other circumstances 
given utterance to opinions the opposite of 
these, e. g. t one of the greatest speeches Daniel 
Welster ever made was in behalf of free trade. 
Clay circumscribed the time to which he would 
grant assistance to manufacturers. For an il- 
lustration of change of opinion, from change of 
conditions, see Senator Evarts' opinion as to the 
constitutionality of the Oleomargarine bill, 
when given as a paid attorney and as a Senator. 

But if the affirmation of protectionists, free- 
traders or political celebrities are not convinc- 
ing evidence, are we at the end of investiga- 
tion ? 

It tariff taxes are beneficial (as you say), or if 
they are injurious (as I say), is it not possible 
to explain them by known laws ? It wonld be 
a strange machine that would convert raw 
material into a fiaisbed product — say wool into 
a hat — bat that we could not trace the stage of 
progress. 

The reason, and the only reason, that I have 
taken up my pen at this time is to request Mr. 
Aiken to explain to us the economic mechan- 
ism by which tariff taxes benefit us. 

If Mr. Aiken will undertake to show us how 
the farmer, mechanic and laborer are benefited, 
I will (if I am not convinced by his argument), 
if an opportunity is afforded, endeavor to show 
that these classes are injured thereby. 

W. S. Cunningham. 

Lemoore, Jan. G, 1SSS. 

[As we have already said, we fear being 
swamped by a discussion of this subject on gen- 
eral principles. Statements of this nature are 
available to those who desire information. Let 
the argument be upon local interests or at least 
with illustrations drawn from local industries. 
—Eds. Press.] 



Managing a Rabbit-Drive. 

Toward the close of our illustrated article on 
driving jack -rabbits, in the Rural Press for 
January Nth, we mentioned a dispatch from 
Bakersfield reporting the slaughter of 5075 of 
them. It appears that all theBe were killed 
in a single afternoon. The account of the 
affair given in the Echo of Jan. 12th ia so 
sprightly, and contains so many valuable prac- 
tical hints as to how a drive must be managed 
in order to secure the greatest success, that we 
quote it bodily: 

In accordance with posters generally circu- 
lated about Bakersfield, a second rabbit-drive 
took place at H. L. Borgwardt's ranch, the 
same place as the former one. At 1 :30, the 
hour set for the meeting, at least 500 people 
had assembled on the grounds, and after par- 
taking of the generous lunch prepared by 
Messrs. Swain and Borgwardt, proceeded to 
the place where the drive was to be held. 

Preceding this, Commander McCord had sent 
a large delegation of horsemen to " round up " 
the rabbits in the field west of that where the 
principal work was to be done, so that by the 
time the crowd was ready to move in a body to 
the place where the drive was to commence, 
hundreds of rabbits had been driven out before 
them. 

Companies were rapidly organized, 20 men 
on foot being assigned to each captain who was 
mounted. Eleven companies of men and boys 
were given positions, and two of ladies and 
girls under command of lady captains; and it is 
claimed by those present that more enthusiastic 
hard work was done by the latter than by any 
one else. Two large companies of men and 
boys on horseback, commanded by competent 
captains, were placed at the extreme right and 
left 'wings. The whole command formed a 
semi-circle. 

When all were in position, the commander 
raised his handkerchief, the signal for the start; 
this was repeated by bis assistants and the 
captains, and simultaneously the whole line be- 
gan a quiet work toward the corrals. At first 
the rabbits trotted slowly ahead of the drivers, 
bat soon the horsemen on the left wing opened 
up a general shout, contrary to the program, 
which so excited the rabbits that they turned 
toward the right wing and ever so hard work of 
those in charge of that wing could not keep 
half of them from passing the line. 

As the circle gradually closed, the drivers 
made a more compact body, so that when they 
reached the rabbit-tight wings there was little 
chance for a rabbit to go back without encoun- 
tering one of the clubs in the hands of the 
foot-men; hundreds of them were killed in this 
way. 

Just before the gate to the corral was 
reached, there was a general disposition on the 
part of the rabbits to turn toward the crowd. 
Had the latter been held in check for a minute, 
bo as to give the rabbits an opportunity to Bee 
the gate, every rabbit would have been cap- 
tured; but there was no such delay, and the re- 
sult was that nearly half of them went through 
the crowd. 

It was estimated that 2000 were corraled this 
drive. They were speedily killed with clubs, 
and a second drive ordered. Commander Mc- 
Cord sent a large force of horsemen into the 
field north of the one where the main drive was 
held, to drive the rabbits in front of the com- 
panies, and it proved to be an excellent move, 
as it increased the count in the next drive by at 
least 1000. Aside from the shouting by those on 
horseback, the last drive waB as near a success 
as any one could wish. At the close, when fully 
3000 rabbits were massed in front of the gate, 
undecided which way to turn, the commander 
and his assistants held the crowd in check until 
the rabbits started for the gate, when a general 
rush was made, and in an instant 3000 more 
rabbits were in the corral. After the killing, a 
count was ordered and the number was 5075 in 
the corrals, and it was estimated that at least 
500 were killed on the outside. This would 
total over 8000 rabbits killed inside of one week 
on a field of less than 300 acres. 



Sericulture. 

The State Board of Silk Culture held a meet- 
ing at 21 Montgomery avenue on Saturday, 
Jan. 21st; present, President Price, Secretary 
Sellers, R. H. McDonald, Jr., and Isaac 
Trumbo. 

Nine varieties of Japanese tinted cocoons 
were exhibited, and it was announced that eggs 
from which such cocoons are generated are ready 
for free distribution. 

The Filature Committee reported th.a^very- 
thing was working smoothly, and thar there 
were vacancies for two more pupils to learn the 
art of reeling silk. 

Several thousand mulberry trees have been 
reoeived by the Board and will be distributed 
judiciously among the silk-growers of the State. 
Letters from a number of persons were received 
asking for trees and about sericulture, and the 
secretary was directed to furnish correspond- 
ents with the necessary information as soon as 
possible. 

Weather Reports. — The reports of Pacifio 
Coast weather, kindly furnished us every week 
by Serg't Gorom, will be extended in our next 
issue to include Eureka, Fresno and San Luis 
Obispo. 



Jan. 28, 1888.] 



pACipie ^uraid press. 



65 



JIgf^i cultural Xi 0TES - 



CALIFORNIA. 

Contra Costa. 

Raisins — Martinez Gazette: R. C. Terry of 
the well-known Glen Terrv vineyard, near 
Clayton, left at the Gazette office on Thursday 
a sample-box of his curing that would challenge 
the admiration of an epicure. In size and fla- 
vor they are about perfect, and the neat and 
tasty manner of packing is in harmony with the 
delicious quality of the fruit itself. Mr. Terry 
has found a ready demand for all the raisins he 
has made, and next year will double the amount 
of his product. 

Danville Items. — Cor. Gazette, Jan. 20: The 
weather has been very cold here for over two 
weeks, but for the last 48 hours has been mod- 
erating. Grass and grain have been growing 
backward, but now have a more healthy color. 
Farmers, as a. rule, have been unable to plow 
before 10 A. m. since the snow, and some who 
had land on north side of the hills have had to 
suspend operations entirely until the ground 
thaws. A gentle rain commenced falling about 
4 o'clock this morning, and by 6 o'clock we 
were having a rapid downpour, which melted 
frost out of the ground in better shape than a 
week of sunshine could have done. . . .Tree-hole 
digging has commenced, and this season bids 
fair to add a large acreage to our orchards, and 
many comparatively new varieties of trees for 
this valley are to be planted ... .We have had 
severe cases of sore throat among horses in this 
vicinity, but the epidemic seems to have sub- 
sided and stock is improving. 

Humboldt. 

Persimmons. — Ferndale Enterprise, Jan. 13: 
Si. Morrison of Bear river informs us that his 
persimmon tree was loaded down this season. 
He pulls the persimmons before the frost nips 
them and lets them ripen off the tree. He 
says this plan works to perfection. He intends 
planting more of these trees this year. 

A Fat Chicken. — Mrs. Cutler Hatch called 
us in while we were passing her residence Mon- 
day and showed us a quantity of fat taken out 
of one chicken, which weighed exactly 2J 
pounds. 

Los Angeles. 
Forestry.— L. A. Times, Jan. 20: H. R. 
Lee, superintendent of the forestry experi- 
mental stations, has been at work at the for- 
estry park at Santa Monica for some time. The 
land is now cleared and the planting will be 
done immediately. Mr. Lee is an energetic 
worker, and will take every advantage of the 
rainy season to get his trees out in good shape. 
The station at Santa Monica will be a complete 
climatic contrast to the one to be established in 
Hesperia. 

Mendocino. 
Live-Stock and the Weather. — Mendocino 
Beacon, Jan. 21: Chester Woodruff' of Usal 
dropped into the office Thursday. From him 
we learn that the late cold weather has not been 
very disastrous to sheep on the coast. Out of 
nearly 2000 sheep and lambs on his range only a 
few have died. Both the sheep and lambs are 
frisky and seem to be doing well. Mr. T. Mc- 
Gimpsey of Anderson Valley was in town this 
week, and reports everything lookiDg pretty 
well in Anderson, although the weather has been 
very cold, as low as 16°. He says stock there 
has weathered the storm and cold weather well, 
Very few dying. 

Napa. 

In the Warm Belt. — Register, Jan. 20: 
Mrs. Samuel Lake yesterday brought into our 
office a branch of raspberry vine measuring 
eight and one-half feet in length, taken a few 
hours previous from her mountain ranch in the 
Napa Redwoods. This waB wholly the growth 
of last season. The numerous leaves on the 
vine were as fresh and green as if it were early 
summer. The thermal belt of the Red woods is 
rarely affected by frosts. 

Placer. 

Citrus Stock Brought In. — Newcastle 
Neivs, Jan. 18: Mr. J. E. Cutter of the firm of 
Twogood & Cutter, Riverside, arrived here on 
Saturday with a carload of young orange trees 
for the Newcastle Fruit Co. The trees are 
very fine looking, and were completely disin- 
fected by dipping in kerosene emulsion as they 
were unloaded from the car — a practice uni- 
versally adhered to by that firm, whether there 
is any sign of scale or not. During transit the 
roots of the young trees were completely cov- 
ered with native soil, and as a consequence the 
trees look as bright and fresh as when taken 
from the nursery. 

Sacramento. 

Valley Apples. — Becord- Union: It is not 
generally claimed that apples grown in the val- 
ley sections of the State are of as high a stand- 
ard as those from the mountain altitudes, but 
some of most excellent quality are raised in 
Sacramento county. Samples of Spitzenbergs 
were yesterday shown from Geo. W. Hancock's 
orchard, on the Cosumnes, which in size, color, 
firmness and flavor, equal any in the market. 
Such apples will bring high prices in any mar- 
ket, and their culture cannot be otherwise 
than profitable. 

San Joaquin. 
Editors Press: — What has happened to our 
California climate — this "Garden of Eden"? 
During my residence of almost 15 years, I have 
never experienced such cold weather. We may 
have had days and nights nearly as cold; but 



never days and even weeks when one night's 
freezing was added to the last, making horse- 
troughs almost solid ice. A friend suggests 
some items as worth recording, snch as a heavy 
horse falling on the ice without breaking it. 
But I fear our Eastern visitors are already in- 
clined to take wing. One day our windows 
showed considerable work of frost-fairies — a 
thing our California-born children had never 
seen before. Upon touching the glass the 
picture was found to be outside instead of on 
the inside as I had expected. I do not remem- 
ber having seen this before. Can any young 
California scientist explain the philosophy of 
this ? The freezing weather is hard on growing 
crops. A welcome change has come at last in a 
warm rain. If the weather clerk will send 
along a few weeks of sunshine and showers we 
will soon forget the unaccountable behavior of 
the past. At present farmers are not very 
hopeful; old settlers say cold weather and poor 
crops keep company. — Mrs. J. M. K., Tracy, 
Jan. SUt. 

Jacks and Jennies. — Stockton Independent, 
Jan. 20: I. R. Mickey and Supervisor Snow of 
Stanislaus county, who are partners in the 
stock-raising business, yesterday purchased one 
of L. U. Shippee's fine San Joaquin jacks for 
$1400. The animal will be taken to Milton to- 
morrow morning. This jack is two years and 
ten months old, and 15£ hands high. He was 
raised by Mr. Shippee at the stock farm on 
Cherokee lane. The sire and dam were import- 
ed from Kentucky, and are now on the ranch. 
The youngster is said to be one of the finest 
animals in the State. His color is black with a 
tan-colored nose, and he is of perfect form. He 
has been exhibited at the State and Stockton 
Fairs and carried off a premium at each exhibi- 
tion. Mr. Shippee has three more young jacks 
of the same age and qualities. He owns a band 
of 30 jacks and jennies, nearly all of them be- 
ing importations from the best Kentucky breeds. 

Shasta. 

Citrus Association. — Redding Democrat, 
Jan. 18: The certificate of incorporation was 
received from the Secretary of State last Satur- 
day, and the same afternoon an election of 
officers was held with the following result: 
Pres., S. J. R. Gilbert; V. P., R. M. Saeltzer; 
Sec, Dr. J. H. Miller; Treas., Bank of Shasta 
County; attorney, F. P. Primm. Previous to 
his election as attorney Mr. Primm resigned as 
director and Mr. Edward Frisbie was elected 
in his place. 

Sonoma. 

Editors Press:— All early sown grain is 
looking well. Vineyard pruning in our section 
is about half done. We have had a very cold 
spell of weather, but it is raining now and is 
quite warm. Anywhere within eight miles of 
the new railroad, land has doubled in value. A 
great many are planting table-grapes and or- 
chards, and our nurserymen cannot supply the 
present demand for trees. — J. B. W., Santa 
Bosa, Jan. 2 1st. 

Paving Horses' Stalls. — Petaluma Courier 
John A. McNear of this city, owning several 
horses whose feet were injured by standing on 
the usual floors provided installs for them, con- 
cluded to try a new experiment. He had his 
stalls properly graded, and then laid the floor 
with basalt blocks so arranged that the horses 
could stand or lie down comfortably, and at the 
same time afford proper drainage to carry off 
the surplus water. The beneficial results were 
beyond his calculations. His horses' feet im 
proved right along, and the advantages other 
wise were so good as to recommend it to other 
owners of horses. He claims that the feet of 
the horses are better preserved, it is easier for 
then, and the drainage is more perfect than by 
any known system of building stalls in a horse- 
stable. 

Suggestion about Cherries. — As it appears 
that the Tartarians and other black cherries 
have outgrown the market, are unfit for can- 
ning, and too tender for Eastern transporta- 
tion, we suggest that the most salable and pop- 
ular varieties, such as the Rockport and Napo- 
leon Bigarreau, be grafted into them. The 
Bigarreaus are a No. 1 shipping cherry and 
good for canning purposes. We kaow from the 
experience of some of our oldest and most ex- 
tensive orchardists that they can be grafted, as 
suggested, as easily and successfully as the 
apple or pear, and in three years from time of 
grafting the trees will be in full bearing. 
By changing the cherries mentioned the 
growers will have first-class fruit for the 
local trade for canning or shipping purposes. 
We advise our readers who have more of the 
black varieties of cherry trees than they can 
make profitable, to try this experiment. Sev- 
eral whom we can name, if necessary, have 
tried it with the most satisfactory results. 

Fire- Wood Scarce. — Santa Ko8a\BcptMican, 
Jan. 19: There is almost a wood famine in 
this locality and the price of wood is already 
unparalleled. Several years ago the great 
activity throughout the county in planting 
vineyards caused a great deal of wood to be 
cut, and for some time the market was glutted 
and the best wood brought only a nominal 
price. Then a reaction followed. Every one 
who had timber land left his trees untouched, 
as the price of wood would not pay for the cut- 
ting and hauling. This inactivity is now hav- 
ing its effect upon the wood market, and it is 
almost impossible to obtain wood, although 
this is considered a well-timbered locality. 
The best quality of four-foot oak wood is read- 
ily sold for $8 per cord. Stove wood is cor- 
respondingly high and is hardly obtainable at 



PACIFIC COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

[Furnished for publication In this paper by Nelson Gobom, Sergeant Signal Service Corps. TJ. 8. A ] 





Portland. 


Red Bluff. 


Sacramento. 


S.Francisco. 


Los Angeles. 


San Diego. 


DATE. 


Rain 


H 

S 


r 




h 

a 


o 




a 
a. 




Rain 


r. 
| 


sg 

S 

a. 


g 

<B 
SO 


5. 

B 


H 

c 

1 
- 


5 


53 

SB 


w 

V 

B 


Tem] 


5 


8 


to 

e 


►3 
5 


Sj 
5 


1 


Jan. 19-25. 




•a 


p. 


tr 


















tr 
a 






B. 


tr 
a 
ft 






Bi 


c? 




•p 


Bi 


w 

? 




.00 


30 


N\v 


Cy. 


.02 


40 


Nw 


Cy. 


.T 


44 


N 


Fr. 


.T 


48 


SE 


Cy. 


.00 


60 


E 


C.v 


.00 


58 


E 


Cy. 


Friday 


.01 


24 


E 


8y. 


.38 


40 


Nw 


Ry. 


.56 


46 


N 


By. 


.55 


46 


Nw 


I.R. 


.20 


50 


E 


Ry. 


.T 


60 


S 


cy. 




,33 


28 


E 


Cy. 


.14 


42 


Cm 


Ry. 


.42 


46 


S 


Cy. 


.83 


56 


S 


Cy. 


.14 


56 


E 


By, 


.13 


62 


SW 


Cy. 




.86 


32 


N 


Ry. 


.02 


SO 


N 


Cy. 


.28 


5D 


N 


Cy. 


.28 


54 


N 


Oj 


.02 


68 


S 


Cy. 


.00 


58 


w 


Oy. 




.46 


46 


S 


Br. 


.18 


52 


E 


Fr. 


.10 


54 


sw 


Cy. 


.04 


63 


S 


LR 


.81 


58 


SE 


By 


.0* 


64 


w 


Cy. 




.90 


38 


Nw 


Ry. 


.10 


48 


N 


Cy. 


.02 


56 


N 


Fr. 


.08 


55 


SE 


Oy. 


.09 


58 


SW 


Fr. 


.04 


60 


Nw 


CI. 


Wednesday.. . 


.46 


58 


S 


Oy. 


.16 


52 


S 


Cy 


.01 


58 


S 


Fr. 


.« 


53 


W 


Cy 


.00 


68 


E 


CI. 


.00 


58 


W 


CI. 


Total 


2.4-1 








I DO 
















1 78 








1 2:) 








.21', 













































Explanation. — CI. for clear; Cy., cloudy; Fr , fair; Fy., foggy; — indicates too small to measure. Temperature. 
Wind and weather at 12:00 m. (Pacific Standard time), with amount of rainfall in the preceding 24 hours. T indicates 
trace of rainfall. 



any price. Considerable coal is being brought 
to this city and used in the place of wood. 

Fertile. — Santa Rosa Democrat, Jan. 14: 
From about a quarter of an acre of land, at the 
County farm, the following products were har- 
vested this season: 2£ tons of pumpkins, 1 ton 
of beets, 5 dozen muskmelons, 1 dozen water- 
melons, 400 lbs. tomatoes, 700 lbs. corn, 75 lbs. 
potatoes, and 50 lbs. summer squash. 

Tehama. 

The Vina Ranch. — The Napa Begister of 
J an. 20th gives some points in regard to Senator 
Stanford's big ranch at Vina, got in conversing 
with H. W. Mclntyre, the superintendent. 
The ranch comprises 55,000 acres devoted to 
farming — grain and alfalfa fields, the raising of 
blooded stock, vineyard, orchard, etc. Three 
thousand acres are planted to vines of the 
finest varieties. A portion is the old Gherke 
vineyard, 75 acres of Mission vines 25 years 
old. The wine-cellar, built for the most part 
within the last year, is of brick, hollow walls, 
having a storage capacity of 170,000 gallons, 
and is provided with all modern improvements 
and everything that experience could suggest 
and money provide. A large number of men 
are of course required to care for this vine- 
yard. The annual pruning is now about half 
completed, 125 men being engaged. Plowing 
is under way, between 50 and 70 horses being 
in use daily. While harvesting the grapes 260 
or more pickers are employed. Besides this 
large force a number of men are constantly 
at work about the cellar. In the orchard a 
large amount of fruit of several varieties is 
grown. Apricots, peaches, plum?, etc., do ex- 
ceedingly well there. The climate is such that 
fruit is readily dried in the open air. A very 
fine quality of raisins was cured on the place 
la8t:year. The climate of Vina is much 
warmer in summer than that of Napa valley, 
the thermometer ranging at times from 110" to 
114". Last Sunday the thermometer stood at 
16°. Snow fell to the depth of several inches, 
but immediately disappeared. 

Tulare. 

A Sample Radish. — Traver Advocate, Jan. 
21: There has been on exhibition in Mr. Earl's 
window a large radish, grown in his garden at 
Traver. It weighed 8£ pounds and is of the 
Long Blood variety, which never develops the 
strong taste usual with that vegetable after it 
reaches a certain age. When it attains the size 
of an inch in diameter and begins to get pithy, 
the plant sends out rootlets, which, as they 
grow, are tender and of excellent flavor. The 
specimen shown was full of these "rootlets, 
which were excellent eating, tasting like young 
radishes. 

Yolo. 

Cannery for Woodland. — Democrat, Jan. 
19: Some months ago a company of our own 
citizens purchased the property known as the 
Woodland winery, being the two-story brick 
structure near the depot, having a frontage on 
Main street of 152 feet. This company has de- 
termined to arrange the upper portion of the 
building for an extensive cannery. They will 
manufacture everything used in the business, 
including the cans, and give employment to 
about 60 men. A cannery has been a necessity 
in this community for two or three years, and 
will pay from the start. It will also encourage 
the production of more fruit. It would be well 
for all farmers having available land to plant for 
this summer's use corn, tomatoes, peas, beans, 
and such vegetables as will be required for the 
purpose of the cannery. 

A Model Barn.— Winters Express: We 
took a look at S. H. Hoy's new breeders' barn 
Thursday, and without hesitation pronounce it 
the most convenient structure for the purpose 
we have ever seen. It was planned and built 
by J. P. Steward. It is 36x66 feet, with a hay- 
loft with a holding capacity of 100 tons of 
baled hay. On the ground floor are six box 
and two open Stalls, a grain-room, bedroom for 
the men, harness-room, platform for washing 
buggies, and a place to stand vehicles. On the 
west side is a corral 50x66 feet, inclosed by an 
eight-foot board fence. There are two other 
corrals, for mares and other stock, and a large 
space which will be planted and used for a 
small pasture. Water is piped through the 
building and there are all necessary openings 
for ingress, egress and ventilation. 

Yuba. 

Tun Smartsville Ditch.— Marysville Ap- 
peal, Jan. 20: Jaine; O'Brien said yesterday 



concerning his irrigating ditch enterprise: "I 
have let the contract to two parties, and they 
must have it done by the first of April. There 
are now 40 men at work, one contractor em- 
ploying some Chinamen. Before long there 
will be over 100 men at work. The ditches 
and pipes will be about 14 miles in length, run- 
ning from the northeast of Timbuctoo, where I 
tap the river, to my ranch above Riley Lane's 
place. I can take 10,000 inches. My ditches 
will carry 8000, but I do not propose to use 
over 2000 at the start. This will irrigate the 
4000 acres of land which I desire to use. Of 
course I shall sell water, and at a surprisingly 
low figure. The lands there now are cheap, 
but when the water is on them, look out for a 
big raise. These acres grow sheep now, but 
within the next few years they will grow any- 
thing." 

OREGON. 

Hybrid Poultry. — Bogue Biver Courier, 
Jan. 12: A singular fact relative to imported 
Chinese pheasants and our domestic fowls has 
come to the notice of people living in Santiam 
valley, west of Jefferson. The pheasants in- 
duced a brood of Plymouth Rock chickens to 
adopt their wild life and assimilate with them. 
It being against the law to kill Chinese pheas- 
ants, they had become plentiful in that vicinity 
and are not very wild. This hen and her young 
brood were coaxed away from civilized ways by 
the pheasants, and her chicks were well grown. 
The owners of the brood watched the result 
with interest, thinking that next spring the two 
kinds of fowls would mate together, and won- 
dering what the hybrid product might be; but 
some "pot-hunters" came across the mixed 
flock and shot all the chickens but one young 
rooster, which manages to fly as far as any of 
his adopted brothers and is as wild as they. 
The whole brood had become wild and took 
wing for long flights just as the pheasants did. 

The Freight Blockade. — Nearly 2000 
freight cars are said to be blockaded on the lines 
of the Union and Central Pacific, and Denver 
& Rio Grande railroads. On Monday and Tues- 
day of this week about 250 freight-cars arrived 
here over the Central Pacific railroad, and 
that road is getting every engine it can 
obtain from other lines to move the enor- 
mous amount of merchandise which is reported 
to be pressing in at the farther end of the route 
in volume quite equal to that now discharging 
at San Francisco. 



Cotton from Placer County.— On Thurs- 
day of last week Mr. Oliver Hyde brought 
us specimens of cotton grown as a test at 
Lincoln, Placer county, from seed obtained 
last year at the Oakland cotton-mills. The 
plants, we understand, received no irrigation, 
and the bolls are well developed. 

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Agents in thoir labors of canvassing, by lending their In- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy man. 

F. B. Looan— Santa Clara Co. 

John G. EL Lami'Adius— San Benito Co. 

G. W. Ingalls— Arizona Territory. 

Wm. Wilkinson— San Joaquin and Stanislaus Co.'s. 

A. F. Jewk.tt— Tulare Co. 

E. H. SniiAKi''Ki.K— El Dorado and Amador Co.'s. 

C. E. Wii.mams— Yuba and Sutter Co. '8. 

R. G. Huston— Montana Territory. 

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